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578 587 Chapter 17 10 21 02 5 36 PM Page 579,Page 2 of 10. JAPANESE ADVANCES In the first six months after Pearl. Harbor the Japanese conquered an empire that dwarfed HISTORICAL. Hitler s Third Reich On the Asian mainland Japanese. troops overran Hong Kong French Indochina Malaya S P O TLIG H T. Burma Thailand and much of China They also swept, south and east across the Pacific conquering the Dutch East NAVAJO CODE TALKERS. Indies Guam Wake Island the Solomon Islands and On each of the Pacific islands. countless other outposts in the ocean including two that American troops stormed in. World War II the Japanese heard, islands in the Aleutian chain which were part of Alaska a strange language gurgling in. In the Philippines 80 000 American and Filipino their radio headsets The code. Background troops battled the Japanese for control At the time of the seemed to have Asian overtones. Allied forces held Japanese invasion in December 1941 General Douglas but it baffled everyone who heard. out against it In fact the language was,MacArthur was in command of Allied forces on the. 200 000 invading Navajo which was spoken only in, Japanese troops islands When American and Filipino forces found them.
the American Southwest and tra, for four months on selves with their backs to the wall on Bataan President ditionally had no alphabet or other. the Bataan Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to leave On March 11 1942 written symbols Its hiddenness. Peninsula Hunger made it a perfect candidate for a. MacArthur left the Philippines with his wife his son and. disease and, his staff As he left he pledged to the many thousands of code language. bombardments,Though the Navajo had no, killed 14 000 men who did not make it out I shall return. words for combat terms they,Allied troops and, wounded 48 000 DOOLITTLE S RAID In the spring of 1942 the Allies began developed terms such as chicken. to turn the tide against the Japanese The push began on hawk for divebomber and war. chief for commanding general, April 18 with a daring raid on Tokyo and other Japanese.
Throughout the Pacific cam, cities Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle led 16 bombers in paign from Midway to Iwo. the attack The next day Americans awoke to headlines that Jima the code talkers were. read Tokyo Bombed Doolittle Do od It Pulling off a Pearl considered indispensable to the. Harbor style air raid over Japan lifted America s sunken war effort They finally received. spirits At the same time it dampened spirits in Japan national recognition in 1969. BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA The main Allied, forces in the Pacific were Americans and Australians. In May 1942 they succeeded in stopping the Japanese. drive toward Australia in the five day Battle of the. Coral Sea During this battle the fighting was done. by airplanes that took off from enormous aircraft car. riers Not a single shot was fired by surface ships For. the first time since Pearl Harbor a Japanese invasion. had been stopped and turned back,THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY Japan s next thrust was. toward Midway a strategic island which lies north,west of Hawaii Here again the Allies succeeded in. A Answer stopping the Japanese Americans had broken the. Both were sur, Japanese code and knew that Midway was to be their.
prise naval,attacks that next target, resulted in sub Admiral Chester Nimitz the commander of. stantial destruc American naval forces in the Pacific moved to defend. tion of the, the island On June 3 1942 his scout planes found the Japanese fleet The Four hundred. enemy s fleet, Americans sent torpedo planes and dive bombers to the attack The Japanese were Navajo were. caught with their planes still on the decks of their carriers The results were dev recruited into the. MAIN IDEA Marine Corps as, astating By the end of the Battle of Midway the Japanese had lost four aircraft. code talkers, Comparing carriers a cruiser and 250 planes In the words of a Japanese official at Midway.
Their primary duty, A In what ways the Americans had avenged Pearl Harbor A was transmitting. were the American, The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the Pacific War Soon the telephone and. victory at Midway, and the Japanese Allies began island hopping Island by island they won territory back from the radio messages. triumph at Pearl Japanese With each island Allied forces moved closer to Japan. Harbor alike,The United States in World War II 579. 578 587 Chapter 17 10 21 02 5 37 PM Page 580,Page 3 of 10.
War in the Pacific and in Europe,U S surrenders Bataan in the Philippines. Allies turn back Japanese fleet in Battle of the Coral Sea. U S declares Allies defeat Japan in Battle of Midway. PACIFIC war on Japan,U S Marines land on Guadalcanal. 1941 Apr Jun Dec 1942 Apr May Jun Aug Nov 1943 Feb May. EUROPE Germany invades the Germany and Italy declare Hitler orders Allies land in German Axis. Union war on the United States attack on North Africa troops sur. Germany invades Greece Stalingrad render at surrender. and Yugoslavia Stalingrad in North,World War II The War in the Pacific 1942 1945. Bering Sea,U NIO N nds,MANCHURIA a,r il eI 45 N,Beijing aid Ap S. JAPAN oolit,CHINA PACIFIC OCEAN,Aug 9 1945,Allied air supply Hiroshima.
Battle of Midway,route to China June 1942,Chongqing Shanghai Aug 6 1945. Kohima Ledo Road Okinawa Iwo Jima,Imphal Kunming April June Feb Mar 1945. INDIA Burma Road 1945 Pearl Harbor,Formosa Tropic of Cancer. Hong Kong Mariana Wake I,Rangoon Luzon PHILIPPINES Hawaiian Is. THAILAND Manila U S,Philippine Sea Tinian I Saipan.
15 N June 1944 15 N,June July 1944,INDOCHINA Mindoro Enewetak. South July Aug Feb 1944,China 1944 Marshall Is,Sea Palau I Caroline Is Kwajalein. BRUNEI Peleliu Jan Feb 1944,Leyte Gulf,Sept Nov 1944 Japanese Empire and conquest. Singapore Major Allied campaign,Tarawa Gilbert Is,Borneo Hollandia Nov 1943. Limit of Japanese advance,Bougainville,New Guinea Rabaul Mar 1944.
D U T C H E A S T I N D I E S,Atomic bombing,PAPUA Solomon Is. Major battle,Guadalcanal,Coral Sea Aug 1942 Feb 1943 0 800 1 600 miles. INDIAN OCEAN May 1942,15 S 0 800 1 600 kilometers,Coral Sea Fiji Is. GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER,1 Movement Which island served as a jump. ing off point for several Pacific battles, 2 Human Environment Interaction How 165 E 180 165 W 150 W.
do you think the distances between the,Pacific islands affected U S naval strategy. 580 CHAPTER 17,578 587 Chapter 17 10 21 02 5 37 PM Page 581. Page 4 of 10,Allies capture Okinawa,U S drops atomic bombs on. Allies win Battle of,Allies win Battle,Allies capture Hiroshima and Nagasaki. the Philippine Sea of Leyte Gulf Japan surrenders, Jul Sep 1944 May Jun Jul Aug Oct Dec 1945 Mar Apr May Jun Aug Sep 1946.
Allies Italy secretly Germans attack Allies V E,Allies liberate Paris in. Day ends war in Europe,invade surrenders Battle of the Bulge. Soviets first liberate death camps Italians execute Mussolini. Sicily to Allies, Allies invade Europe on D Day Hitler commits suicide. Bloody Anzio ends,The Allies Go on the Offensive, The first Allied offensive began in August 1942 when 19 000 troops stormed. Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands By the time the Japanese abandoned. Guadalcanal six months later they called it the Island of Death To war corre. spondent Ralph Martin and the troops who fought there it was simply hell. A PERSONAL VOICE RALPH G MARTIN, Hell was red furry spiders as big as your fist giant lizards as long as your leg.
leeches falling from trees to suck blood armies of white ants with a bite of fire. scurrying scorpions inflaming any flesh they touched enormous rats and bats. everywhere and rivers with waiting crocodiles Hell was the sour foul smell of the. squishy jungle humidity that rotted a body within hours stinking wet heat of. dripping rain forests that sapped the strength of any man. The GI War, Skillbuilder Guadalcanal marked Japan s first defeat on land but not its last The. 1 Guam Americans continued leapfrogging across the Pacific toward Japan and in October. 2 The distances 1944 some 178 000 Allied troops and 738 ships converged on Leyte Island in the. meant that the Philippines General MacArthur who had left the Philippines two years earlier. Allies had to waded ashore and announced People of the Philippines I have returned. leapfrog from kamikaze pilots, one island to THE JAPANESE DEFENSE The Japanese threw their entire fleet into the Battle receive a briefing. another causing of Leyte Gulf They also tested a new tactic the kamikaze k QmGk PzC or on the mission. great difficulties that would be, in transporting suicide plane attack in which Japanese pilots crashed their bomb laden planes. into Allied ships Kamikaze means divine wind and refers to a legendary their last. goods and men,typhoon that saved Japan in 1281 by destroying. a Mongol invasion In the Philippines 424,kamikaze pilots embarked on suicide missions.
B Answer sinking 16 ships and damaging another 80, The battle was a Americans watched these terrifying attacks. disaster for with a strange mixture of respect and pity. Japan From, then on the according to Vice Admiral Charles Brown You. Imperial Navy have to admire the devotion to country demon. played only a strated by those pilots recalled Seaman George. minor role in the Marse Yet when they were shot down rescued. defense of, Japan and brought aboard our ship we were surprised. to find the pilots looked like ordinary scared, MAIN IDEA young men not the wide eyed fanatical devils. Drawing we imagined them to be, Conclusions Despite the damage done by the kamikazes the Battle of Leyte Gulf was a dis.
B Why was the, aster for Japan In three days of battle it lost 3 battleships 4 aircraft carriers 13. Battle of Leyte, Gulf so crucial to cruisers and almost 500 planes From then on the Imperial Navy played only a. the Allies minor role in the defense of Japan B,The United States in World War II 581. 578 587 Chapter 17 10 21 02 5 37 PM Page 582,Page 5 of 10. History Through,RAISING THE FLAG ON IWO JIMA, On February 19 1945 the war in Europe was nearing its end but.
in the Pacific one of the fiercest battles of World War II was about. to erupt On that day 70 000 marines converged on the tiny. Japanese controlled island of Iwo Jima Four days later they had. captured Mount Suribachi the island s highest point but the battle. for Iwo Jima would rage on for four more weeks,Photographer Lou Lowery documented the men. of Easy Company hoisting an American flag on,a makeshift pole atop Mount Suribachi But the. original flag was soon taken down to be kept as,a souvenir by the commanding officer. Six marines were sent to replace the flag with an even SKILLBUILDER Interpeting Visual Sources. larger one Joe Rosenthal a wire service photographer 1 One of the Mount Suribachi images became one of the most. saw the second flag raising grabbed his camera and recognized most reproduced images of World War II Study the. clicked off a frame without even looking through his details and point of view in each photo Explain why you think. viewfinder Rosenthal s photo appeared the next morning Rosenthal s image rather than Lowery s became important. on the front pages of American newspapers In the minds 2 What human qualities or events do you think Rosenthal s. of Americans it immediately replaced the gloomy blurred photograph symbolizes. images of Pearl Harbor going up in flames,SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK PAGE R23. 582 CHAPTER 17,578 587 Chapter 17 10 21 02 5 37 PM Page 583.
Page 6 of 10, IWO JIMA After retaking much of the Philippines and lib. KEY PLAYER, erating the American prisoners of war there MacArthur and. the Allies turned to Iwo Jima an island that writer William. Manchester later described as an ugly smelly glob of cold. lava squatting in a surly ocean Iwo Jima which means. sulfur island in Japanese was critical to the United States. as a base from which heavily loaded bombers might reach. Japan It was also perhaps the most heavily defended spot. on earth with 20 700 Japanese troops entrenched in tun. nels and caves More than 6 000 marines died taking this. desolate island the greatest number in any battle in the. Pacific to that point Only 200 Japanese survived Just one. obstacle now stood between the Allies and a final assault on. Japan the island of Okinawa DOUGLAS MACARTHUR,THE BATTLE FOR OKINAWA In April 1945 U S Marines. Douglas MacArthur was too arro, invaded Okinawa The Japanese unleashed more than 1 900 gant and prickly to be considered. kamikaze attacks on the Allies during the Okinawa cam a regular guy by his troops But. paign sinking 30 ships damaging more than 300 more he was arguably the most brilliant. and killing almost 5 000 seamen Allied strategist of World War II. For every American soldier killed, Once ashore the Allies faced even fiercer opposition.
in his campaigns the Japanese, than on Iwo Jima By the time the fighting ended on lost ten. June 21 1945 more than 7 600 Americans had died But He was considered a real hero. the Japanese paid an even ghastlier price 110 000 lives of the war both by the military. in defending Okinawa This total included two generals and by the prisoners on the. who chose ritual suicide over the shame of surrender A wit Philippines whom he freed. MacArthur took more territory, MAIN IDEA ness to this ceremony described their end A simultaneous with less loss of life observed. Drawing shout and a flash of the sword and both generals had journalist John Gunther than any. Conclusions nobly accomplished their last duty to their Emperor military commander since Darius. C Why was the Great king of Persia, The Battle for Okinawa was a chilling foretaste of what. Okinawa a 522 486 B C,significant island, the Allies imagined the invasion of Japan s home islands. in the war in the would be Churchill predicted the cost would be a million. Pacific American lives and half that number of British lives C. It was the last,island that stood The Atomic Bomb Ends the War.
between the, Allies and a final The taking of Iwo Jima and Okinawa opened the way for an invasion of Japan. assault on, Japan The However Allied leaders knew that such an invasion would become a desperate. battle itself was struggle Japan still had a huge army that would defend every inch of homeland. a foretaste of President Truman saw only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan He decided to. what the Allies use a powerful new weapon that had been developed by scientists working on the. imagined the, final invasion of Manhattan Project the atomic bomb. Japan would be THE MANHATTAN PROJECT Led by General Leslie Groves with research direct. ed by American scientist J Robert Oppenheimer the development of the. atomic bomb was not only the most ambitious scientific enterprise in history it. was also the best kept secret of the war At its peak more than 600 000 Americans. were involved in the project although few knew its purpose Even Truman did. not learn about it until he became president, The first test of the new bomb took place on the morning of July 16 1945 in. an empty expanse of desert near Alamogordo New Mexico A blinding flash. which was visible 180 miles away was followed by a deafening roar as a tremen. dous shock wave rolled across the trembling desert Otto Frisch a scientist on the. project described the huge mushroom cloud that rose over the desert as a red. hot elephant standing balanced on its trunk The bomb worked. The United States in World War II 583,578 587 Chapter 17 10 21 02 5 37 PM Page 584.
Page 7 of 10, President Truman now faced a difficult decision Should the Allies use the. bomb to bring an end to the war Truman did not hesitate On July 25 1945 he. ordered the military to make final plans for dropping two atomic bombs on. Japanese targets A day later the United States warned Japan that it faced prompt. and utter destruction unless it surrendered at once Japan. refused Truman later wrote The final decision of where. and when to use the atomic bomb was up to me Let there. be no mistake about it I regarded the bomb as a military. weapon and never had any doubt that it should be used. HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI On August 6 a B 29, bomber named Enola Gay released an atomic bomb code. named Little Boy over Hiroshima an important, Japanese military center Forty three seconds later almost. every building in the city collapsed into dust from the. force of the blast Hiroshima had ceased to exist Still. Japan s leaders hesitated to surrender Three days later a. second bomb code named Fat Man was dropped on,Nagasaki leveling half the city By the end. of the year an estimated 200 000 people,had died as a result of injuries and radiation.
poisoning caused by the atomic blasts,Yamaoka Michiko was 15 years old and liv. ing near the center of Hiroshima when the,first bomb hit. A PERSONAL VOICE YAMAOKA MICHIKO, They say temperatures of 7 000 degrees centigrade hit me. Nobody there looked like human beings Humans had lost the. ability to speak People couldn t scream It hurts even when they. were on fire People with their legs wrenched off Without. heads Or with faces burned and swollen out of shape The scene I. saw was a living hell,quoted in Japan at War An Oral History. Emperor Hirohito was horrified by the destruction wrought by. the bomb I cannot bear to see my innocent people suffer any. longer he told Japan s leaders tearfully Then he ordered them to. draw up papers to end the,war On September 2 formal.
surrender ceremonies took,place on the U S battleship. Missouri in Tokyo Bay Today,the guns are silent said. General MacArthur in a speech,marking this historic moment. The skies no longer rain,death the seas bear only,commerce men everywhere. walk upright in the sunlight,The entire world is quietly at.
Hiroshima in ruins following,the atomic bomb blast on. August 6 1945,584 CHAPTER 17,578 587 Chapter 17 10 21 02 5 37 PM Page 585. Page 8 of 10,P O I N T COUNTERPOINT, The only way to end the war against Japan was to Japan s staggering losses were enough to force. bomb the Japanese mainland Japan s surrender, Many advisors to President Truman including Secretary Many of the scientists who had worked on the bomb as. of War Henry Stimson had this point of view They felt well as military leaders and civilian policymakers had. the bomb would end the war and save American lives doubts about using it Dr Leo Szilard a Hungarian born. Stimson said The face of war is the face of death physicist who had helped President Roosevelt launch. Some scientists working on the bomb agreed the project and who had a major role in developing the. even more so as the casualty figures from Iwo Jima bomb was a key figure opposing its use. and Okinawa sank in Are we to go on shedding A petition drawn up by Szilard and signed by 70. American blood when we have available a means to a other scientists argued that it would be immoral to drop. steady victory they petitioned No If we can save an atomic bomb on Japan without fair warning Many. even a handful of American lives then let us use this supported staging a demonstration of the bomb for. weapon now Japanese leaders perhaps by exploding one on a. Two other concerns pushed Americans to use the deserted island near Japan to convince the Japanese. bomb Some people feared that if the bomb were not to surrender. dropped the project might be viewed as a gigantic Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight D. waste of money Eisenhower agreed He maintained that dropping the. The second consideration involved the Soviet bomb was completely unnecessary to save American. Union Tension and distrust were already developing lives and that Japan was already defeated Ike told. between the Western Secretary of War Henry, Allies and the Soviets THINKING CRITICALLY Stimson I was against it.
Some American officials the bomb on two counts, believed that a success 1 CONNECT TO HISTORY Summarizing What were the First the Japanese were. ful use of the atomic main arguments for and against dropping the atomic ready to surrender and it. bomb would give the bomb on Japan wasn t necessary to hit. United States a powerful SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK PAGE R4 them with that awful thing. advantage over the Second I hated to see our,2 CONNECT TO TODAY Evaluating Decisions Do you. Soviets in shaping the country be the first to use. think the United States was justified in using the bomb. postwar world such a weapon, against the Japanese In a paragraph explain why or. Rebuilding Begins, With Japan s surrender the Allies turned to the challenge of rebuilding war torn. nations Even before the last guns fell silent they began thinking about principles. D Answer that would govern the postwar world, wanted Soviet THE YALTA CONFERENCE In February 1945 as the Allies pushed toward victo.
help in the war ry in Europe an ailing Roosevelt had met with Churchill and Stalin at the Black. against Japan Sea resort city of Yalta in the Soviet Union Stalin graciously welcomed the presi. He also wanted dent and the prime minister and the Big Three as they were called toasted the. Soviet coopera, tion in establish defeat of Germany that now seemed certain. ing the United For eight grueling days the three leaders discussed the fate of Germany and the. Nations postwar world Stalin his country devastated by German forces favored a harsh. approach He wanted to keep Germany divided into occupation zones areas. controlled by Allied military forces so that Germany would never again threaten. the Soviet Union, D Why was When Churchill strongly disagreed Roosevelt acted as a mediator He was. Roosevelt anxious prepared to make concessions to Stalin for two reasons First he hoped that the. to make Soviet Union would stand by its commitments to join the war against Japan that. concessions to, was still waging in the Pacific The first test of the atom bomb was still five. Stalin concerning, the fate of postwar months away Second Roosevelt wanted Stalin s support for a new world peace. Germany keeping organization to be named the United Nations D. The United States in World War II 585,578 587 Chapter 17 10 21 02 5 37 PM Page 586.
Page 9 of 10, The historic meeting at Yalta produced a series of compromises To pacify. Stalin Roosevelt convinced Churchill to agree to a temporary division of. Germany into four zones one each for the Americans the British the Soviets. and the French Churchill and Roosevelt assumed that in time all the zones. would be brought together in a reunited Germany For his part Stalin promised. free and unfettered elections in Poland and other Soviet occupied Eastern. European countries, Stalin also agreed to join in the war against Japan That struggle was expected. to continue for another year or more In addition he agreed to participate in an MAIN IDEA. international conference to take place in April in San Francisco There Roosevelt s Summarizing. dream of a United Nations UN would become a reality E E What. decisions did, THE NUREMBERG WAR TRIALS Besides geographic division Germany had Roosevelt. another price to pay for its part in the war The discovery of Hitler s death camps Churchill and. led the Allies to put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against human Stalin make at the. ity crimes against the peace and war crimes The trials were held in the southern Yalta Conference. German town of Nuremberg E Answer,They agreed to, At the Nuremberg trials the defendants included Hitler s most trusted a temporary. party officials government ministers military leaders and powerful industrial division of. ists As the trial began U S Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson explained the Germany into. significance of the event four zones,Stalin promised.
that Soviet,A PERSONAL VOICE ROBERT JACKSON occupied. The wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated so Eastern. European coun, malignant and so devastating that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored tries would have. because it cannot survive their being repeated It is hard now to perceive in free elections. these miserable men the power by which as Nazi leaders they once dominated Stalin agreed to. much of the world and terrified most of it Merely as individuals their fate is of send troops to. little consequence to the world What makes this inquest significant is that defeat Japan. Stalin agreed to, these prisoners represent sinister influences that will lurk in the world long after the establish. their bodies have returned to dust They are living symbols of racial hatreds of ment of the. terrorism and violence and of the arrogance and cruelty of power Civilization United Nations. can afford no compromise with the social forces which would gain renewed. strength if we deal ambiguously or indecisively with the men in whom those. forces now precariously survive, quoted in opening address to the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial. War Criminals on Trial 1945 1949,Each defendant at the Nuremberg trials was.
accused of one or more of the following,Crimes Against the Peace planning and. waging an aggressive war,War Crimes acts against the customs of. warfare such as the killing of hostages and,prisoners the plundering of private property. and the destruction of towns and cities,Crimes Against Humanity the murder. extermination deportation or enslavement,of civilians.
586 CHAPTER 17,578 587 Chapter 17 10 21 02 5 37 PM Page 587. Page 10 of 10, In the end 12 of the 24 defendants were sentenced to death and most of the. remaining were sent to prison In later trials of lesser leaders nearly 200 more. Nazis were found guilty of war crimes Still many people have argued that the trials. did not go far enough in seeking out and punishing war criminals Many Nazis. who took part in the Holocaust did indeed go free, Yet no matter how imperfect the trials might have been they did I was only. establish an important principle the idea that individuals are. responsible for their own actions even in times of war Nazi execu. tioners could not escape punishment by claiming that they were. merely following orders The principle of individual responsibility DEFENDANTS AT THE. NUREMBERG TRIALS,was now firmly entrenched in international law. THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN Japan was occupied by U S forces under the com. mand of General Douglas MacArthur In the early years of the occupation more. than 1 100 Japanese from former Prime Minister Hideki Tojo to lowly prison. guards were arrested and put on trial Seven including Tojo were sentenced to. death In the Philippines in China and in other Asian battlegrounds additional. Japanese officials were tried for atrocities against civilians or prisoners of war. During the seven year American occupation MacArthur reshaped Japan s. economy by introducing free market practices that led to a remarkable economic. recovery MacArthur also worked to transform Japan s government He called for. a new constitution that would provide for woman suffrage and guarantee basic. freedoms In the United States Americans followed these changes with interest. The New York Times reported that General MacArthur has swept away an. autocratic regime by a warrior god and installed in its place a democratic gov. ernment presided over by a very human emperor and based on the will of the. people as expressed in free elections The Japanese apparently agreed To this. day their constitution is known as the MacArthur Constitution. 1 TERMS NAMES For each term or name write a sentence explaining its significance. Douglas MacArthur Battle of Midway J Robert Oppenheimer Nagasaki. Chester Nimitz kamikaze Hiroshima Nuremberg trials. MAIN IDEA CRITICAL THINKING, 2 TAKING NOTES 3 DEVELOPING HISTORICAL 5 EVALUATING DECISIONS.
Using a chart such as the one PERSPECTIVE Is it legitimate to hold people. below describe the significance of At the trials many Nazis defended accountable for crimes committed. key military actions in the Pacific themselves by saying they were only during wartime Why or why not. during World War II following orders What does this Think About. rationale tell you about the German the laws that govern society. Military Action Significance military Why was it important to the likelihood of conducting a. 1 negate this justification fair trial, 2 4 DRAWING CONCLUSIONS the behavior of soldiers politi. Explain how the United States was cians and civilians during war. 3 able to defeat the Japanese in the,Which military action was a turning. point for the Allies,The United States in World War II 587.

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