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478 Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492, counterpart Sita1 in the Ramayana In spite of that this article maintains. that Draupadi is a very powerful woman who should be given the same. recognition like Site The article will first of all introduce Draupadi as a. mythological figure in her past life and after rebirth where the story and. her marriage to five brothers is developed Furthermore Subversion Theory. will be adopted as a theoretical framework and lastly the paper will argue. that Draupadi is a paragon of gender and resistance through a rereading. the narrative of Draupadi,2 Draupadi Her life, Before presenting Draupadi as a paragon of gender and resistance her. story will be briefly outlined to familiarise the reader with the heroine of. Epic of Mahabharata Saptorshi Das 2014 224 sees Draupadi as one of. the most prominent and exceedingly interesting characters within one. of Hindu Mythology s greatest magnum opuses of all times namely the. Mahabharata Similarly Preeti Chaudhary 2014 17 describes Draupadi as. not a human but a super human who is also worshipped as a cult Goddess. in many temples of south India The story will be outlined in such a way. that Draupadi is introduced both in her previous life and after her rebirth. when the story is set, According to Narayana Pillai 1988 in her past life. Draupadi had been born as Nalayani the wife of a powerful sage. Maudgalaya Maudgalaya suffered from leprosy however Nalayani. serves him dutifully and without complaint One day while eating. Maudgalaya s finger fell into the food Nalayani however quietly. removed the finger and continued eating the food for her tasting as. sweet as honey Pillai 1988 138 139, Maudgalya was pleased with her devotion and granted her a boon Nalayani. requested that he takes the form of many beings and fulfil her sexual wishes. and desires Her wishes and desires were granted and the two continued to. 1 Sita is a heroine of Ramayana Her conduct and character not Draupadi is regarded as. normative in Hindu Society She maintains throughout most of her ordeal a submissive. acquiescence to the whims of her often cruel husband Rama Finally rather than re join. him she abandons her life and is swallowed by the Earth her mother For a full detailed. story of Sita see Uttara Kanda Canto 1 of Valmiki Ramayana. Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492 479, live in bliss for a very long time until it was time for Maudgalya to renounce.
the world Nalayani was distraught and wanted to know where she was. going to seek pleasure that is sexual pleasure from then on Maudgalya. was exasperated by her unbridled lust and cursed her Pattnaik 2010 92. that she would be born as a prostitute the wife of five men Pillai 1988. Since the Gods have ordained a maximum of three husbands for a woman. and Draupadi has many husbands and according to the shastras2of the. age she can be considered a characterless women nameless and stripped. of her dignity by being derided by Duryodhana as that women with five. husbands which suggests some moral and sexual deviance in her family. situation The moral condemnation appears to those who taunt her to. justify their treatment of her to use her as they choose. Draupadi s life after rebirth, Draupadi is daughter of King Drupada in the epic of Mahabharata3 For. many years Drupada the king of Panchala had no children So to have. children he performed tapas austerities He thought only of God day. and night and prayed to him God blessed him and two children were. born out of the haven fire lit by Drupada here to fulfil his determination. of vengeance against Dronacharya his enemy through death The first. to emerge out of the holy pyre was a son called Dhristadyumna and the. second a daughter called Draupadi She was extremely beautiful intelligent. and virtuous women with her body smelling like fresh bloom lotus There. were only a few women in Hindu Mythology who were aggressive and who. spoke their mind in the world of men Draupadi was one of them She is. considered by many as the first feminist of Hindu Mythology At time of. her birth a celestial voice had proclaimed that this unparalleled beauty. has taken birth to uproot the Kauravas and establish the rule of religion. Ganguli 1990, 2 This is a Sanskrit word that means precept rules manual compendium book or. treatise in a general sense The word is generally used as a suffix in the Indian literature. context for technical or specialized knowledge in a defined area of practice Available. https en wikipedia org wiki Shastra, 3 For a full and detailed story of Draupadi read Mahabharata Book I and II Online. Available http larryavisbrown homestead com files xeno mahabsynop htm. 480 Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492, There was war between Draupada and Arjuna Arjuna won and left. Draupada humiliated by taking half his kingdom When it was time for. Draupadi to get married her father who had wanted only Arjuna to wed. his daughter set a swamyavara marriage by self choice with the hope of. bringing Arjuna to the wedding and out of his hiding The participants in. the swayamvara had to shoot an arrow at a revolving target while looking. at its reflection in a bowl of water kept under it Drupada knew that only. Arjuna would be able to accomplish this task Arriving with his brother. disguised as Brahmins Priestly class Arjuna successfully hit the target. winning Draupadi s hand in marriage, As soon as the brothers arrived home with Draupadi they asked their.
mother Kunti to take a look at what they had brought home Without. looking she asked them to share it equally among themselves This was not. strange because the brothers usually share the bhiksha alms they received. every day In order to obey their mother s order the five Pandavas brothers. accepted Draupadi as their wife without discussing it with her or asking. for her consent,The game of ice, Shakuni Yudhisthira s cousin had always wanted to bring his cousin. down Together with his brother s friend Karna and maternal uncle called. the Pandavas to a place called Hastinapura to play a game of dice Shakuni. was skilled at winning by unfair means The plan was that Shakuni would. play against Yudhishthira and win the game since it was impossible to. win at the battlefield The game of dice began and Yudhishthira gradually. lost all his wealth and kingdom in the stakes He went on to put each. of his brothers at stake and lost them too Ultimately he put himself at. stake and lost again All the Pandavas were now the dasas servants of. Kauravas But Shakuni told Yudhishthira that he had not lost all yet that. he still had Draupadi with him He also told him that he could try and win. it all back by putting Draupadi at stake To the shock of all present there. Yudhishthira put Draupadi as a bet for the next round Shakuni won this. round too and Duryodhana commanded his younger brother Dushasana. to present Draupadi at the forum Dushasana barged into Draupadi s living. quarters She was clad merely in one piece of attire and was menstruating. She begged him not to take her to the sabha court filled with dignitaries. But Dushasana grabbed her by the hair and presented her into the court. Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492 481,Draupadi s disrobing. Draupadi repeatedly questioned the right of Yudhishthira to place her at. stake when he himself has lost his freedom in the first place No one could. give her answer Then to the horror of everybody present Duryodhana. ordered his brother to strip Draupadi of her sari Dushasana proceeded. to obey the order and starts disrobing Draupadi On the realization that. her husbands were unable and unwilling to come to her rescue Draupadi. started praying to Krishna to protect her Krishna answered her prayer and. a miracle occurred in front of everyone s eyes Instead of being stripped. naked Draupadi s sari kept getting extended as Dushasana unwrapped. layers and layers of it In the meantime Draupadi was lost in prayer and. was oblivious of her surroundings Finally an exhausted Dushasana gave. up his effort and fell to the ground This way Draupadi was protected from. being humiliated in front of the entire congregation. 3 Subversion as a theoretical framework, The Feminist theory of subversion will be employed in the article to. further the discussion Subversion is the act of undermining patriarchal. institutions To subvert something is to take oppressive forces and turn. them into something that challenges the oppressor Feminist scholarship. Mukherjee 2016 Chaudhary 2014 Chakravorty 2016 unitedly refer. to the experiences of Draupadi especially the disrobing incident as an. illustration of the ways in which such a discourse has constructed and. perpetrated the idea of the woman s body being the site on which male. hegemonic structures operate Since a woman s honour is presumed to. reside in her violated body its violation through public stripping means. that she loses the honour both of herself as an individual as well as a group. family or even the nation which she belongs Subversion becomes apparent. because first of all polyandry maybe seen as a subversion of patriarchal. norm of a patriarchal society although she is very uncomfortable she gives. her consent thinking of a great good Mukherjee 2016. In Mahabharata Draupadi s disrobing is a culmination of dishonouring of. the Pandavas Her acts upset the oppressors carefully laid plans for her. subjugation By refusing to acknowledge her dishonour she also refuses. to acknowledge their manhood Her resistance lies in subverting the. whole construct of equating feminine honour and purity with an inviolate. 482 Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492, body Draupadi articulates the narrative of resistance on many levels and. therefore she becomes no only powerful but also complex She achieves a. subversion of a mythical Draupadi story while at the same time endangering. the stabilities of the gender hegemonies She resists her oppressor through. defiance anger and courage because she has suffered outrageous attacks. on her body and spirit She becomes a feminist figure because she is able to. subvert the objectification and commodification of women in society It is. her stri shakti power of woman which is manifested when she comes out. unscathed during the disrobing episode, Draupadi raises her voice against extreme torture and atrocities inflicted.
on her such that at the end she redefines herself She refuses to remain the. object of male narrative but asserts herself as subject and emphasises the. truth her own presence and constructs a meaning Through subversion she. becomes that which resists counter male knowledge power and glory By. so doing Draupadi rejects the binary structures of patriarchal discourses. of the political social and ideological forces of the society hence subverting. commodification in the society and foregoing her identity as a human not. a commodity, 4 Reading Draupadi s narrative as a paragon of gender and. resistance, Draupadi is one of the most celebrated heroines of Indian epic Mahabharata 4. which together with Ramayana5 are cultural credential of the so called. Aryan Civilization Sita not Draupadi is one of the best known examples. of a Goddess being held up as a paradigm for women in a culture obsessed. with marriage in which she is presented as the role model of the ideal. 4 One of the two major Sanskrit epics the other being Ramayana of ancient India was. attributed to K a Dvaip yana Vy sa The Mahabharata is an epic narrative of the. Kurukshetra war and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pandava princes It dates back. to 1600 BC and is considered the world s longest poem the original epic consists of. 100 000stanzas in verse structured 18 books cf Narayana 1988 vii. 5 This is the first ancient Indian heroic epic poem traditionally ascribed to the Hindu. muni sage V lm ki The epic narrates the life of R ma a legendary r ja kum ra. prince of Ko ala his banishment from his kingdom by his father king Da aratha his. travels across forests in India with his wife S t and brother Lak ma a the kidnap of. his wife by his enemies resulting in a war with R va a the king of the island of La k. and eventual return to Ayodhya to be crowned king,Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492 483. selfless submissive wife pativrata who is expected to remain faithful. and devoted to her husband no matter how badly she is treated Kinsley. 1986 79 78 This article maintains however that Draupadi should also. be given the same prominence accorded to Sita despite being married. to five husbands Whereas Sita maintains her silence when ill treated by. her husband Draupadi does not She is vocal and laments the despicable. treatment she gets from the males in the story She had grown up to be an. aggressive woman who spoke her mind in a world where women would. silently suffer than speak Draupadi therefore is a force to be reckoned. If Mahabharata is an intricately women saga of hatred and love. bloodshed and noble thoughts beauty and gentleness victory and. defeat then Draupadi is its shining jewel casting the shadow of her. towering personality over the epic poem and the all destroying war. described Das 2014 231, Preeti Chaudhary 2014 describes Draupadi as not a human a super. human worshipped as a cult Goddess in many temples of South India. She has firm determination and unbending will making her proud and. angry heroine of the epic Mahabharata who has remained an enigmatic. woman of substance Chaudhary 2014 17 Therefore Draupadi becomes. an image of empowering women because of her strong will power brilliant. intellectuality and pride which mark her as a dignified woman different. from other women like Sita who expressed softer feminine qualities It. must be noted that there are few women in Hindu mythology who were. aggressive and who spoke their mind in a world of men Draupadi was one. of those few That is why she is considered by many as the first feminist of. Indian mythology because of her resilience and nonconformity to male. dominated religious hierarchy Ganguli 1990 Her unpopularity therefore. has to do with the fact that her image does not encourage women to. conform to the requirements of an Indian patriarchal society Subsequently. Draupadi becomes a paragon of gender and resistance. It is worth noting that while polyandry was pretty much accepted during. the time of Mahabharata it was regarded with much censure in the era. of the epic Hence Draupadi was much looked down upon for having. married the five Pandava brothers In fact Karna during the game of dice. had addressed her as veshya or prostitute for having several husbands She. 484 Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492, was neither the perpetrator of this social transgression nor did she enter.
into a polyandrous contract of her own accord She had given her heart to. the noble Arjuna at her swayamvara marriage by self choice The intricate. web of polyandry that she got entangled in had been bestowed upon her by. destiny There is no reason whatsoever to thrust the fault of transgression. on her Incidentally though the matter of polyandry was so controversial. Draupadi is also regarded as one of the five srestha or the most chaste. Naris This in itself is an anomaly and cannot be properly explained. 5 Draupadi within the patriarchal context, The portrayal of Draupadi in the epic leaves so much to be desired that is. why she is conceived by most as insignificant However it worth noting that. Draupadi can be seen as an unsung heroine of the epics Notwithstanding. there are women characters in both Ramayana and Mahabharata who have. not been given platform to exist independently Chitra Banerjee 2009. echoes that sentiment very well by lamenting about powerful women in. the epics who have remained shadowy figures and whatever their thoughts. and emotions are seen as inexplicable These women are only brought to. the fore when they concede with the lives of the male heroes ultimately. rendering their roles as subservient to those of their fathers husbands. brothers and sons, In addition within a masculine and patronymic context Draupadi is. exceptional indeed single in the sense of cold unpaired and detached She. provides the occasion for the violent transaction between men the efficient. cause of the crucial battle Spivak 1981 Her eldest husband is about to. lose her by default in the game of dice He had staked all he owned and. Draupadi belonged within that all Mah 65 32 Furthermore even though. Draupadi is strong spirited and an outspoken woman she is still very. faithful to the five brothers Alleyn Diesel 2002 compares her to Helen of. Troy where she is regarded by many men as a prize valuable object to be. competed for and squabbled over and she becomes the central reason for. internecine conflict which brings disorder adharma and devastation to. society Diesel 2002 9, By the same token Draupadi s strange civil status seems to offer grounds for. her predicament and non recognition as well Since the scripture prescribed. Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492 485, one husband for a woman Draupadi is dependent on many husbands she. can be designated as a prostitute Therefore there is nothing improper in. bringing her clothed or unclothed into the assembly Mah 65 35 36 In. the epic Draupadi s legitimized pluralisation as a wife among husbands. in singularity as a possible mother or harlot is used to demonstrate male. glory Karna for instance publicly called Draupadi a whore for being a wife. of five men Despite all these horrific experiences Draupadi is not in the. least deterred by the harsh treatment she receives from the males in the. story If anything these experiences of ill treatment empower her hence. driving her to be even stronger and resilient She continues to display her. individuality strength and unyielding determination for both justice and. vengeance hence becoming an empowering character, Throughout her life Draupadi had to undergo humiliation abuse and.
deprivation Though unjustly treated and hence a very angry woman. Draupadi draws from her purity gained over male intimidation and. violence and thus brought healing to communities These translate the. ultimate victor of women s strength Diesel 2002 10 This does not deter. Draupadi to be resilient as she continued to resist male dominance The. resilience is discussed under the themes below,a Women as properties or possessions of men. When the five brothers arrive at the household they ask their mothers to. come and see what they have brought from their outing The mother without. knowing instructs the brothers to share amongst them equally There is no. doubt that there seems to be total ownership over Draupadi as a daughter. in law a wife and a mother This is evident in the way even though some. might argue that Kunti was not aware that her sons had brought Draupadi. that she innocently assumed it was the usual alms her sons brought daily to. the homestead Even so there is no justification as to why the sons decided. to follow their mother s instruction without questioning it The answer is. obvious Draupadi does not have a say in the whole saga simply because she. is viewed as a possession Hence the sons did not see the need to alert their. mother that this time around they had brought somewhat different alms to. be shared equally, Consequently Draupadi becomes a possession of five husbands even. though she had chosen her real husband during the swayamvara One. 486 Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492, cannot but wonder what the purpose of the swayamvara was if at the end. of the day it is not taken into consideration Actually the swayamvara is. also doubtful in the way it was conducted In a proper swayamvara the. kanya daughter gets to choose her husband by herself yet in the case of. Draupadi the father King Draupada arranges the swayamvara because he. wants Arjuna his choice to come out of his hiding It is worth noting. that matters affecting women directly are never shared with them or any. consent given Significantly Draupadi questions their behaviour is a. woman her husband s property Is she an object that can be gambled. Mankekar 1993 474 The fact that Draupadi has been given to the five. brothers by their mother makes her their property hence she can be. gambled Draupadi further questions the dharma religious duty of the. kings especially those present in the assembly Her words are not just a plea. of a humiliated and helpless woman but a challenge to the knowledge of. right and wrong of the kings By questioning the behaviour of her husband. as well as the dignitaries present Draupadi is challenging the normative. something which was unheard of during the time of the Mahabharata In. other words she was disrupting the order reigning in the Sabha court. because she was rebelling against the norm hence the subversion This was. a step unimaginable for a woman of her time and setting Das 2014 228. sees Draupadi s question, not as an antiquated question of the wronged virtuous queen whose. integrity has been put on stake rather it holds as much importance. and relevance because it is a question of the protection of those who. find themselves unprotected by a system in a court full of the most. powerful kings of the time here was a woman who dared to stand. for herself and speak up aloud against male perpetrated injustices. b Paradigm of pativarta ideal wife in a matrimonial polyandry. Despite Draupadi suffering at the hands of five husbands the only case of. matrimonial polyandry in The Mahabharata she is expected to service. her five husbands without any complaints By being in the company of five. husbands Draupadi becomes a possession yet the expectation is that she. should be a pativrata an ideal wife Let it be made clear that polyandry. was not an alien concept in ancient India because it has been mentioned. even in the Vedas Neelakantan 2013 Although the practice has been. Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492 487, alluded to in the Vedas the Kama Sutra6 as well as the sutras7 and smritis8.
it is not confined to Hinduism it was also found in Jain and Buddhist texts. confirming that it was not a foreign practice at the time Singh 1978. Although views might be diverse some theories endorse the strengthening. of the patriarchal society of ancient India by the sporadic shift from a more. standard form of polyandry to the type of fraternal polyandry witnessed in. the Mahabharata Nabar Shanta 1997 Aarathi Ganesan 2014 is quick. to point out that simply mentioning the practice is not analogous to its. actual practice in Indian society for the same reasons that its occurrence. in the Mahabharata is almost innocently incidental and most importantly. singular Ganesan 2014 9 She is to be a submissive wife and a mother. By maintaining her silence until a point when she is pushed to a corner. Draupadi is actually upholding not only her honour but that of her family. and her community as well Failure to honour might incur repercussion. as a pativrata On relationship with her husbands Bhawalkar 2002 143. says Draupadi was not a dumb follower of her husbands She had her own. individuality Though soft speaking she used harsh words to her husbands. and others when necessary It is because of this uniqueness that the. Pandavas often looked to Draupadi for guidance and approval. c Denied motherhood lost motherhood, Motherhood defines a woman in Indian cultures Therefore it follows. that a woman becomes fully recognised and accepted by the family and. community because she has produced a child or an heir In India there is. still an emphasis on producing an heir who is a boy for various reasons. 6 Doniger 2003 i defines The Kamasutra is the oldest extant Hindu textbook of erotic. love It was composed in Sanskrit the literary language of ancient India probably in. North India and probably sometime in the third century. 7 Sutra is a type of religious literature present in many Asian traditions such as Hinduism. Jainism and Buddhism The word sutra is a Sanskrit term that means discourse in. the Pali language sutta Another meaning suggested for the word sutra is threads. Sutras were originally oral traditions and designed to prompt the memory which was. probably the best alternative in a context where the majority of the population was. illiterate Available https www ancient eu Sutra, 8 O Flaherty and Doniger 1988 2 3 defines Smriti as literally that which is. remembered are a body of Hindu texts usually attributed to an author traditionally. written down but constantly revised in contrast to rutis the Vedic literature. considered authorless that were transmitted verbally across the generations and fixed. 488 Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492, for example to keep the family name alive to perform ritually during. his father s cremation to mention to name but a few It is because of the. importance of having children that it is believed in this culture that children. cement the relation between husband and wife and their respective families. This explains why Draupadi in the midst of her suffering decides to stay in. the marriage rather than go back to her natal home This is partly because. she did not want to shame her natal family by returning and but most. importantly she wanted to be with her five sons and raise them instead. of abandoning them In other words she had to forgo her freedom for the. sake of staying and raising her children This is what I refer to as denied. motherhood lost motherhood,d Humiliation vs shaming. The humiliation the pain and shaming that Draupadi has to undergo. during her stay at in the marriage is beyond comprehension The highlight. of this unacceptable and atrocious treatment comes at a time when she. is dragged to her court by her hair and disrobed She was subject to. horrific indignity being ogled at while wearing a garment stained with her. menstrual blood Ganesan 2014 19 She is disrobed in front of a group of. men She is humiliated because she is seen as a prostitute a servant of the. Pandavas and therefore they are free to do as they please with her Devdutt. Pattanaik 2010 maintains that Karna calls Draupadi a whore stating. that the law only allows a woman to lie with four men and she married five. men and is to be treated without dignity effectively as a piece of public. property Pattanaik 2010 146, If one looks closely at why she has to undergo such unimaginable torture.
we are told it is for the glory of men This is unacceptable because Draupadi. finds herself in the predicament in the first place because of the men. She had done everything right by marrying a man of her choice yet she. finds herself married to five men and is called names something out of. her control However it can be argued that her status after the game of. dice facilitated such an incident and her current societal position placed. her in a position of being unable to disobey order Dhavalikar 1991 It is. worth noting that the very same men who put her in this situation turn. around and humiliate her Despite all the shame and humiliation meted. to her Draupadi stood her ground and survives and in fact he tables are. Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492 489, turned when the shame and humiliation is diverted to the men in the sabha. 6 Draupadi war of justice and resistance, Despite the humiliation that Draupadi had to undergo Seeing that she is. at the mercy of the men in the sabha court and seeing that her husbands. were not going to rescue her She calls on Krishna to intervene By evoking. Krishna Draupadi exercises what could be called war of justice Her. innermost strength and firmness of mind is rooted in the way she vows. that she will not tie her hair until she has decorated it with the blood of. Dushasana Rajgopalachari 1979 Despite being cornered Draupadi defies. the odds by denying Dushasana the pleasure of humiliating her Her vows. portray her as not only powerful but as a woman filled with vengeance as. well as resistance The humiliation is the worse of its kind but she does. not curse the men who are fascinated in seeing her naked clad body She. calls Krishna to rescue her This is an interesting twist of events because. Krishna comes to her rescue and her honour and dignity is restored The. notion of women as weaker and powerless is contested throughout the text. of Draupadi because her vow show s the hidden and latent potential of. creation and destruction possessed by a woman Chaudhary 2014 20. Despite all her humiliation Draupadi emerges a victor because she has. her own will her own determination her own capacity and most of all her. own existence Ibid 20,7 Conclusion, The injustices meted out to Draupadi all justified by her marriage are. inexcusable and the legends condemning her sexuality are unreasonable. Depending how one reads the story Draupadi can be viewed as subversive. character who emerges a victor At the end of it all Draupadi uses the. same tool that is used to bring her down and instead lifts herself up It is. apparent that men play dice and wage wars in Mahabharata However it. is the women who wield power and influence It is the women who take. decisions direct the course of event and decide the fate of men and their. generations to follow Draupadi is that woman Draupadi has the resilience. and power that is seen as a threat to men Draupadi s text highlights abuse. of women particularly within the family,490 Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492. In conclusion silence disempowers women and because men know. that most women would suffer in silence they continue to advance their. tyrannical deeds However one woman Draupadi stood her ground and. voiced her disgruntlement whenever she felt wronged That was very brave. and impressive of her considering the time place and the community she. lived in In the midst of the humiliation torture suffering and abuse. Draupadi found strength in herself to fight the injustices meted on to her. by cruel males in a male dominated androcentric society It is because of. that resilience and valour displayed by Draupadi that transforms her into. paragon of gender and resistance,References, Bhawalkar Vanamala 2002 Eminent Women in the Mahabharata New.
Delhi Sharada Publishing, Chauddhary Preeti 2014 Frailty Thy Name is Not Woman with. reference of Draupadi BBSSES Volume 5 Issue 3 ISSN 2321 9726. Chitra Banerjee K 2009 The Palace of illusion London Pan Macmillan. Das Saptorshi 2014 Vyasa s Draupadi A Feminist, Presentation International Journal of Gender and Women s Studies. June Vol 2 No 2 pp 223 231, Diesel Allyen 2002 Tales of Women s suffering Draupadi and. other Amman Goddesses as Role Models for Women Journal of. Contemporary Religion 7 1 5 20 DOI10 1080 1353790012098138. Doniger Wendy 2003 Kamasutra Oxford World s Classics Oxford. University Press, Falk Nancy Auer Draupadi and the Dharma In Gross R M ed Beyond. Anthrocenticism New Essays on women and Religion Missoula. Scholars Press 1977 89 114, Ganguli Kisari Mohan 1990 The Mahabharata of Vyasa New Delhi.
Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd,Motswapong STJ 2017 Vol 3 No 2 477 492 491. Mankekar Purnima Television Tales and Women s Rage A Nationalist. Recasting of Draupadi s disrobing Public Culture 5 3 1993 469. Nabar Vrindar Shanta Tumkur 1997 Introduction the Bhagavad Gita. Herts Wordsworth Editions, Neelakantan Anand 2013 Short Notes Polyandry in Ancient India. Google Books Leadstart Publishing Pvt Ltd, O Flaherty Wendy Doniger 1988 Textual Sources for the Study of. Hinduism Manchester Manchester University Press, Pattanaik Devadutt 2010 The Common Wife Jaya An Illustrated Retelling. of the Mahabharata New Delhi Penguin, Pillai PK Narayana 1988 Sambhava Parva Bharatham Pattu National.
Book Stall, Rajagopalachari C 1979 Mahabharata New Delhi Auromene Publishers. Singh Sarva Daman 1978 Polyandry in Ancient India New Delhi Vikas. Spivak Gayatri Chakravorty1981 Mahasveta Devi Draupadi trnsl. Critical Inquiry Vol 8 No 2 Writing and Sexual Difference Winter. pp 381 402, Dhavalikar MK 1999 1992 Draupadi s Garment Annals of the. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 72 73 Jstor Online. Available http www jstor org stable 41694917 Accessed 29 March 2016. Draupadi the Woman Epitome of Femininity and Feminism Online. Available http www dollsofindia com Draupadi htm Accessed 24 March. Ganesan Aarathi 2014 Mahabharata Reflections of Ancient Indian. Society Online Available http www academia edu 11788986 Polyandry in. the Mahabharata Accessed 29 March 2016, Pillai PK 2005 Maudgalya Nalayani Episode from Malayalam Retellings.


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Volume XV, Issue 1 January 2015 - American Culinary Federation

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Volume XV, Issue 1 2015 SPONSORS Platinum Gold Copper Chefs De Cuisine Association of California Los Angeles Place Friends All Regional Conferences Greetings Chef, Greetings Fellows of the American Academy of Chefs! The American Academy of Chefs is off to a great start this year, Mark and I want to wish you all a Prosperous and Wonderful 2015 ...