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Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 2,Introduction, The Vedic period is the earliest period of Indian history for which we have. direct textual evidence but even with this evidence it is difficult to fix even. imprecise chronological limits to the period much less to establish absolute. dates within the period We tentatively suggest 1500 500 BCE as convenient. limiting dates of the period 1 the latter marking the approximate date of the. codification of Sanskrit by P ini and the transition from Vedic to Classical. Sanskrit the former perhaps approximating the beginnings of the g Veda the. earliest Indian text 2 Since almost3 all our evidence for Vedic India is textual. much more fruitful than defining the Vedic period by date is defining it by. texts For purposes of this work we will define Vedic literature and hence the. Vedic period as consisting of the earliest texts the four Vedas proper and texts. based on them and the cult in which they were embedded the Br hma as and. the rauta S tras also including the increasingly speculative ra yakas and. Upani ads as well as the texts relating to the domestic cult the G hya S tras. The content of these texts is wholly religious though religion more broadly. Composed jointly by both authors in 1991 2 and representing their then consensus This. text has subsequently been distributed in samizdat fashion to many students and colleagues as. the volume for which it had been written did not speedily appear and in fact still has not. appeared as of Jan 2003 Even a shorter version that is about to come out in an edited. volume on Hinduism hence our title for which see see note 3 still is awaited some seven. years after it had been written We have left the text as it stood in 1992 some updating. obviously is necessary now and will be carried out in due course In the version distributed. since 1992 most of the footnotes by MW had been excluded however all these have been. kept and included here, 1 For the beginning of the period see the following note for its end note that the earliest. Buddhist texts in P li presuppose the Vedic literature down to the Upani ads cf now. Gombrich 1992 Cf below n 71 For the date of the Buddha see Bechert 1972. 2 According to recent archaeological research the disappearance of the Indus cities is. determined at 1900 B C on the other hand the AV is the first text mentioning iron which. was introduced in North India at c 1100 BCE The RV which no longer knows of the Indus. cities but only mentions ruins armaka mah vailasth na thus could have been composed. during the long period between 1990 and 1100 BCE An ad quem date for the RV is provided. by the mentioning of Vedic gods Varu a Mitra Indra N satya A vin in the Hittite. Mitanni agreement of c 1380 BCE The RV however presents for the greatest part only a. snapshot picture of c 5 6 generations of poets and kings who lived closer towards the end of. the period cf Witzel forthc a, 3 Archaeology begins to provide some evidence now especially for the Swat RV Suv stu area. in gvedic and post gvedic times and for the North Indian plains from the Mantra period. Atharvaveda etc down to the Br hma as in an area stretching from the Eastern Panjab and. Kuruk etra up to Allahabad Painted Grey Ware culture cf Witzel 1989 1989b and forthc. Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 3, defined than is modern custom It may also be added that to call this period. Vedic Hinduism is a contradiction in terminis since Vedic religion is very. different from what we generally call Hindu religion at least as much Old. Hebrew religion is from medieval and modern Christian religion However. Vedic religion is treatable as a predecessor of Hinduism 4. We owe the transmission and preservation of the texts to the care and. discipline of particular religious or better priestly schools or kh s It should. also be emphasized that both the composition and the transmission of the texts. was completely oral for the entire Vedic period and some considerable time. afterwards5 hence the critical importance of the schools in their preservation. From the beginning the various schools were favored by particular tribes and. later on by particular dynasties Due to their preservation in various parts of. India a fairly wide spectrum of religious thought of this early period has. survived to this day and we do not have to rely on the authoritative texts of a. single school of thought, Because of these circumstances we are in a reasonably good position to.
study Vedic Hinduism we have voluminous texts regarding the religion from. various points of view verbal material internal to the ritual extremely detailed. handbooks laying out ritual practice exegesis of the ritual both exoteric and. esoteric as well as various views of mythology However because of the means. of preservation through schools at once orthodox and intellectual in bent. we have little access to information about either heterodox or popular religious. practices but only to the orderly and cerebral system of an entrenched priestly. class We are also almost entirely bereft of information about secular and. indeed religious history or political and social matters and their relations to. religion except as filtered through a priestly lens and as reported occasionally. often as asides in their texts Moreover because we must rely on texts our. knowledge of Vedic religion is entirely verbal we know nothing of the visual. and iconographic aspect of Vedic religion if such there was beyond the solemn. enactment of the rauta and some G hya rites, 4 There are of course many surprising continuities see Gonda 1965 On the other hand. one can certainly not speak of an eternal India that always followed a form of the par tana. dharma that differed only slightly from the later Epic and Pur ic religion see below on such. gods as Vi u and iva, 5 Until at least c 1000 A D see for example with regard to the AV Witzel 1985 cf O von. Hin ber 1989 on the introduction of the script in India under the Mauryas and the. persistence of oral tradition among the Brahmins 1989 10. Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 4, Before we treat Vedic religion in detail it might be well to give a thumbnail. characterization The religion of this roughly 1000 year period though not. static is reasonably unified From the very first it shows a highly developed. ritual with particular emphasis on the power of the word As the religion. develops in the Vedic period it moves in two superficially contradictory. directions on the one hand to an increasingly elaborate expensive and. specialized system of rituals on the other towards abstraction and. internalization of the principles underlying ritual and cosmic speculation on. them But the beginnings of both trends can be seen in the earlier texts. I GENERAL TREATMENTS,a The texts, Any study of Vedic religion thus must begin with the texts Fortunately due to. the care with which most of the texts were transmitted and to the last 150 years. or so of intensive and painstaking philological work we are reasonably lucky in. that most of the important texts exist in usable though generally not strictly. speaking critical editions that many possess careful translations6 with at least. minimal commentary and that the vocabulary and the grammar morphology. and syntax of the texts have been and continue to be subject to the scientific. scrutiny that is a necessary precondition for even first order textual. interpretation Serious lacunae will be noted below. A useful and detailed overview of Vedic texts can be found in Gonda s. surveys 1975 1977 and Santucci s brief outline 1976 gives a handy. conspectus of text editions and translations though omitting the S tras A. conspectus of the rauta S tras has been given by Kashikar 1968 for the G hya. 6 The remarks by W Doniger 1991 p lxi sqq on older translations of Manu tend more to. justify her attempt at a new translation rather than to discredit the older ones Note for. example her insistence of translating e g all the technical terms for coins at 8 132ff whereby. a straw pala equalling 4 gold pieces is said to weigh an incredible 1 33 ounces or 37 76. grams Straw simply appears as the first meaning in the Petersburg W rterbuch and thus in. Monier Williams while it is just a medieval lexicographer s term derived from the real life. word pal la pal l AV straw More seriously Doniger translates even words like karma. and dharma without indicating that it is the latter word that is rendered variously as duty. law justice right religious merit religion cf p lxxvi A reader will never know that the. Sanskrit term dharma was intended More on the problem of translation see below on ta at. the end of ch I with n 30,Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 5.
S tras see Gonda 1980a for the Dharma S tras s Lingat 1973 for the ulba. S tras s Michaels 1978, Before proceeding to a catalogue of the important texts we should first. discuss the categories of texts and their organization into schools Vedic. literature is ritual literature dividable into two major types a liturgical. material internal to the ritual used in performance Almost all of the verse and. some of the prose fits into this category b material about the ritual external to. its performance commentary in the broadest sense almost entirely in prose. The texts have traditionally been catalogued into Vedas better veda. sa hit s Br hma as ra yakas Upani ads and S tras in roughly that. chronological order The Indian tradition distinguishes between ruti. hearing i e texts revealed to the is the primordial Seers and texts having. human authors sm ti remembrance All texts from the Sa hit s to the. Upani ads are ruti while the late Vedic S tras are regarded as sm ti. Because their traditional names sometimes misrepresent the type of text. contained within it is useful to speak first of text type The veda or mantra or. sa hit text type consists of collections of liturgical material the br hma a. text type of ritual exegesis The ra yaka text type often develops the cosmic. side of br hma a explanations into esoteric speculation about some of the more. cryptic and secret of the rituals and generally has served as a catch all for the. later texts of the particular school involved The upani ad text type proceeds. further on this speculative path The s tra text type in contrast contains. straightforward often very elaborate and detailed directions for ritual. performances with little or no commentary, However from the point of view of linguistic development always a. good yardstick for discovering the historical development of text layers we. have to distinguish the following text layers which do not always coincide with. the traditional division of Vedic texts given just now 1 gveda with as late. additions book 10 and also parts of book 1 2 the so called Mantra language. Atharvaveda gvedakhila the mantras of the Yajurveda etc the S maveda 3. the expository prose of the Yajurveda Sa hit texts MS KS KpS TS 4 the. Br hma a prose including the older portions of the ra yakas and Upani ads. as well as some of the earliest S tras 5 the late Vedic S tras. As was implicit in our discussion of oral transmission above there is. another important dimension in Vedic textual classification that of the. theological schools or kh s lit branch Each school began as a set of. adherents to a particular Veda in a relatively small area of northern India. becoming further splintered as time went on In addition to transmitting its. Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 6, Veda the school spawned exegetical texts proper to that Veda its own. Br hma a S tra etc On these schools see especially Renou 1947 Tsuji 1970. Witzel 1987a 7, Let us begin with the key to the whole system the four Vedas g Veda. S ma Veda Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda, The oldest and most important in Vedic ritualism as to later Indian.
religion is the g Veda hereafter also RV This is a collection Sa hit of cs. verses forming hymns to be recited during ritual praising various divinities. They were composed by a number of bards or bardic families over a period of. several hundred years at the very least as linguistic and stylistic evidence. shows 8 The ritual as it appears in these hymns is earlier and less developed. than the classical one of the later texts such as the Yajurveda Mantras and all. of the Br hma as The g Veda has come down to us basically in only one9. extremely well preserved school that of kalya who analyzed the traditional. text towards the end of the Br hma a period apparently in Eastern India. Videha N Bihar His grammatical analysis in form of a text without any. euphonic combinations sandhi has been transmitted as the RV Padap. The standard editions of the g Veda are that of Max M ller 1849 1874. incorporating S ya a s medieval commentary 14th cent 11 and the more. compact one of T Aufrecht 1877 The standard current translation is that of K. F Geldner 1951 written already in the Twenties into German which. supersedes earlier ones such as that of H Grassmann 1876 77 There is also an. almost complete French translation by L Renou 1955 69 and the first volume. of a Russian translation by T Ya Elizarenkova has recently appeared 1989. Unfortunately there is no complete modern English translation though there. are unsatisfactory and outmoded ones by H H Wilson 1888 which largely. depends on the medieval commentary of S ya a and by R T H Griffith 1889. 92 There are also useful translations of selected hymns such as that of W D. 7 Unfortunately there is no progress rather regress with respect to Renou 1947 Tsuji 1970. in Rai 1990, 8 Possible between c 1900 BC and c 1100 BCE see above n 1 This time frame includes only. the period of possible immigration and settlement in Northern and North West India parts. of the RV may have been composed already in Afghanistan on the Sarasvat Avest. Hara aiti etc, 9 The other two about which we know something more than just their names are the B kala. and the M ukeya schools see Scheftelowitz 1906, 10 Edited in Max M ller s RV 1849 74 and also several times in India as separate volumes. 11 Cf now also the earlier commentaries of the RV ed Vishva Bandhu 1963 66. Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 7, O Flaherty 1981a and Maurer 1986 which includes much of the preceding. scholarship An up to date philologically sound translation of the entire text. incorporating the grammatical and semantic progress that has been made in. recent decades would be extremely welcome, Other important tools for gvedic researches include the invaluable if.
somewhat out of date W rterbuch of H Grassmann 1872 75 which lists all the. occurrences of all but the most common words in the RV with definitions. grammatical identification and contextual information the Prolegomena and. the Noten of H Oldenberg 1888 and 1909 1912 respectively one of the. leading Western Indologists E V Arnold s treatise on Vedic meter 1905 one. of the first attempts to develop an internal chronology of the text and also. several of Bloomfield s reference works Concordance Repetitions Variants see. The Atharva Veda AV stands a little apart from the other three Vedas as. it does not treat the rauta rituals but contains magical black and white and. healing spells as well as two more large sections containing speculative hymns. and materials dealing with some important domestic rituals such as marriage. and death with the vr tya s below and with royal power. There are two extant recensions of the AV differing considerably from. each other Currently the more usable one is that ordinarily known as the. aunaka recension AV S The standard edition is that of Roth and Whitney. 1856 corrected repr Lindenau 1924 For certain sections however the. Bombay edition by Shankar P ndurang Pandit 1895 98 or the recent. amalgamated edition by Vishva Bandhu 1960 64 has to be compared notably. in book 19 20 A nearly12 complete English translation of this text exists by W. D Whitney 1905 as well as a partial translation by M Bloomfield 1897 that. remains valuable and a popular one by Griffith 1895 96 Whitney 1881 also. compiled a complete word list arranged grammatically but it lacks the. semantic and contextual information given by Grassmann s W rterbuch for the. The other the Paippal da recension AVP PS was until recently known. only in a very corrupt manuscript from Kashmir which was heroically though. not too successfully edited by L C Barret in a series of articles 1905 1940 save. for one book done by F Edgerton 1914 On this basis Raghu Vira 1936 41. published the text from Lahore as well The discovery of a much better version. 12 It lacks only book 20 which almost completely has been taken over from the RV Griffith. 1895 96 however includes a translation of this book and its difficult Kunt pa hymns as well. Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 8, preserved in Orissa will now allow the Paippal da version to take its proper. place in the Vedic canon However only books 1 4 have been edited D M. Bhattacharyya 1964 D Bhattacharya 1970 The editing and publication of the. AVP based on both versions is an eagerly awaited event in Vedic studies For. preliminary studies on the history of the school the archetype of all PS. manuscripts and on the oral tradition of the Orissa Paippal dins see Witzel. 1985a b on editing problems see Hoffmann 1968a and 1979 for the relationship. between PS and AV see Insler forthc, The S ma Veda SV is the collection of chants referred to as s mans or. melodies To each melody a variety of different verses can be sung these verses. are almost entirely extracted from the g Veda The standard edition of the SV. is that of Benfey 1848 of the Kauthuma and R yan ya recension see also. Caland s 1907 edition of the Jaimin ya recension which to some extent differs. from the Kauthuma version in order and in content cf Parpola 1973 Because. of its dependence on the RV only 75 of its Mantras are not found in the RV. an independent translation of this text is not particularly crucial Nonetheless. several exist e g that of Griffith 1893, The Yajur Veda is a complex entity consisting of several partly parallel. texts most of which mix mantras i e veda text type with prose commentary. br hma a text type It is divided into two branches the Black K a YV. BYV and the White ukla YV the WYV It is the Black YV that contains. the mixture of text types the White YV contains only mantras with its. Br hma a separate Yet it is generally considered see e g Caland 1931b pp. 132 133 cf 1990 p XIV that this separation is secondary that the mantras of. the WYV were abstracted from a text that would have looked more like the. The White Yajur Veda or V jasaneyi Sa hit VS has two very similar. recensions the M dhya dina and the K va VSK The standard edition is. that of A Weber 1852 which includes the variants of VSK A separate edition. of the VSK has been prepared by D Satavalekar 1983 and a new edition is in. progress prepared by the indefatigable B R Sharma 1988 There is a rather. unsatisfactory English translation by Griffith 1899 Its massive and important. Br hma a is the atapatha Br hma a B the Br hma a of the Hundred. Paths after the number of its lessons also with two similar recensions. likewise M dhya dina and K va BM and BK whose mutual relationship. is rather complicated Caland 1926 pp 103 108 1990 p XIV The one. ordinarily referred to is the M dhya dina edited by A Weber 1855 and. translated into English by Eggeling 1882 1900 The K va recension was. Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 9, edited by Caland and Raghu Vira 1926 1939 There is no translation of the. BK but it differs little in content and phraseology from BM. The Black YV is more complex It exists in three major versions parallel in. great part but often differing from each other in both phraseology and points. of doctrine the Taittir ya Sa hit TS the Maitr ya Sa hit MS and the. haka Sa hit KS the latter two often agreeing with each other against the. obviously younger TS There is also a fragmentary and as based on a very. narrow tradition somewhat corrupt fourth version the Kapi. hala Sa hit, KpS very close to the KS The standard edition of the TS is Weber s 1871 2.
of the MS von Schroeder s 1881 86 as also of the KS 1900 1910 while Raghu. Vira edited the fragments of the KpS 1932 Mittwede s useful collections of. suggested emendations to the MS 1986 and KS 1989 are important tools in. understanding these sometimes corrupt texts which are based unlike TS which. still is widely recited in South India only on the traditions of Gujarat N. Maharashtra and Kashmir All these texts must have been preceded by an even. earlier stage of br hma a style discussion see Hoffmann 1969 apparently that of. the lost Caraka school cf Witzel 1982 forthc b, Only the TS has been translated into English by Keith 1914 13 Since MS. and KS are generally fuller and more archaic in appearance than TS translations. of these two texts are badly needed The prose of the br hma a portion of these. texts is the oldest expository prose in Sanskrit and its treatment of the ritual. and narration of myths therefore extremely archaic. Though the prose portions of the Taittir ya Sa hit serve as its primary. br hma a there also exists a Taittir ya Br hma a TB with additional. commentary and mantras unfortunately an inferior text with no standard. edition There are the editions prepared at Calcutta R L Mitra 1859. nand rama V Go bo e et al 1934 and the Mysore Mahadeva Sastri and. L Srinivasacharya 1908 13 the latter has some South Indian phonetic. peculiarities The TB has been partly translated into English in a series of. articles by P E Dumont 1948 69 A late c Upani ad period addition to the. Br hma a is the fragmentary V dh la Br hma a or V dh la Anv khy na. which usually is wrongly called V dh la S tra 14 About two thirds of the. fragments of this Br hma a text have been edited and translated into German. 13 Not always reliably however see the review by Caland 1924. 14 See Witzel 1975 The text contains large sections of Br hma a style discussion the so called. Anv khy nas i e additional Br hma as added to the older texts of the Taittir ya school The. S tra though lying at Utrecht since the Twenties had remained virtually untouched until the. edition of the first chapter by Sparreboom 1989,Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 10. by Caland 1923 1928 Neither the Maitr ya Sa hit nor the K. haka Sa hit, has a surviving separate text called a Br hma a though a collection of fragments. of the original Ka,ha Br hma a called at dhy ya Br hma a is found in. Kashmiri ritual handbooks and has been partially edited by von Schroeder. 1898 and Surya Kanta 1943 cf also Lokesh Chandra 1982 1984. The g Veda has two Br hma as the Aitareya Br hma a AB and the. Kau taki or kh yana Br hma a KB of which the Aitareya is the older. and the more extensive The AB was edited by Aufrecht 1879 the KB by. Lindner 1887 and in its Kerala version by E R S Sarma 1968 Both have been. translated into English by Keith 1920, The major Br hma as of the S maveda are the Jaimin ya Br hma a JB.
and the Pa cavi a Br hma a PB or T ya Mah br hma a The JB is an. immense unfortunately corrupt and very rich text that has not yet been. sufficiently worked on see Ehlers 1988 Caland 1919 edited and translated. significant portions of it into German and added many passages in an English. rendering in his translation of the PB 1931b as did to a lesser extent Oertel in. a series of articles 1897 1909 Only in 1954 did a complete edition appear that. of Raghu Vira and Lokesh Chandra unfortunately still riddled with misprints. and corruptions 15 A carefully and if possible critically edited version of the JB. is greatly desirable 16 There are several recent partial translations e g H W. Bodewitz 1973 1990 of the Agnihotra and Soma sections accompanied by. detailed philological though not particularly pioneering commentary W. Doniger O Flaherty 1985 has translated some of the narrative portions. however mostly a recapitulation of those translated by Oertel and Caland with. a Freudian commentary 17 Tsuchida 1979 and Schrapel 1970 have translated. parts of book 2 A complete philologically grounded translation of the JB. would contribute mightily to our understanding of middle Vedic religion but. it may be premature to desire one without an accurate text. The Pa cavi a Br hma a which is available only in unsatisfactory. uncritical editions presents fewer difficulties but also fewer rewards than the JB. 15 A guide to the MSS has been given by W Rau 1988 and a useful compilation of. emendations that have been proposed by Ehlers 1989. 16 E R Sreekrishna Sarma Adyar Madras has begun a new edition in the early Eighties. based on new MSS from Kerala, 17 And some basic misunderstandings of Indian sociology e g fear of the father in case of a. m tula the date assigned to JB of 900 B C is pure guesswork and definitely too early for. the text as it stands now especially for book 1 1 65 For further criticism see Bodewitz. 1990 19 24,Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 11, For a preliminary critical reading of the text the old manuscript from Gujarat. printed by Lokesh Chandra 1981 and Caland s remarks in his translation. referring to another old MS at Leiden 18 are invaluable The text has been. translated and copiously annotated with many valuable references to and. partial translations of JB by Caland 1931a There are a number of other minor. Br hma as attached to the SV most of which rather belong to the category of. the S tras Most of them have been edited by B R Sharma 19. The AV has a very late and inferior Br hma a the Gopatha Br hma a. GB critically edited by Caland s pupil D Gaastra 1919 Its first part in fact. presupposes the grammar of P ini However this text which to a large degree. quotes from other b r h m a a type texts probably was nothing but an. additional Br hma a anubr hma a of the Paippal da school of the AV which. was just like some other texts incorporated into the aunaka school of Gujarat. only during the Middle Ages Witzel 1985a, A collection of fragments of lost Br hma as found in various medieval. commentaries has been compiled by Batakrishna Ghosh 1947. ra yakas are found under this name only in the tradition of the gveda. Aitareya r Kau taki or kh yana r and Yajurveda Taittir ya Ka. The SV and AV have no text named in this way However the Jaimin ya. Upani ad Br hma a may in part be regarded as the r of this Veda 20 and the. Gopatha Br hma a plays the same role for the AV 21 In addition the first part. of K a 14 of the atapatha Br hma a which deals with the Pravargya ritual. B 14 1 3 may with good reason be called the r of the M dhyandina school. of the White YV for all three r texts of the YV deal centrally with this ritual. Its performance and even its acquisition by learning is regarded as too. 18 One may use for the time being the notes on two old Leiden MSS from Gujarat in. Caland s translation PB 1931 as well as the facsimile ed by Lokesh Chandra 1981 the proper. use of which is explained by W Rau 1985 cf Caland 1990 p XXX n 35. 19 a vi a Br hma a ed B R Sharma 1967 transl W B Boll e 1956 The other SV. Br hma as are in reality of S tra character S mavidh na r eya Devat dh ya Upani ad. Br hma a or Mantra Br a list of G hya Mantras Sa hitopani ad Br Va a Br most of. them have recently been re edited by B R Sharma as are the K udra S tra and Ma aka. Kalpa S tra which are rauta S tras preceding the L ty Dr hy S A good account of the. literature of the SV has been given by Caland 1931a updated by Parpola 1968 cf also B R. Sharma 1976, 20 See Witzel 1977 145 for further discussion of the relationship between the Paippal da and. aunaka schools, 21 There must have been another text still known to a kara c 700 CE which began with.
sarvam pravidhya cf PS 12 19 5 see Witzel 1977 143sqq. Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 12, dangerous to be carried out inside the village and has to be done where the. houses of the village cannot be seen any more This points to the correct. meaning of the designation r from ara ya wilderness which curiously still. eludes most modern Sanskritists though it was established long ago by. Oldenberg 1915 6 22 This oversight also clouds the understanding of the type. of text the r constitute They are not as medieval Hindu tradition asserts the. texts of the third stage in life the V naprastha but deal quite in the fashion of. other Br hma a type texts with a particular ritual In the case of the RV it is the. Mah vrata day of the year long Gav m Ayana and some other rituals. Around this nucleus of dangerous and secret texts a kara and others call. this sort of texts Rahasya are clustered various additions to the canon the RV. schools add their Upani ads see below and even a brief S tra style addition in. A 5 by val yana the Taitt school similarly begins with one of the eight. haka Agnicayana rituals 23 adds two sections with death ritual as well. as all of their Upani ads As mentioned before the White YV contains in its. book 14 both the r and its Upani ad the B had ra yaka Up However the last. sections of this Up contain various strange materials not expected in an. Upani ad P Thieme is the first to have correctly understood the structure of. this text 24 The sections dealing with the procreation of particular types of sons. etc belong to the last instructions of a Veda teacher to his departing student. similar to those it may be added that TU 1 11 Ka,iUp 11 present in a. normative fashion 25 The last sections of B U thus are of ra yaka type and. provide a frame surrounding the B had ra yaka Upani ad Its very name may. signify this amalgamation it is a B had ra yaka Upani ad a large text. consisting of the ra yaka and the Upani ad of the White YV similarly to. B hv cyam the text consisting of many c the RV, The it r has been edited and translated by Keith 1909 the Kau taki or. kh yana r by V N Apte 1922 and Bhim Dev 1980 and transl by Keith. 1908 The Taitt r was edited by Rajendral l Mitra 1864 72 Mah deva str. and P K Rang charya 1900 02 and in the nand rama Series by K V. Abhyankar et al in an often incorrect newly set reprint 1967 69 of the earlier. 22 See now Sprockhoff 1981 WZKS 25 28, 23 Interestingly a very late quasi Pur ic one see Witzel 1972 180 n 12 1977 152 the others. are found in the last parts of Taittir ya Br hma a TB 3 10 12. 24 In his lecture at Kyoto on accepting the Kyoto Prize in 1989. 25 See above n 22 and cf below on Dharma S tra texts. Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 13, edition of 1897 98 book 2 of T has been edited and translated into French by.
Malamoud 1977 The Ka, ha r has been edited and translated into German by. Witzel 1974, Turning now to the Upani ads we are faced with a dilemma regarding. both the actual number of texts belonging to this category as well as their. attribution to the four Vedas There are standard collections based on their. usage in the medieval advaita and gamic traditions of 10 52 or 108 Upani ads. but the texts excerpted in Vishva Bandhu s Vedic Word Concordance amount. to more than 200 188 of which have been conveniently edited by J L Shastri. 1970 The larger collections include even a text as late as the Allah Upani ad. which is supposed to be a kta Upani ad The standard edition which contains. many useful cross references and a word index but which is not a critical one is. that by Limaye and Vadekar 1958, The Upani ads represent apart from incidental topics where they overlap. with the ra yakas and apart from the final teachings secrets and admonitions a. student receives from his Veda teacher see above the early philosophy of. India especially that on the nature of the human soul its fate after death and its. ultimate identity with br hman the force underlying the cosmos Occasionally. they also report mystical insights e g B U 4 3 Kau Up 1 Otherwise the. speculations frequently take up a ritualistic topic and develop it into a. discussion on the ultimate These topics are often presented in dialogue form. and thus continue the tradition of discussion on ritual topics in the preceding. Br hma as and ra yakas The word Upani ad literally sitting close by at the. proper place has found many interpretations see Schayer 1925 Falk 1986b. Usually the Upani ads are divided into three broad layers the older prose. Upani ads the middle level of verse Upani ads and the later Upani ads some of. which were composed only in the middle ages The late Upani ads are. traditionally attributed to the AV The older Upani ads comprise the. B had ra yaka B U Ch ndogya Aitareya Kau taki Taittir ya and Ka. ik Up s as well as the Jaimin ya Upani adbr hma a To the second level. belong the Ka,ha a Mah n r ya a Kena vet vatara Mu aka Pra na. M kya Upani ads as well as four new texts the B kala Ch galeya r eya. and aunaka Up s, Exhibiting the same type of mixture of textual levels mentioned above.
some Upani ads are found incorporated into Sa hit s a Up in V jasaneyi. Sa h 40 N larudra Up in Paippal da Sa hit 14 into Br hma as. B had ra yaka Up and into ra yakas such as the Aitareya r or Taittir ya. Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 14, r Taitt Up and Mah n r ya a Up Names such as that of the Kau Up. reconfirm this Kau taki Br hma opani ad or Jaimin ya Upani ad Br hma a. Many of the older Upani ads have recently been edited or translated again. in general see Santucci 1976 pp 49 69 we merely present here a selection from. the more recent and important publications the B had ra yaka transl in. prep by J Brereton ed accented of K a 1 of B U K va Maue 1976. Ch ndogya unpubl ed by Morgenroth Diss Greifswald 1953 Kau taki tr. Thieme 1951 2 Renou 1978 Frenz 1969 Taittir ya tr Rau 1981 as well as the. little studied Jaimin ya Upani ad Br hma a ed and tr Oertel 1895 new ed in. prep by M Fujii and the newly discovered Ka,ha ik Up ed tr disc. Witzel 1977 1979a 1980a, From the Middle level the verse Upani ads Kena tr Renou 1943 a tr. Thieme 1965 vet vatara tr Rau 1964 K,haka tr Rau 1971 disc Alsdorf. 1950 also Maitr Up van Buitenen 1962 Maitri Up disc Tsuji 1977 1982. 52 67 Mah n r ya a Up ed tr Varenne 1960 Mu aka Upani ad tr Rau. 1965 disc Salomon 1981 for the four new Upani ads the B kala Ch galeya. r eya and aunaka see ed tr by Belvarkar 1925 ed and tr Renou 1956b disc. Tsuji 1982 68 104 All the other Upani ads mostly attached quite secondarily. to the Atharvaveda belong to a much later definitely post Vedic period. Until very recently most of the Upani ads had been translated Deussen. 1897 etc following the commentary by a kara c 700 C E and other. medieval commentators who regard these texts as the scriptures that underlie. Advaita and other medieval philosophies and religious movements As will be. pointed out below this is a wrong approach from the point of view of the. development of Indian thought The Upani ads are the secondary collections of. a whole array of late Vedic teachers see Ruben 1947 belonging to various Vedic. schools they do not form a single body of texts but represent multiple strands. of tradition often quite individualistic ones Recent translations and to some. extent already Hume 1931 treat the texts with philological correctness that is. at first as isolated texts and then in their relations to other Upani ads and the. preceding Br hma as and ra yakas see especially Thieme 1966 Rau 1964. 1965 1971 1981 Frenz 1969 Witzel 1979a 1980a, As an addendum we mention the curious late Vedic text the little studied.
Supar dhy ya ed transl Charpentier 1920 cf Rau 1967 It takes up a topic. from the Epic tradition which goes in fact back to the YV tale of the contest of. Kadr and Vinat The Supar dhy ya does not present the tale in Epic but still. in accented pseudo Vedic language also the text still is composed in the. Jamison Witzel VEDIC HINDUISM 15, traditional tri ubh meter and not yet the Epic loka cf below on M C Smith s. study 1992 of the core of the Mah bh rata, Finally we turn to the S tras The Indian tradition refers to these texts. with the term Kalpa S tra and regards them as post Vedic that is not as. revealed texts ruti but as texts composed by human authors sm ti and as. such along with grammar vy kara a meter chandas phonetics ik. etymology nirukta and astronomy jyoti a not as belonging to the body of. Vedic texts but to the limbs of the Veda ved ga From the point of view of. content and language however these texts are closely allied to the preceding. Br hma as and ra yakas Indeed N Fukushima alias a k a N Tsuji 1952. has shown that the rauta S tras are by and large based on the preceding Vedic. literature of their particular school kh As we cannot mention each text. here by name we refer to the table of Vedic texts given below and to the up to. date and nearly complete list of editions of the S tras of their often. independent appendices and of most other Vedic texts as given by Kashikar.


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