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Effect of truck mass and length 6 Accident causation 8 3. Enhanced active and passive safety of heavy trucks 8 Safety systems identified by the Heavy-Duty Vehicles eSafety Working Group 9 Other safety systems 10 Recent effectiveness studies on various active and passive safety systems 11 New data sources for future effectiveness studies 12 4.
Introduction 3, Active and passive safety directives and regulations 3. Increase in maximum allowable length 3,Review of Regulation EC No 661 2009. General Safety Regulation 4,Objectives 4,Accidents involving Heavy Goods. Vehicle Combinations 4,General accident data 4, Distribution of road user groups in HGV accidents 5. Do most HGV accidents happen,in urban or rural settings 5. Collision types 5,Effect of truck mass and length 6. Accident causation 8,Enhanced active and passive safety. of heavy trucks 8,Safety systems identified by the Heavy Duty. Vehicles eSafety Working Group 9,Other safety systems 10. Recent effectiveness studies on various active,and passive safety systems 11. New data sources for future effectiveness studies 12. Which safety conditions will be best,to meet in the event of exemption. of vehicle length 12,Protection of unprotected road users. pedestrians and cyclists 13,Protection of car occupants and motorcyclists 13. Discussions conclusions,and recommendations 14,Abbreviations and acronyms 17. References 18,Introduction, This paper examines the safety of commercial vehicles There are other regulations and EC directives important. focusing on Heavy Goods Vehicles HGV mainly used for for safety such as on lighting but these are not considered. long haul and regional deliveries further referred to here as relevant for the scope of this paper. HGV combinations In particular it examines whether HGV. combinations with an extended front which are longer than 1 2 INCREASE IN MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH. those currently permitted 16 5m tractor and semitrailer or. 18 75m truck and trailer can be safer If so in which accident Directive 96 53 EC lays down the maximum permitted. scenarios in urban and rural areas will greater safety be seen dimensions for national and international traffic and the. maximum authorised weights for international traffic for. In the European Union EU 27 in 2011 there were 4 252 trucks The Directive was revised in 2015 3 with the aim of. fatalities from collisions involving HGVs with a weight above introducing more energy efficient aerodynamic vehicles by. 3 5 tonnes and 722 fatalities from collisions with buses and increasing the maximum allowable length beyond the current. coaches 1 This represents 18 of the 27 000 people that 16 5m or 18 75m extended cabs The revision is based on. died on Europe s roads European accident data available the assumption that it will improve road safety by increasing. provides no information on fatalities with 16 5m or 18 75m the streamlining of the cab reducing the driver s blind spots. HGV combinations see also section 2 adding an energy absorbing structure to lessen impact shocks. and increasing driver safety and comfort Article 9a of the. The majority of fatalities more than 70 see section 2 revision specifies that 3 by 27 May 2017 the Commission shall. involving HGV combinations occur outside urban areas The assess the need to develop the technical requirements within. largest share of the fatalities in HGV collisions as shown in the framework of Directive 2007 46 EC for type approval of. section 2 is not the truck occupants Rather they are other road vehicles equipped with extended cabs taking into account. users occupants of cars impacting with an HGV and vulnerable a improved aerodynamic performance of vehicles or vehicle. road users pedestrians cyclists and motorcyclists combinations. b vulnerable road users and improvement of their visibility to. 1 1 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SAFETY drivers in particular by reducing drivers blind spots. DIRECTIVES AND REGULATIONS c reduction in damage or injury caused to other road users in. the event of a collision, EC Regulation 661 2009 deals with the type approval d safety and comfort of drivers. requirements for the general safety of motor vehicles their. trailers and systems It specifies amendments to Directive Section 4 discusses these four recommendations of the. 2007 46 EC concerning safety provisions and refers for the revision One of the questions discussed is whether there is. technical requirements to UNECE regulations The most genuinely a link between improved aerodynamic performance. important UNECE regulations for trucks are summarised and safety improvements for vulnerable road users in 16 5m or. in Table 1 18 75m long HDV combinations see section 5. TABLE 1 UNECE Regulations dealing with active and passive safety of HGVs. UNECE REGULATION SCOPE PASSIVE ACTIVE SAFETY,ECE R13 Brakes Active. ECE R16 Safety belts Passive,ECE R29 Cabin strength Passive. ECE R46 Rear view mirrors Active,ECE R58 Rear Underrun Protection Passive. ECE R61 External projections Passive,ECE R73 Lateral protection side guards Passive. 25 th ACEA,ECE R79 Steering Active,ECE R93 Front underrun protection Passive. ECE R130 Lane Departure Warning System Active,ECE R131 Advanced Emergency Braking System Active. What are the most significant safety improvements, that can be made to trucks used in urban and rural areas. 1 3 REVIEW OF REGULATION EC NO 661 2009 Accidents involving Heavy Goods. GENERAL SAFETY REGULATION Vehicle Combinations, At the request of the European Commission TRL This section presents the latest information on accidents. conducted a review of Regulation EC No 661 2009 General resulting in road fatalities and injuries involving HGVs It. Safety Regulation in 2015 2 This review aimed to assess the examines the crash partners the most frequently occurring. benefits and feasibility of a range of new technologies and accident types and the differences between accidents in. unregulated measures in the fields of vehicle occupant safety urban and rural areas and those on highways It presents. and protection of vulnerable road users As far as HGVs are dif ferences in outcome bet we en shor ter and longer. concerned the report gives special attention to passive safety HGVs and the conclusions that can be drawn on accident. measures arising from an elongation of the cab revision of causation. Directive 96 53 EC Section 3 of this paper reviews the results. of the Transport Research Laboratories TRL analysis The most recent and comprehensive sources available. and analysed were the data presented by ETSC in the 2013. 1 4 OBJECTIVES 7th PIN report 1 and the data presented by Volvo Trucks in their. European accident research and safety report 2013 4 Volvo. The objectives of this paper are to Trucks plans to release an updated version of their 2013 report. analyse the main causes of accidents with HGV combina later this year The Chalmers University analysis of Swedish. tions inside and outside urban areas truck accident data from 2014 5 was also reviewed since it. identify the best way to enhance the traffic safety of such includes data on the effect of truck length and differences. HGV combinations focusing on active and passive safety between urban rural and highway accidents. identify the best way to meet the safety conditions consi. dering that an exemption of vehicle length can be applied 2 1 GENERAL ACCIDENT DATA. The study was undertaken by the SAFER Vehicle and In the European Union EU 27 in 2011 there were 4 252. Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers University This is a compe fatalities from collisions involving HGVs weight above 3 5. tence centre where 34 partners from the Swedish automotive tonnes and 722 fatalities from collisions with buses and. industry academia and authorities cooperate to make a centre coaches according to the ETSC analysis 1 The data provided. of excellence in vehicle and traffic safety The methodology by Volvo Trucks cover fatalities as well as serious and slight. consisted of a review of a number of reports papers and other injuries This information is shown in Table 2 These represent. documents covering the scope of the study see reference list the average for the years 2005 2008 The number of fatalities. and discussions with experts from ACEA and SAFER partners 7 200 is much higher in that period than in 2011 The ETSC. including Volvo Trucks The limited time available for this study data showed that since 2001 the number of fatalities from. prevented consultation with other truck manufacturers the accidents involving HGVs has fallen by an average of about. European Commission or other stakeholders 6 per year 1 ETSC also found that the number of fatalities per. distance travelled for HGVs as well as buses and coaches is. The three objectives above are dealt with in sections 2 3 higher than the average of the whole vehicle fleet 1. and 4 respectively Section 5 presents a discussion recom. mendations and conclusions, TABLE 2 Traffic accident casualties in EU 27 average for 2005 2008 4. ALL VEHICLES BUSES 3 5 TONNES TRUCKS 3 5 TONNES,Proportion Proportion. Number of cases Number of cases,of all vehicles of all vehicles. Fatalities 43 500 1 200 3 7 200 17,25 th ACEA,Seriously injured 298 400 6 500 2 21 900 7. Slightly injured 1 386 100 44 300 3 83 900 6,All casualities 1 728 000 52 000 3 113 000 7. 2 2 DISTRIBUTION OF ROAD USER GROUPS 2 3 DO MOST HGV ACCIDENTS HAPPEN. IN HGV ACCIDENTS IN URBAN OR RURAL SETTINGS, A large proportion of those fatally or seriously injured in ETSC showed that the largest proportion of fatalities in. crashes involving HGVs are not the HGV occupants According HGV collisions in Europe 58 occur in rural areas For urban. to the ETSC study only 12 of the fatalities in HGV accidents areas the figure is 28 and 13 on highways There are large. in Europe involve the occupants 1 The Volvo Truck study variations between countries in Europe 1. showed that of those seriously or fatally injured in an accident The Volvo truck study shows that. 15 20 are truck occupants The greatest share of casualties the majority of accidents resulting in injuries to truck. in HGV accidents is car occupants making up 50 of fatalities occupants occur in rural areas on rural roads and on. according to ETSC 1 and 55 65 of the serious to fatal injuries highways ie roads with speed limits of 70km h or higher. according to Volvo Trucks 4 The ETSC study showed that 28 the majority of accidents resulting in injuries to car occu. of fatalities in European HGV accidents were unprotected road pants occur on rural roads and highways. users of which 7 were cyclists 15 were pedestrians and 6 60 of collisions between trucks and pedestrians or. were riders of Powered Two Wheelers PTW 1 bicycles occur in urban areas. two thirds of accidents between trucks and motorcycles. The ETSC data also showed large differences between occur in rural areas. countries The Volvo truck study found that 15 25 unprotected The location where an accident happens depends. road users in HGV collisions suffered serious to fatal injuries among other factors on the length and weight of the truck. The distribution between cyclists pedestrians and powered This is discussed in section 2 5. two wheelers in the Volvo Truck study was analysed for two. countries France and Sweden and showed marked diffe 2 4 COLLISION TYPES. rences Figure 1 The percentage of pedestrians involved in. HGV collisions is roughly similar however the share of motor Volvo Trucks developed a detailed overview of the accident. cyclists is much larger in France types involving HGVs that resulted in serious or fatal injuries 4. see Figure 2 The information was based on the analysis by. the Lyon and Gothenburg accident research teams as well as. external sources Distinctions were drawn between accident. types resulting in injuries to truck occupants car occupants. and unprotected road users, Proportion of unprotected road users seriously or fatally injured in collisions involving HGVs. FIGURE 1 in France left year 2009 and Sweden right 2003 2008 4. Mopedists Mopedists, Motorcyclists Pedestrians Motorcyclists Pedestrians. 49 33 27 37,Bicyclists Bicyclists,25 th ACEA, Killed and seriously injured France 2009 Killed and seriously injured Sweden 2003 2008. What are the most significant safety improvements, that can be made to trucks used in urban and rural areas. The following observations can be made 2 5 EFFECT OF TRUCK MASS AND LENGTH. Around 50 of accidents resulting in truck occupant inju. ries are single truck accidents A1 and A2 see Figure 2 The Volvo Trucks report 4 analysed the difference between. while 45 of the accidents include a rollover The front of heavy duty trucks usually above 7 5 tonnes weight and. the truck may be involved medium duty trucks 3 5 7 5 tonnes involved in accidents. Around 30 of accidents involve two trucks A3 and A4 based on Swedish Traffic Accident Data STRADA for the. of which 10 are truck front to truck front accidents and period 2003 2007 There were similarities between accidents. 20 truck front to truck rear where both categories were involved however there were also. Around 65 of truck car accidents involve the front of the significant differences including. truck B1 B3 B4 and B5 where the most common severe Unprotected road users were involved in more acci. accident type 35 is truck front to car front B1 dents with medium duty trucks 22 of those killed and. The most frequent accidents with unprotected road seriously injured than with heavy duty trucks 13. users are C3 25 unprotected road users that suddenly Accidents with medium duty trucks were equally distri. cross the direction of the truck for example at a crossing buted over urban and rural areas while 70 of accidents. and C4 20 truck side when a truck is turning with heavy duty trucks occurred in rural areas. The majority 55 of injuries of heavy duty truck occu. The ETSC study showed that nearside turn collisions pants occurred in single accidents compared to 35 for. C4 in Figure 2 do not harm only unprotected road users but medium duty trucks. also other road users 1 In the Netherlands for example near In 30 of cases injuries to occupants of medium duty. ly 18 of all fatalities in HGV accidents are nearside turns trucks involved collisions with cars more than double the. involving 7 pedestrians 46 cyclists and 47 other road level of accidents involving heavy duty trucks with cars. users The data clearly indicate the problem of blind spots More than 30 of injuries to car occupants occur in fron. There were substantial variations between the nine countries tal accidents with heavy duty trucks compared to 20 in. for which data were available accidents involving medium duty trucks. Chalmers University used Swedish data to study the. relationship between truck combination length and the. FIGURE 2 Accident types involving HGVs as defined by Volvo s Accident Research Team 4. 25 th ACEA, location of accidents resulting in fatal or serious injuries 5 Figure 5 shows the annual rates over ten years of KSI. Sweden permits vehicle combinations of up to 25 25m crashes per billion Vehicle Kilometres Travelled VKT for. length in most other EU countries the upper length limit is HGV combinations by length group Short combinations. 16 5m tractor and semitrailer or 18 75m truck and trailer In have a significantly higher KSI crash rate than the longer. this study trucks reflect the Swedish vehicle combinations length groups 5. and were divided in three length categories, Long combinations 18 76m 25 25m Finally a recent German study focusing on cyclist injuries. Medium combinations 12 01m 18 75m in HGV turning accidents is worth highlighting 22 Heavy. Short combinations 12m commercial vehicles were defined as having a weight greater. than 7 5 tonnes and light commercial vehicles below 7 5. As with the Volvo Truck study data were derived from the tonnes In all relevant incidents in 2012 n 2 319 accidents. STRADA database and covered a ten year period from 2003 involving heavy vehicles n 475 led to 12 fatalities and. 2012 As shown in Figure 3 most accidents resulting in a 62 severely injured cyclists for light commercial vehicles. fatality or a severe injury known as KSI Killed or Severely n 1 844 there were two fatalities and 186 severe injuries. Injured crashes occur in rural areas with long combina In other words the severity of turning accidents involving. tions making up the largest proportion In urban areas short cyclists is significantly higher in heavy commercial vehicles. combinations make up the largest proportion of accidents A more detailed analysis of the influence of truck length and. weight would be valuable, Figure 4 shows a distribution of crash types for the three. length categories as defined in the STRADA database The. largest category is meeting overtaking the increases with. the combination length In rear end impacts and cycles. mopeds the share decreases with truck combination length. Annual rates of KSI crashes per billion VKT, Location of the accident versus length Vehicle Kilometres Travelled. FIGURE 3 of the truck combination 5 FIGURE 5 for HGV combinations by length group. Short combinations,100 200 Medium combinations,Long combinations. 80 Short combinations 1 161 160 All HGVs,Medium combinations 274. 60 Long combinations 487,2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012. Rural Urban Unknow,FIGURE 4 Crash type distribution per length group. 40 Short combinations 1 161,Medium combinations 274. 30 Long combinations 484,25 th ACEA,20 17 16 19 19. 10 6 8 8 8 7, Single vehicle Meeting Overtaking Rear end Intersection Cycle moped Pedestrian Other. What are the most significant safety improvements, that can be made to trucks used in urban and rural areas. 2 6 ACCIDENT CAUSATION 3, A road accident resulting in injuries often results from a Enhanced active and passive safety. combination of factors Several models have been developed of heavy trucks. to help analyse the causes of an accident For an overview. of these models see 6 The more recent causation models Probably the first systematic approach to accident. consider an accident as a complex integrated system including and injury prevention strategies was the Haddon Matrix. the human and involving both direct and indirect contributing developed by Dr William Haddon in 1968 7 This brought about. factors This prevents a focus solely on countermeasures a shift from an almost exclusive focus on trying to improve the. addressing the apparent direct cause of the accident when driver behaviour to a more comprehensive approach As well. in fact there may be other indirect but more efficient solutions as the three components human behaviour and tolerance. available vehicle and infrastructure environment the Haddon Matrix. identified the three phases pre event event and post event. The factors contributing to road traffic accidents are as sequential phases within a crash event Measures that. usually grouped into three categories the vehicle the human help prevent accidents occurring are usually known as active. and the environment According to the Volvo Truck study 4 safety measures while measures that reduce the severity. human error is a major contributing factor in 90 of the acci of injury human body protection in the event that a crash. dents Figure 6 illustrates a number of factors for the three cannot be avoided are called passive safety measures The. categories A very important vehicle related factor is blind most effective example of a passive safety measure for truck. spots occupants is the seat belt, The main blind spots areas are This approach has led to many successful safety. the side of the vehicle in particular the passenger side improvements within all elements of the Matrix However. during lane changes and turning manoeuvres there are recognised limitations of this model namely that. the rear end when reversing neither the concept of exposure nor the importance of. the front of the truck in particular when starting to move interactions between Matrix elements are addressed 6 New. forward 4 approaches such as the Vision Zero in Sweden 8 view the. traffic system more holistically This requires among other. things ensuring that the crash energy in an accident is low. enough to prevent serious injuries and recognising that. humans will always make mistakes in traffic Combining. FIGURE 6 Major contributing factors in the cause of HGV accidents 4. 90 Distraction,Risk awareness,Limited visibility,Environment Road design. 30 Weather,25 th ACEA,Vehicle Blind spots,10 Tire explosion. Technical error, active and passive safety systems often known as integrated allocation of future capital investments a European database. safety systems can further increase effectiveness for commercial vehicle accidents should be set up as well. as a European database of reconstructed accidents since. 3 1 SAFETY SYSTEMS IDENTIFIED BY THE HEAVY DUTY reconstructions are often the only way to identify the action. VEHICLES eSAFETY WORKING GROUP priorities for the further development work on the vehicles. Unfortunately to date no such European database for truck. An important step forward concerning a more systematic accidents has been set up. approach to addressing safety issues relating to HGVs was the. work carried out by the Heavy Duty Vehicles eSafety Working The Group discussed a list of around 50 technical. Group in 2005 9 This Group was set up to review known road and non technical approaches for enhancing road safety. safety enhancement measures and approaches specific to performance in heavy duty vehicles It divided them into. heavy duty vehicles to evaluate the measures according to systems already available at the time of the study and the. the accident figures for heavy duty vehicles and to formulate most effective new approaches The systems were evaluated. recommendations for Member S tates and the EC on using four parameters customer acceptance effectiveness. enhanced road safety performance 9 Members of the Group system costs and engineering costs Table 3 summarises the. included all European original equipment manufacturers systems already available in 2005 as well as the most effective. OEMs a number of leading accident investigation experts new approaches as defined by the Group Most systems in the. the European Commission and other institutions The Group table are active systems including driving support systems. defined Heavy Duty Vehicles as trucks chassis vehicles with the exception of X3 and Y4 which are passive safety. with a permissible total weight exceeding 12 tonnes However systems Seat belt warning X4 is an example of a simple. a number of the recommendations may also apply to lighter integrated safety system. trucks and to buses, For those systems already on the market X1 X4 were. Part of the work was an analysis of the accident data rated as medium effective for certain accident scenarios with. available at the time provided by Volvo Iveco Cidaut and Dekra costs equal to or lower than electronic stability programmes. The method of presenting the findings using different accident ESP These systems are indicated in the table in grey cells. scenarios was similar to the Volvo Truck approach presented The other systems X5 X7 that were already available were. in section 2 and illustrated in Figure 2 The global distribution rated as having low or limited effectiveness Among the newer. of various crash types appears to be in line with the more systems Y1 Y7 were all rated as relatively effective medium. recent Volvo Truck findings One of the recommendations a to major contribution in an accident scenario. research priority of the Group was To ensure the appropriate. TABLE 3 Important safety systems identified by the Heavy Duty Vehicles eSafety WG 9. SYSTEMS ALREADY AVAILABLE 2005 EFFECTIVE NEW APPROACHES. X1 ESP for semitrailer rigs Y1 Improving the frictional properties of tyres. Emergency braking system 3 stages 1 rear end,X2 Lane Departure Warning Y2. 2 stationary objects 3 oncoming traffic,Pedestrian and cyclist protection system. X3 Flexible underrun protection enhancement of a rigid FUP Y3. warning the driver and intervening if needed,Extended flexible front underrun protection EFFUP. X4 Seat belt warning Y4,focussing on car occupants compatibility. X5 Driver alertness monitoring system Y5 Inter vehicle communication systems. X6 Adaptive cruise control Y6 Infrastructure supported intersection assistant. 25 th ACEA, X7 Event data recorder Y7 Interactive driver training. Relatively effective according to Heavy Duty Vehicles eSafety WG 9. Most likely cost beneficial according to TRL study 2. What are the most significant safety improvements, that can be made to trucks used in urban and rural areas. On the extended flexible front underrun protection 3 2 OTHER SAFETY SYSTEMS. EFFUP Y4 the Working Group WG reviewed a system, proposed by Scania It was noted that If the front of the In the APROSYS project it was shown that an EFFUP. truck could be made approximately 300mm longer than in addition to offering protection to car occupants could. the legally permitted maximum length the sur vivable also be beneficial to Vulnerable Road Users VRUs Firstly it. differential speed for a frontal collision between a passenger influences the motion of the VRU in the event of a collision by. car and a truck would rise from approximately 60km h reducing the overrun risk and secondly it reduces the impact. to approximately 90km h 60km h for the car 30km h forces by offering a softer structure 10 11 12 The principle of. for the truck The Group envisaged such a system being reducing the impact forces requires only limited space even. available in 2011 System costs were rated at half those of a few centimetres can significantly reduce the risk of serious. ESP However engineering costs development costs were head injuries due to impact with the truck front This additio. rated as very high as they would have a major impact on the nal functionality of an EFFUP is included in Table 4 under Z1. vehicle design concept Customer acceptance was rated Figure 7 illustrates these principles. as low customers not willing to accept the system in their. vehicles It was also noted in the report that this system In their 2013 report Volvo Trucks identified a number of. could make a real contribution to reducing the number of systems over and above those highlighted by the Heavy Duty. fatalities in passenger car truck collisions but that the Vehicles eSafety WG 4 These systems are included in Table. introduction of such a system would require an increase of 4 Z2 Z5 4 The first three Z2 Z4 are active safety systems. the legal permitted length and Z5 is passive Volvo Trucks also stressed the importance. of a number of the systems already identified by the Group. The Group identified three development stages for such as the Pedestrian protection system Y3 and the. emergency braking systems The first stage dealt with traffic EFFUP Y4. in front of the vehicle travelling in the same direction the. second with stationary traffic and the third responding to The 2015 TRL review for the Commission of Regulation EC. oncoming traffic The Group noted that in a head on collision No 661 2009 General Safety Regulation included two other. scenario applying the truck brakes even one second earlier promising safety systems with the potential to be included in a. dissipates as much energy as a flexible underrun protection future regulation Intelligent Speed Adaption ISA and alcohol. system Y4 9 The last stage is technically the most interlocks included as Z6 and Z7 in Table 4 2 In principle both. complicated reliable systems are not yet available Note systems can be applied to all vehicle categories However the. that to date Regulation R131 deals only with the first two TRL report made no specific mention of introducing these. development stages systems in HGVs, FIGURE 7 Illustration of the mechanical principle of influencing motion left and middle and occupant contact right 12. 25 th ACEA, Other safety systems identified Annual fatality reduction potential. TABLE 4 in recent studies,TABLE 5 for EU 27 by an EFFUP by TRL 2. EU 27 annual,Z1 VRU protection by an EFFUP fatality reduction. Z2 Lane keeping support Passenger car occupants 128 175. Z3 Communication support HGV occupants 41 194, Z4 Visibility support aimed at blind spots VRUs 104 553. Z5 Rollover protection for truck occupants of which. VRUs potentially affected,Z6 Intelligent Speed Adaption ISA 0 553. by direct vision,Z7 Alcohol interlocks,VRUs potentially affected. by deflecting front end, Most likely to be cost beneficial according to TRL study 2. Total 273 922, 3 3 RECENT EFFECTIVENESS STUDIES ON VARIOUS ACTIVE Alerting the driver and intervening if required in the. AND PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS potential event of collisions in turning accidents with. pedestrians and cyclists Y3 is expected also to be an. The TRL study also assessed which safety systems were effective active system given the large number of fatalities. most likely to be or become cost beneficial These are indi involved section 2 The UNECE Working Party on General. cated in dark grey in Tables 3 and 4 Safety Provisions GRSG is currently discussing a regulation. Enhanced Autonomous Emergency Braking AEB with based on the use of advanced sensing including video. collision mitigation Y2 Table 3 systems 22,Lane keep assist Z2 Table 4. Reversing detection and reversing camera systems part On improving the extended flexible front underrun. of Z4 Table 4 protection EFFUP TRL noted that Further work is needed. Pedestrian cyclist detection systems Y3 Table3 to define suitable requirements which will affect costs and. Seat belt reminders X4 Table 3 alternative active safety systems should also be investigated. Improved HGV rear under run guards for compatibility to ensure that the best benefit is delivered for a given cost 2. with M1 and N1 vehicles X3 Table 3 TRL also made an estimate based on the 2011 ETSC fatality. Safer HGV front end design for driver and par tner values of the group that potentially would benefit from an. protection improved EFFUP The resulting estimates are for truck. Intelligent Speed Adaptation Z7 Table 4 occupants 317 511 fatalities for car occupants 1276 1595. fatalities VRU benefitting from direct vision improvements. The importance of AEB is well illustrated in a study by 298 727 fatalities and VRU potentially effected by an. Strandroth et al 23 In this study 70 frontal truck accidents EFFUP 357 417 fatalities 2 These fatalities represent the. with passenger cars frontal collisions on coming traffic maximum numbers where a benefit in fatality reductions. were investigated to estimate the outcome had the truck might be possible However in reality many fatalities are. been equipped with AEB They showed that in 64 out of the often unavoidable as the actual crash speed often will. 70 cases activating AEB on the truck would have reduced be too high TRL evaluated a number of sources for their. the injury outcome With AEB on the truck MAIS2 injuries estimate including the work done in VC Combat 13 the. were reduced by 52 If the passenger car was also equipped 2011 FKA Design of a Tractor for Optimised Safety and Fuel. 25 th ACEA, with AEB a 73 reduction of MAIS2 was achieved A study Consumption study 14 and national data from the UK 15 This. in the USA 24 showed that tractor semitrailers without an AEB resulted in the indicative range of fatalities prevented across. were around twice as likely to be the striking vehicle in a rear EU 27 shown in Table 5 There was no estimate available for. end crash than trucks with the system the reduction of seriously or slightly injured casualties. What are the most significant safety improvements, that can be made to trucks used in urban and rural areas. The ranges in this table are broad for passenger car 4. occupants estimates are partly based on an energy absorbing. front underrun protection device comparable to X3 in Which safety conditions will be best. Table 3 rather than a device that is extended in front of the to meet in the event of exemption. vehicle front Therefore a further analysis of these estimates of vehicle length. would be beneficial, This section covers only extended fronts for trucks It. 3 4 NEW DATA SOURCES FOR FUTURE does not deal with active safety alternatives and accident. EFFECTIVENESS STUDIES configurations where an extended truck front has no effect. eg bicycle accidents in turning manoeuvres etc Section. New data sources for investigating the performance of 1 2 showed that the European Commission will assess the. safety systems are now available from Naturalistic Driving need to develop technical requirements for type approval of. Studies NDS such as EuroFOT DriveC2X and UDRIVE see vehicles equipped with extended cabs by 27 May next year. www eurofot ip eu www drive c2x and www udrive eu This will take into account. These studies contain information on how to support benefit improved aerodynamic performance. estimates of active and passive safety systems through visibility of VRU s by reducing of drivers blind spots. different analysis procedures such as that developed by damage and injury reduction to other road users. B rgman 25 Also relevant is a study by Chalmers University safety and comfort of drivers. and Volvo Trucks due for completion this year The aim is to. develop a generic safety evaluation framework integrating A tr uck design study carried out by FK A in 2011. relevant data sources methods and tools into a structured considered these four areas 14 and showed primarily based. process for evaluating commercial vehicle safety systems on simulation methodologies that in principle it is possible to. and services 26 combine the four requirements in a single design. Although the topic of improved aerodynamic, performance is outside the scope of this study it does. warrant some remarks The simulations and wind tunnel. tests carried out by FKA demonstrate that fuel economy. savings are possible with an extended cab length This is of. considerable interest to the truck industry and its customers. Implementing a length increase would allow manufacturers. to improve fuel economy for competitive advantage, However optimising aerodynamics is a standard part of. any re design and is probably not suitable for a regulatory. approach There is a challenge in assessing improvements. in aerodynamic performance of specific components of. a vehicle as testing takes place on complete vehicles or. vehicle combinations A truck manufacturer principally. sells incomplete vehicles for completion by third parties. for specific uses Thus there should be no need to define. technical requirements on aerodynamics It is worth pointing. out that a front extension of the cab is only one way to. improved aerodynamics for example other options include. replacing rear view mirrors with cameras, On improving visibility of VRUs by reducing drivers. blind spots UNECE Regulation 46 regulates the design of. the mirror to cover the blind spots in the front and at the. 25 th ACEA, passenger side of the trucks This regulation was recently. updated to minimise the blind spot on the right hand side of. trucks It now requires greater coverage by the class V close. proximity mirror and allows for replacement with a camera. opening the possibility for an active safety solution It is also 4 1 PROTECTION OF UNPROTECTED ROAD USERS. mandatory to have a close proximity mirror in the front of the PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS. truck to cover the blind spot Several studies have shown. reducing blind spots at the front is feasible if the front of the In accident configuration C1 Figure 2 the truck speed. cab is elongated is too low for an energy absorbing front to be effective. The target group for protection in accident configuration. Currently there are no technical requirements for direct C4 turning accidents concerns around 20 of the VRU. vision of truck drivers According to a 2014 discussion by involved in truck collisions An extended front will have no. a working group set up by DG MOVE the existing German benefit here. requirement StVZO 35 dealing with 180 degrees forward. vision of truck drivers could offer a suitable baseline for E x te n d e d f r o n t s m ay b e b e n e f i c i a l i n a c c i d e n t. developing such a requirement for European trucks 21 Direct configuration C3 crossing VRUs which concern around. vision requirements may become part of the General Safety 25 of the VRU in truck collisions There are currently no. Regulation and consequently apply for all trucks types ie passive safety requirements for protecting VRUs in the. not only those with extended fronts There is an ongoing event of a collision with the front of an HGV N2 and N3. discussion on whether to request direct vision of the driver vehicles However for passenger cars M1 such measures. or sensor based detection systems This will be part of an do exist UN R 127 and Euro NCAP test procedures which. ongoing study carried out by TRL with results expected later only differ slightly They consist of a number of impactor. this year Note that lowering the cab often thought to improve tests representing different body parts such as the head. direct vision is not necessarily beneficial in long haul where a which have to be undertaken on the front structure of the car. higher driver position improves the overview of the road Further investigations to apply such a test method for truck. fronts may prove worthwhile,Concerning damage and injur y reduction to other. road users ie partner protection several studies have However these impactor tests only deal with reducing. shown that introducing an energy absorbing front improves injury risk in the event of contact between the body part. protection Par tner protection can be distinguished in and the front structure they do not deal with overrun. protection of unprotected road users discussed in 4 1 and protection For M1 cars there is no regulatory performance. protection of car occupants discussed in 4 2 Given that the based requirement to control the motion of the pedestrian. speeds involved in motorcycle collisions with trucks which following the initial contact In principle it would be possible. mainly occur in rural areas are comparable with collisions to develop a method for controlling pedestrian and. with passenger cars motorcyclist protection is discussed cyclist motion based on virtual testing However this. together with protection of car occupants would require considerable committee work and possibly. further R D to develop an acceptable regulatory method. For the safety and comfort of truck drivers the FKA study The work under taken in the APROSYS project on the. and others has shown that extending truck length increases Heavy Vehicle Aggressivity Index and particular run over. protection assuming that a seat belt is worn A number of aggressivity 10 may be relevant here Using a pedestrian. manufacturers have developed in house procedures for dummy in crash test methodology as suggested by ETSC 16. assessing the safety of occupants of their trucks in the is not recommended given issues such as limited biofidelity. event of a crash for example Volvo for impacts with the rear lack of suitability for cyclists and the fact that only a single. of a semi trailer If the length extension is included in the EC dummy size is available. regulatory system a number of truck manufacturers will use. this extra space to increase the comfort and safety of truck 4 2 PROTECTION OF CAR OCCUPANTS. occupants providing a potential competitive advantage AND MOTORCYCLISTS. Therefore defining technical requirements for the safety and. comfort may not be needed and not be efficient It would The target groups here are car occupants in B1 truck. be beneficial to establish a harmonised test procedure that front car front and to a lesser extent car occupants in B3. provides an objective comparison of the safety protection B4 and B5 in Figure 2 plus motorcycle accidents Compati. offered to the truck occupants in the event of a crash Note bility is an important issue and there has been considerable. 25 th ACEA, also that UNECE Regulation 29 03 see Table 2 dealing work in the VC COMPAT project to develop test procedures. specifically with survival space in a cab recently became etc that mainly focus on truck front car front A number of. mandatory in Europe with regard to protecting commercial possibilities were evaluated including virtual testing moving. vehicle cab occupants deformable barrier tests and full scale tests However the. What are the most significant safety improvements, that can be made to trucks used in urban and rural areas. project has not delivered a final acceptable proposal for a test 5. methodology and it appears there has been little new R D. work carried out in this area since then The FIMCAR project Discussions conclusions. www fimcar eu has continued working on car car compati and recommendations. bility issues and has emphasised the importance of structu. ral alignment in vehicles In the European Union EU 27 in 2011 there were 4 252. fatalities from collisions involving HGVs with a weight over. Given the differing accident configurations involved and 3 5 tonnes This represents 18 of the 27 000 people that. considering that virtual testing simulation methodology died in road accidents in Europe The largest share of HGV. has improved significantly since the end of the VC COMPAT related casualties was car occupants impacting a truck. project in 2007 virtual testing is probably the best method to followed by vulnerable road users see section 2 Truck. pursue General guidelines on implementing virtual testing occupants constitute the lowest category of fatalities. procedures were developed in the IMVITER project and fina. lised in 2012 18 Such an approach could be complemented The first objective of this paper was the analysis of the. with relatively simple experimental tests such as a moving main causes of these accidents The types that cause most. deformable barrier or simpler still a rigid impactor test fatalities around 4 or more of the total are summarised. similar to those used for the truck cab front in ECE R 29 in Figure 9 where the A accidents are those causing deaths. see Figure 8 Ultimately regulatory requirements may be in truck occupants the B deaths in car occupants and the. limited to the simple test procedure s C deaths in vulnerable road users pedestrians cyclists and. motorcyclists This distribution is based on an in depth ana. lysis of accidents conducted by Volvo Trucks see section. Figure 8 ECE R 29 pendulum on test front, 2 for details Percentages of deaths relate to the 4 252 fatali. ties in 2011 5 represents around 200 fatalities The majority. of accidents resulting in fatal and serious injuries occur in rural. areas with the exception of those involving pedestrians and. cyclists Around 60 of these occur in urban areas Human. error is the main factor contributing to accidents both truck. drivers and the other road users, The second objective of this paper was to identify the. best way of improving the safety of HGV combinations An. overview of various available systems has been provided. in section 3 focusing on the most effective and those likely. to offer a cost benefit see Table 3 and 4 According to the. 2005 Heavy Duty Vehicles eSafety WG emergency braking. Figure 9 Overview of most frequent accident types,25 th ACEA. systems pedestrian and cyclist protection systems that By 27 May next year the European Commission will. warn the driver and intervene where needed and extended assess the need to develop technical requirements for type. flexible front underrun protection focusing on car occupants approval of vehicles equipped with extended cabs taking. compatibility were considered relatively effective These into account. are also the most likely to offer cost benefits according to a improved aerodynamic performance. recent TRL study The same study also identified lane keeping visibility of VRU s by reducing of drivers blind spots. support visibility support aimed at reducing blind spots and damage and injury reduction to other road users. Intelligent Speed Adaption ISA as the most likely to provide safety and comfort of drivers. cost benefits Improving safety in truck accidents demands All of these requirements should be technologically. an integrated approach that takes into account the cost neutral and not prescribe any solution In other words. benefit of active and passive safety systems Certain accident legislation should encourage rather than hinder innovation. types require safety systems that can avoid or lessen the Any requirements should also be as transparent and simple. damage injuries caused by a collision as possible as well as cost effective. It is important to note at this point that safety systems Current data on truck accidents involving trucks are. whether passive or active require cab space as will potential limited in depth data are largely related to specific countries. improvements to aerodynamics Increasing cab length offers such as Sweden Specific accident data as well as exposure. the opportunity to package these systems efficiently data for HGV combinations with maximum lengths 16 5m. tractor and semitrailer or 18 75m truck and trailer are also. Aerodynamic improvements are indirectly linked to lacking In addition definitions differ for long combinations. safety improvements given that greater cab space offers the between countries eg the Volvo accident database versus. potential for both for aerodynamic and safety improvements the German database This highlights the need for a. Aerodynamics are most important in rural areas in urban comprehensive system of European truck accident data both. settings speeds are too low to make aerodynamic changes nationally and in depth as recommended by the Heavy Duty. effective Urban and rural settings produce different accident eSafety WG in 2005 This is essential for monitoring progress. types most accidents resulting in fatal and serious injuries and assessing future priorities for both active and passive. occur in rural areas par ticularly those involving HGV safety measures and determining their cost benefit Such a. combinations Improved aerodynamics do not automatically system could for example build on the existing collaborative. imply improved safety Similarly passive safety improvements activities in the Initiative for the Global Harmonisation of. do not automatically deliver aerodynamics improvements Accident Data IGLAD www iglad net. However sufficient available space can allow both improved. aerodynamics and improved safety The research findings A detailed analysis of the German In Depth Accident. presented here show that vulnerable road users need safety Study GIDAS and the UK in depth accident databases. systems in urban areas although low speeds mean that would be a solid first step towards a European truck accident. aerodynamic changes have no effect database The aim would be to study accident configurations. in these countries and compare them with the data in the. An impor tant accident categor y where energy Volvo accident database and national data such as STRADA. absorbing fronts offer no benefit are turning accidents in Sweden In addition the accident cases could be used. UNECE Regulation 46 was recently updated to minimise the to study the effectiveness of various safety systems by. blind spot on the right side of trucks The German delegates assessing the potential outcome of an accident if a specific. at UNECE GRSG recently announced they were preparing safety system had been incorporated in the vehicles under. a proposal for a new regulation for HGVs on the mandatory investigation Such an approach has already been applied. equipment of driver assistance systems to address blind in various studies including the study by Strandroth et al 23. spot issues in turning accidents 22 TRL is investigating on AEB effectiveness discussed in section 3. direct and indirect vision issues as part of an ongoing study. dealing with other active and passive safety issues including New data sources for studying the performance of safety. crashworthiness TRL should include the German proposal systems are now becoming available from Naturalistic Driving. to UNECE in their study Currently TRL lacks data on the Studies section 3 4 Also of relevance is a generic safety. 25 th ACEA, costs of these systems and would welcome data from OEMs evaluation framework that integrates relevant data sources. for their study The report from this TRL study is expected methods and tools into a structured process for evaluating. later this year commercial vehicle safety systems and services This will.
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