Trophoblastic Disease Gestational Molar Pregnancy-Books Download

Trophoblastic Disease Gestational Molar Pregnancy
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Molar Pregnancy Gestational,Trophoblastic Disease GTD. What is a molar pregnancy, In healthy pregnancies an embryo baby develops when a sperm. fertilises an egg and the genetic material from each combines to. produce a baby which has half of its genes from each parent A. molar pregnancy is abnormal from the very moment of conception. as a result of an imbalance in the number of chromosomes supplied. from the mother and the father, In a molar pregnancy an abnormal fertilised egg implants in the. uterus womb The cells that should become the placenta grow far. too quickly and take over the space where the embryo would. normally develop Those cells are called trophoblasts That s why. molar pregnancy is sometimes called trophoblastic disease. About one in 600 pregnancies is a molar pregnancy That means it is. quite rare especially compared with miscarriage which affects. around one in four pregnancies, A hydatidiform mole may be either partial or complete depending. on the genetic make up of the fertilised egg The easiest way to. explain this is to look first at what happens in a normal conception. Normal conception, Each of our cells contains 23 pairs of chromosomes where one of.
each pair is from the mother and the other from the father In a. normal conception a single sperm with 23 chromosomes fertilises. an egg with 23 chromosomes making 46 in all, There are two types complete mole and partial mole. Partial mole In this situation two sperm fertilise the egg. instead of one creating 69 instead of 46 chromosomes There is. too much genetic material and the pregnancy develops. abnormally with the placenta outgrowing the baby There. may be evidence of a fetus but it will be abnormal and cannot. Complete mole A complete mole is when one or even two. sperm fertilises an egg cell which has no genetic material. inside Even if the father s chromosomes double up to make 46. in all the balance of chromosomes from the mother and father. is wrong Usually the fertilised egg dies at that point but in rare. cases it goes on to implant in the uterus When it does no. embryo grows only the trophoblast the cells that will become. the placenta and that grows to fill the uterus with the molar. When might a molar pregnancy be suspected, If you have a molar pregnancy you may have irregular or heavy. bleeding from the vagina or excessive morning sickness. hyperemesis Your uterus womb may feel larger than your. midwife or doctor would expect in early pregnancy Less. commonly you may develop raised blood pressure symptoms of an. overactive thyroid gland or abdominal pain because of large. ovarian cysts, If your doctor suspects that you may have a molar pregnancy you. will be referred to an early pregnancy clinic for an ultrasound scan. If you have a complete mole there will be no baby present inside. the pregnancy sac and there may be other signs that suggest the. presence of a molar pregnancy Ultrasound may also help in. diagnosing partial moles but it is not as reliable as in cases of. complete moles, A blood test which measures the amount of the pregnancy. hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin HCG may also raise the. suspicion that you have a molar pregnancy Usually the levels of. this hormone are much higher than would be expected in a healthy. A molar pregnancy may be found after what is suspected to be a. miscarriage,Can a molar pregnancy survive, Sadly as there is no baby present in a complete mole these.
pregnancies cannot survive and cannot lead to the birth of a baby. In a partial mole there may be a fetus visible on scan but it is not. developing properly and also cannot survive,What happens if a molar pregnancy is suspected. The preferred treatment for complete molar pregnancy is an. operation to take away the pregnancy tissue from your uterus. womb You might hear this procedure referred to as an ERPC an. evac or a D C Medication may be used to soften the cervix. neck of the womb prior to your operation, You will usually need a general anaesthetic for this type of. operation During the operation the cervix is stretched slightly and. a suction device is used to remove all of the abnormally formed. tissue from inside your uterus, A sample of the tissue that is removed is sent to the laboratory and. tested to see if it is normal pregnancy tissue This process is called. histology and you may be asked to give your permission This. examination can identify molar tissue and thus a molar pregnancy. There may be a delay between when you have the surgery and. when you are told that you have or might have a molar. pregnancy It may be some days or a few weeks after your. miscarriage when you are contacted by letter or telephone You. may be asked to return to see the doctor before you are told any. An operation is also the preferred method to treat pregnancies. where a partial mole is present,Will I need anti D. If you have a rhesus negative blood group you should be given. medication known as anti D to prevent your blood system from. developing antibodies which may affect the blood cells of any. future babies,What follow up will I have, In the UK all women who have had a molar pregnancy are asked if.
their details can be registered with a specialist centre so that. treatment can be coordinated and provided by doctors who are. experts in this field These centres are in hospitals in London. Sheffield and Dundee, Once your diagnosis has been made you will be registered with the. GTD centre which specialises in monitoring women after molar. pregnancy To monitor your HCG levels they will need a sample of. urine once every two weeks The sample must be taken the first. time you pass urine in the morning They will send you urine sample. bottles in the post along with a stamped addressed box so you can. return them, The urine tests are important for you because it means they can tell. how your disease is progressing without having to call you for. frequent examinations, If your level of HCG is falling then the number of abnormal cells in. the uterus is also falling and no further treatment is needed You. will be advised not to get pregnant while you are still in follow up. How long does monitoring last, All being well your HCG level will reduce until it is no longer present. and will remain so However even a tiny amount of mole left in the. body can grow and spread This means that your disease will be. monitored by regular urine samples, You will also be required to give one blood sample approximately.
12 weeks after the end of your pregnancy You can have the blood. test done at your GP surgery or at your local hospital. If the HCG result from your urine sample returns to normal within. 56 days of the end of your pregnancy you will be monitored for 6. months from the end of the pregnancy If your urine result does not. return to normal within 56 days monitoring will continue for 6. months from the date of your first normal result, This programme of registration and follow up has produced high. cure rates 98 100 and very low rates of progression to more. serious forms of GTD, The specialist centre will be able to put you in touch with support. How do I get the results of my urine tests, The centre will inform you by letter once your test result has. returned to normal On average it takes 8 weeks to return to. normal following a pregnancy but it can take longer. When can I get pregnant again, The progress of molar disease is monitored by measuring hCG a. hormone that is only produced during pregnancy If you become. pregnant the level of hCG in your body will automatically rise. If this happens while you are being monitored for your molar. pregnancy this can cause some confusion and make it difficult to. monitor your molar disease, Pregnancy following too soon after trophoblastic disease may also.
increase the risk of recurrence or re activation of the mole For all. these reasons you are advised to avoid pregnancy for the duration. of your sample monitoring,What method of contraception should I use. New guidelines suggest you may use any contraception you wish. What is GTN, A molar pregnancy is best thought of as a pre cancerous illness. which can occasionally progress to a cancerous form of GTD known. as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia GTN, GTN is regarded as a rare form of cancer and includes invasive mole. choriocarcinoma placental site trophoblastic tumour and. epithelioid trophoblastic tumour It has a cure rate of over 99 if it. develops after a molar pregnancy, GTN occurs when some of the molar pregnancy tissue persists in the. uterus It is usually diagnosed if your hCG levels do not return to. What happens if I have GTN, If you are diagnosed with GTN you will usually need to have.
further treatment This will be organised by the specialist centre. that you have been registered with, If your hCG level is lower than 5000 you may need to have a second. operation to empty your uterus womb However further. treatment usually involves drugs chemotherapy One in seven. 15 women who have a complete mole and 1 in 200 0 5. women who have a partial mole will need chemotherapy. The most frequently used chemotherapy methotrexate does not. cause sickness or hair loss The side effects that can occur with. methotrexate chemotherapy are generally quite mild producing. sore eyes sore mouth chest and abdominal discomfort. Treatment is continued until 6 weeks after your hCG level has. returned to normal,Will I have another molar pregnancy. The risk of a molar pregnancy happening again is 1 in 80 This. means that for more than 98 out of 100 women 98 their next. pregnancy will not be a molar pregnancy, GTD can sometimes recur after a subsequent healthy pregnancy so. you should contact the specialist centre 6 to 8 weeks after all future. pregnancies whatever the outcome and arrange for a further hCG. blood or urine test,Contacts and further information. Trophoblastic Screening and Treatment Centre,Weston Park Hospital.
Telephone 0114 226 5205,Website www chorio group shef ac uk index html. Gynaecology Assessment Unit,Oldham open all hours,Telephone 0161 627 8855. North Manchester open daily 0730 2100hrs,Telephone 0161 720 2010. Women and Children s Counselling Service,Telephone 0161 720 2969. Miscarriage Association at www miscarriageassociation org uk. Mariposa Trust,www mariposatrust org,Molar pregnancy information and support.
http molarpregnancy co uk,If English is not your frst. language and you need help,please contact the Ethnic Health. Team on 0161 627 8770, Je eli angielski nie jest twoim pierwszym j zykiem i potrzebujesz pomocy prosz skontaktowa. si z za og Ethnic Health pod numerem telefonu 0161 627 8770. For general enquiries please contact the Patient,Advice and Liaison Service PALS on 0161 604 5897. For enquiries regarding clinic appointments clinical care and. treatment please contact 0161 624 0420 and the Switchboard. Operator will put you through to the correct department service. Date of publication November 2018,Date of review November 2018.
Date of next review November 2020,Ref PI WC 030,The Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust. Wood pulp sourced from,sustainable forests www pat nhs uk.

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