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The Theory of Mind Test TOM Test
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Some Background About Theory of Mind, Other types of behavior that require theory of mind. Intentionally communicating with others Here communication refers to the acts undertaken to change the. knowledge stateof the listener A dog who is barking at a cat may not intend to change the knowledge state of the. cat but simply to make the cat run away To intentionally inform others requires the belief that others have minds. that can be informed, Repairing failed communication It requires a theory of mind to understand that a message may not be understood. and the message needs to be communicated again in a different way. Teaching others When teaching one wants to change the knowledge state of a less knowledgeable listener. Intentionally persuading others Persuading is changing someone else s belief about something Although the goal is. often to change the behavior of the other it is realized by changing the belief and intention state of the other. Intentionally deceiving others As above intentionally deceiving others has as goal to change the belief state of the. other In contrast an animal with camoflage whose appearance saves it from being eaten by a predator is not. engaging in a deception that requires theory of mind. Building shared plans and goals When sharing a goal with another person both must recognize the intention of the. other and work out how to coordinate their actions with those of the other to achieve the shared goal Animals. hunting in packs may seem to work together but often they fail at building shared plans and goals. Intentionally sharing a focus or topic of attention Looking at the same target at the same time is not shared. attention if each is only aware of his own point of view Shared attention requires a theory of mind only if both. individuals are aware of the other being aware of looking at the same target. Pretending is to temporarily treat an object as if it were another or as if it had attributes that it clearly does not. have It requires theory of mind in the sense that the pretender has to switch between thinking about his own. knowledge of the real identity and the pretend identity. From http www rinekeverbrugge nl PDF Supervisor 20for 20Masters 20Students ThesisLisePijl 20 1 pdf. The Sally Ann Story A classic false belief task that children should pass around the age of 4. Sally places her marble in a basket covers the basket and departs After Sally has departed Ann moves the marble from. the basket and places it in the box The subject is then asked where Sally would look for the marble when she comes. back To pass this task the subject must attribute a false belief to Sally that the marble is in the basket and predict her to. look there Around at the age of 4 children become able to pass this task and also show in a variety of other tasks that. they have developed an ability to understand others mental states Level II. Level II Example First order belief The story is about John and Mary who are both interested in the location of an ice cream. van They are both at the park when it is announced that the van will stay in the park for the afternoon However when Mary is on. her way home and John is still at the park it is announced in the park that the van will be at the church for the rest of the day So. Mary does not know that the ice cream van moved to the church Where does Mary go when she wants to get an ice cream If we. use our theory of mind capabilities we would answer that Mary will go to the park After all she does not know that the ice. cream van moved to the church She thinks the van is in the park. Level III Example Second order belief When Mary is on her way home she meets the ice cream van at a stop light Mary. asks the driver where he is going and he answers that he will be at the church for the rest of the day Where does John think Mary. thinks the ice cream van will be during the rest of the day John does not know that Mary knows that the van will be at the. church He believes that Mary believes that the ice cream van is still at the park Therefore we think that John will think that Mary. thinks that the ice cream van is still at the church This is an example of second order theory of mind or second order belief. attribution because we have to access two mental states John s mental state of Mary s mental state to answer the question. Humor Level III Mind Reading Hypothesis suggests that all humor involves an observer reading the mind of the target of humor. and making the observation that the target of humor resolves the collision between old perception and new reality Surprise. Theory Listeners are led to expect one outcome but encounter an unexpected outcome which they must make sense of i e My. wife and I were happy for twenty years Then we met Rodney Dangerfield Incongruity Theory Incongruity occurs when an. observed situation contains some aspects that are not expected to occur together i e When I was growing up we had a petting zoo. and well we had two sections We had a petting zoo and then we had a heavy petting zoo For people who really like the animals a. lot Ellen DeGeneres From http www epjournal net wp content uploads ep01214253 pdf. Complete information at Muris P Steerneman P Meesters Merckelbach C Horselenberg R van den Hogen T van Dongen L 1999 The. TOM Test A new instrument for assessing theory of mind in normal children and children with pervasive developmental disorders Journal of Autism. and Developmental Disorders Vol 29 1 p 67 78 http www autism community com wp content uploads 2010 11 TOM Test Relibility pdf. The Theory of Mind Test TOM Test Items Show drawing as you present questions Cover all items not currently presented. Item 1 Item 2,I will read you a short story,Listen carefully. Pat is one year old He s at home,playing on the floor Mother has given. him a piece of apple Suddenly Pat bites,his lip and he starts to cry He throws.
the piece of apple on the floor Mother,lifts Pat up comforts him and puts the. piece of apple on the table,When father arrives at home mother is. on the phone Father lifts Pat up and,hugs him Then he puts Pat back on the. floor and gives him the piece of apple,which is still lying on the table As soon. as Pat sees the piece of apple he starts,Item 3 Item 4.
Story Item 3,The two boys,foreground,gossip about,approaches. hears what,The two boys,are startled, Complete information at Muris P Steerneman P Meesters Merckelbach C Horselenberg R van den Hogen T van Dongen L 1999 The. TOM Test A new instrument for assessing theory of mind in normal children and children with pervasive developmental disorders Journal of Autism. and Developmental Disorders Vol 29 1 p 67 78 http www autism community com wp content uploads 2010 11 TOM Test Relibility pdf. The Theory of Mind Test TOM Test Items Show drawing as you present questions Cover all items not currently presented. Item 5 Item 5,Story for Item 5,This is Ben Ben wants to play with. his bricks blocks,READ QUESTION 5 1 before going on. Ben opens the box of bricks and,surprisingly he finds out that it is.
filled with washing powder laundry,soap He closes the box and opens. the other smaller box There are his,bricks He takes out some bricks and. goes to play with them in his,bedroom Then his brother Tim is. entering the room Tim also wants to,play with bricks. I will read you a short story Listen carefully, Story Father and mother are at a birthday party They only know a few people and think the music is too.
loud Wow says father It s a pleasure to be here, Pretending different actions Read questions to student. Combing hair brushing teeth feeling cold feeling scared. I will read you a short story Listen carefully,Story for Item 8 This is John John often dreams. Sometimes he dreams about a new bike that he would like. READ QUESTION 8 1 before going on, Sometimes John has a frightening dream Then he dreams. about shadows,I will read you a short story Listen carefully. Story It is summer Will and Mike are on vacation They go. out for a bicycle ride Suddenly there is a downpour and. they have to find shelter in a bus station There are two. men in the bus station who also shelter from the rain One. of the men remarks Wow we have nice weather today, Complete information at Muris P Steerneman P Meesters Merckelbach C Horselenberg R van den Hogen T van Dongen L 1999 The.
TOM Test A new instrument for assessing theory of mind in normal children and children with pervasive developmental disorders Journal of Autism. and Developmental Disorders Vol 29 1 p 67 78 http www autism community com wp content uploads 2010 11 TOM Test Relibility pdf. The Theory of Mind Test TOM Test, Developed 1999 by Muris Steerneman Meesters Merckelbach Horselenberg van den Hogen van Dongen. Formatted 2013 by Karen L Anderson PhD Supporting Success for Children with Hearing Loss. Student name Date School Evaluator, Show item drawing and or read story then present item questions below Test administrator determines answer appropriateness. Question If the student has answered correctly circle the X under the TOM stage TOM 1 TOM 2 TOM 3. 1 1 What has happened Can you tell me something about it describe fire and people X. 1 2 Who in this picture is afraid mom and child in house X. 1 3 Why is this person afraid house is burning they are trapped X. 1 4 Who in this picture is happy boy looking at fire truck X. 1 5 Why is this person happy he likes fire trucks X. 1 6 Who in this picture is sad boy in front of house waving at fire truck X. 1 7 Why is this person sad fire truck is not putting the fire out yet people in danger X. 1 8 Who in this picture is angry fire truck driver X. 1 9 Why is this person angry car in the way X, 2 1 Why is Pat crying when father gives him the piece of apple bit his lip eating apple X. 2 2 Does father know why Pat is crying no X, 2 3 Does father know that Pat has bitten his lip when he wanted to eat the apple no X. 3 1 What do you think is happening in this picture X. 3 2 How does this boy feel boy in background sad etc X. 3 3 How does this boy feel one of boys in foreground surprised ashamed etc X. 4 1 What has happened in this picture girl has fallen down and hurt his knee X. 4 2 How do you feel when you hurt yourself in pain sad X. 4 3 Can you see from the girl s face how she really feels she looks happy laughing etc X. 4 4 Is it possible to look happy when you have hurt yourself no X. 5 1 Which box will Ben open to play with his bricks blocks X. 5 2 Which box will Tim open to play with his bricks blocks X. 5 3 Do you know where the bricks blocks really are X. 6 1 What does father mean sarcasm X, 6 2 Why does father say It s a pleasure to be here sarcasm saying opposite X.
7 1 Pretend to comb your hair X,7 2 Pretend to brush your teeth X. 7 3 Pretend to act as if you are feeling cold X,7 4 How can I see that you are feeling cold X. 7 5 Pretend that you drinking something that tastes nasty X. 7 6 How can I see that you think it tastes nasty X. 7 7 Pretend that you are scared X,7 8 How can I see that you are scared X. Total of correct circled responses for each TOM stage for Items 1 7. Continue to next page for questions to Items 8 and 9. Complete information at Muris P Steerneman P Meesters Merckelbach C Horselenberg R van den Hogen T van Dongen L 1999 The. TOM Test A new instrument for assessing theory of mind in normal children and children with pervasive developmental disorders Journal of Autism. and Developmental Disorders Vol 29 1 p 67 78 http www autism community com wp content uploads 2010 11 TOM Test Relibility pdf. The Theory of Mind Test TOM Test, Developed 1999 by Muris Steerneman Meesters Merckelbach Horselenberg van den Hogen van Dongen. Formatted 2013 by Karen L Anderson PhD Supporting Success for Children with Hearing Loss. Student name Date School Evaluator, Present the questions below to the student The test administrator decides if student answers are appropriate complete.
Question If the student has answered correctly circle the X under the TOM stage TOM 1 TOM 2 TOM 3. 8 1 Is John able to touch the bike that he dreams about X. 8 2 Does John really see these shadows with his eyes X. 8 3 Can somebody else see the shadows or the bike of John s dreams X. 9 1 What does the man mean X,9 2 Is it true what the man says X. 9 3 Why does the man say Wow we have nice weather today X. Total of correct responses for each TOM stage for Items 1 7. Transfer total of correct circled responses for each TOM stage for Items 1 7 from prior page. TOTAL OF EACH TOM STAGE,Add the totals of each TOM stage together for the. TOTAL TOM TEST SCORE,The Theory of Mind Test TOM Test Interpretation. Total all questions answered correctly Score range 95 confidence interval A child with typical development of. theory of mind will have scores that fall into the specified score range for their age group. Age 5 6 Age 7 8 Age 9 10 Age 11 12, Mean Score Range Mean Score Range Mean Score Range Mean Score Range. 43 38 47 60 59 64 64 61 67 68 65 71, Score range of typically developing children of the student s age is.
Student s score is The student s score is in the appropriate development range YES NO. Plot the students score for each TOM stage on the,graph as a visual comparison of student theory of. mind as compared to typically developing age peers. Using the test examples of each item missed and the. descriptions of the TOM stages integrate TOM activities. in the delayed skills areas into conversations with. The success percentage by age chart was based on 10 typically. developing children at each age range The TOM Test has. acceptable psychometrics for use as an assessment to indicate. relative performance of a child in comparison to typically. developing age peers Refer to the article for more information. The 95 confidence levels in the above chart were calculated based on the information provided. Complete information at Muris P Steerneman P Meesters Merckelbach C Horselenberg R van den Hogen T van Dongen L 1999 The. TOM Test A new instrument for assessing theory of mind in normal children and children with pervasive developmental disorders Journal of Autism. and Developmental Disorders Vol 29 1 p 67 78 http www autism community com wp content uploads 2010 11 TOM Test Relibility pdf.


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