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UNDERSTANDING THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE OIL AND GAS
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ABSTRACT, Ghana is a relatively new producer of oil and gas in the sub Saharan African region . Commercial oil and gas production and their expansion have the potential to enhance. economic and social development However the enclosure of the Gulf of Guinea for oil. and gas commodification has led to conflicts over ocean space once used for small scale. food fisheries Fishing has been banned within a 500m radius of all offshore oil rigs and. other infrastructure while the bright lights of the oil rigs attract fish into the no go zones. creating a network of de facto Marine Protected Areas MPA Fishing around the oil rigs. is illegal leading to conflicts and growing resistance from small scale fishers The. literature argues that where conflict has occurred in states endowed with natural resources. in sub Saharan Africa the resource curse theory gives the best explanation for why. conflicts around natural resources occur The conflict between small scale fisheries and. the oil and gas industry in Ghana is considered an example of the resource curse The. thesis reveals resource curse tendencies such as corruption and the mismanagement of oil. rents and growing inequality and poverty However the resource curse argument has. been critiqued as uncritical reductionist and above all ahistorical The study therefore. suggests that as an alternative way to understand the conflict analysis must move beyond. the resource curse narratives to the historical geography of resource grabs tied to the. creation of enclaves and commodity frontiers The study uses the changing toponymy of. maps of the region analyzes texts and images to understand how ocean space in the. Western region of Ghana is understood represented and transformed over time by. different resource actors It concludes that despite the heavily commodified resource. ii , , extraction along the Western region s coast since the fifteenth century oil and gas. exploitation is the first commodity frontier to directly appropriate ocean space from. fisheries This has resulted in the enclosure and depletion of a nationally important food. source The oil and gas exploitation has therefore resulted in a decline in food security. and sovereignty in a country that has a very high per capita fish consumption rate . iii , , ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, I am very grateful to the Lord almighty for his continuous favour protection and. guidance His blood sustained me and kept me going on this eventful journey My. heartfelt thanks and profound gratitude also go to my supervisor and mentor Dr Dean. Bavington for his comments constructive criticism guidance and support Thank you for. introducing me to research in fisheries and explaining how to tackle research problems I. am grateful for your decision to bring me to Canada to work with you Your concern and. words of encouragement kept me going You pushed me to embrace new studies ideas. and concepts You prepared me for the thesis and gave me a solid foundation for future. studies I am happy to say I learnt a lot from you your work and MUN Geography I also. offer thanks to Dr Arn Keeling and Dr Daniel Banoub for their advice comments and. suggestions on my research Finally I thank MUN Geography and the Too Big to Ignore. TBTI project funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of. Canada SSHRC for the financial support during my stay . To the fisheries reading and writing group led by Dean I say thank you I enjoyed every. second we spent together It was an opportunity for informal discussions on fish and. fisheries Daniel Banoub thanks a lot I enjoyed your openness in depth understanding . and analysis in our meetings To John Matchim Chris Baird and Olivier Randin I say. thank you John the occasional discussions we had on our drafts Gulf of Guinea Grand. Banks and maps counted Finally thanks to Mr Kwasi Owusu Mintah for supporting me . constantly encouraging me to have a positive mindset and pushing me to achieve my. iv , , goals and complete this program Of course I am entirely responsible for any errors and. omissions in this study , v , , TABLE OF CONTENTS,CHAPTER PAGE NO .
Abstract II,Acknowledgement IV,Table of Contents VI. List of Tables VIII,List of Figures VIII,List of Abbreviation X. Chapter 1 Thesis Introduction,1 0 Introduction 1,1 1 Research Objectives and Questions 12. 1 2 Methodology Theory and Research Process 13,1 3 Structure of the Thesis 29. 1 4 Co Authorship Statement 30,1 5 References 31, Chapter 2 Manuscript 1 Doomed by the Resource Curse Fish and 41.
Oil Conflicts in the Gulf of Guinea Ghana, Chapter 3 Manuscript 2 Fish and Oil Conflicts in the Gulf of Guinea 84. Ghana Thinking Beyond the Resource Curse,Chapter 4 Thesis Conclusion. 4 0 Introduction 143, 4 1 Summary of Chapters 144. 4 2 How does the conflict affect food security and sovereignty in 148. the western region of Ghana, 4 3 Significance of the study 155. vi , , 4 4 Ways Forward Limitations and Future Study 156.
4 5 References 159, vii , , LIST OF TABLES, 2 1 Table showing the development of the resource curse theory 52. 2 2 Table showing some critiques of the resource curse theory 58. LIST OF FIGURES, Chapter 1, 1 1 Picture showing the offshore Jubilee oil field and the FPSO Kwame Nkrumah 2. 1 2 Map of the Study Area Western Region of Ghana 4. 1 3 Map showing the Global estimates of fish consumption by coastal indigenous 7. people,Chapter 2, 2 1 Map showing the western region Ghana and the offshore Jubilee oil 44. exploitation site in the Gulf of Guinea,Chapter 3, 3 1 Early stage map of the coastline of the Gulf of Guinea showing a fish 97. species at the Gulf of Guinea by Barent Langenes 1612 . 3 2 Modern map of the Gulf of Guinea 99, 3 3 Historical map showing sections of the GOG coast made by 101.
Dutch cartographer Hermann Moll c 1725 , 3 4 Elmina Fort castle first built by the Portuguese in Ghana 104. 3 5 Map showing the destination of West African Slaves from 110. the 15th to 17th Centuries, 3 6 The offshore sedimentary basin of coastal Ghana 112. 3 7 A private property map showing licensed oil companies 117. viii , , the Jubilee field and others discovered in the Tano Basin. 3 8 Ghana s oil blocks and West African Gas pipe line 126. 3 9 Map of global estimates of Seafood consumption by coastal 129. communities by Cisneros Montemayor et al 2016 ,Chapter 4. 4 1 Map of Global estimates of seafood consumption by coastal indigenous 149. peoples by Cisneros Montemayor et al 2016, 4 2 Pictures of locally prepared Ghanaian fish sauce Shito 153.
ix , , LIST OF ABBREVIATION, FPSO Floating Production Storage and Offloading Vessels. FAD Fish Aggregating Device ,ISO International Association for Standardization. FAO Food and Agricultural Organization,GOG Gulf of Guinea. SSF Small Scale Fisheries,GDP Gross Domestic Product. EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone,IMF International Monetary Fund.
CEO Chief Executive Officer,RUF Revolutionary United front. GHEITI Ghana Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. GII Ghana Integrity Initiative,PIAC Public Interest and Accountability Committee. CSR Corporate Social Responsibility,GNPC Ghana National Petroleum Corporation. PCG Petroleum Commission Ghana, UNCLOS United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea. x , , CHAPTER 1, 1 0 Introduction, The existing and latent resources of the sea are many and varied their rational.
development and utilization offer a technical economic and social challenge . Schaffer and Revelle 1959 17 quoted in Hurberty and Flock 1959 . In 2007 Kosmos Energy Oil Company of America listed on the New York stock. exchange NYSE under KOS arrived trying to find oil in the Ghanaian Gulf of Guinea. off the historic Cape Three Points1 After several failed attempts by Ghana to find oil in. its Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ during British rule and again after independence by. the Canadian company Petro Canada Kosmos struck oil where others had come up dry . Kosmos and its investment partners came away with a projected US 2 2 billion leaving. filmmaker Racheal Boynton director of Big Men to claim in 2014 that oil makes men. thieves , The aptly named Jubilee field discovered by Kosmos has led to oil dreams in. Ghana a country noted for good governance in a region otherwise dominated by civil. war violent conflict and blood tied to oil2 The Jubilee oil field and its storage vessels. FPSO figure 1 1 are icons representing what oil can do for the nation The Jubilee. typonymy for the ocean floor at 00 latitude and 00 longitude is a common feature of. 1, Cape Three points is the southernmost tip of Ghana the land nearest to the sea which marks the. western end of the Gulf of Guinea Historically there has been an abundance of lighthouses in the. area constructed by the British beginning in 1875 The light houses served as navigational aids for. trading vessels sailing through the Gulf of Guinea . 2, In places such as the Niger delta region Sierra Leone Angola and Equatorial Guinea oil and. mineral extraction has resulted in conflicts and violence In the Niger delta for example oil spills and. gas flaring have destroyed fisheries and farm lands see Ukiwo 2008 . 1 , , discussion in the media and is represented on coastal maps of Ghana The oil finds have. triggered hope for additional revenue to support an ailing economy Gary 2009 It is. anticipated that GDP and revenue from the oil will provide jobs sustain growth and. enhance infrastructure development Gary 2009 , Figure 1 1 Jubilee field and FPSO Kwame Nkrumah.
Source http platformlondon org 2012 06 28 tullow oils foul play in ghana . However the ocean space and fishing grounds in the western region Figure 1 2 . have captured the attention of the local media non governmental organizations and. researchers for other reasons the conflicts in the use of ocean space between oil and gas. and small scale fisheries Simply stated the oil and gas activities have appropriated. fishing places Historically the Gulf of Guinea GOG has been dominated by fishers. who operate on a small scale at a subsistence level using relatively small boats The. fisheries are described by the Food and Agricultural Organization FAO as small scale. 2 , , or artisanal fisheries based on their use of local technology Their livelihood is threatened. by oil and gas development In assessing the impact after one year of oil and gas. exploration in 2011 TV3 evening news a local station pointed to the negative impacts. of the ongoing oil and gas production on fishing food and the livelihood of coastal. dwellers A 2011 headline Fish versus Oil led to public interest in exploring how oil and. gas production activities have encroached on small scale fishing in the offshore zones . The local news also explicitly noted the reduction in the fish catch with coastal dwellers. and small scale fishers struggling over access to dwindling catch3 because of oil and gas. exploitation activities ,3, TV3 news 2012 Report on the impact of the oil and gas production on fishing activities and. livelihood See https www youtube com watch v oI 9Wvo9b5E. 3 , , Figure 1 2 Map of the Western region Adapted from Agblorti 2011 . 4 , , The conflict between oil and fish persists with those opposed to the development. pointing to the extent of the oil and gas activities offshore Along the western Gulf of. Guinea coast oil and gas activities take place very close to the coastline just 60 miles. away from the shore on inshore traditional fishing grounds Agyei et al 2012 This is. different from the extent of oil and gas activities in other places around the world such as. Canada Norway and the United Kingdom where oil exploration and exploitation. activities take place well offshore even beyond the 200 mile exclusive economic zone . There is another problem as well The International Association for Standardization ISO . rules for offshore oil and gas exploration and exploitation requires oil companies to use. lighting systems for security and do not permit any activity within 500 meters of oil rigs. and other infrastructure these become no go zones Grant 1978 Arbo and Thuy 2016 . But small scale fishers in western Ghana often complain that the strong lighting systems. on the floating production storage and offloading vessels FPSO function as Fish. Aggregating Devices FADs attracting most of the fish within the 500 meter exclusion. zones Bagley 2011 The areas around the oil and gas infrastructure have become de . facto private property enacted through the ISO requirements associated with offshore oil. and gas installations and infrastructure , The future of marine fisheries and the food they provide to Ghanaians is.
uncertain given the considerable investment in oil and gas resource extraction in the. Western Gulf of Guinea region the appropriation of the fishing commons and the threats. to food security sovereignty and the livelihoods of fishery workers Adusah Karikari . 2015 Agyei et al 2012 Boohene Peprah 2010 , 5 , , .


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