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The Structure of Social and Information Networks
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Information,about the Course,Lectures Maria Grineva. Exercises and Assistance,Kyumars Sheykh Esmaili,Language English. Course webpage,https www systems ethz ch education. fs11 struct social inf networks, 23 Feb 2011 2 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 2,Lectures and Exercises Schedule.
Lectures Wed 13 15 15 00,Exercises Wed 15 15 16 00. No lecture and exercises on 27 Apr Easter, 23 Feb 2011 3 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 3,Kyumars Sheykh Esmaili kyumarss inf ethz ch. Break up into groups of 2 3 students,Written exercises tasks every 2 week. First set of exercises will be given on the next,lecture 2nd March Solutions will be discussed in.
two weeks 16th March and so on,Send your solutions to Kyumars during two weeks. Deadline 12am Wednesday two weeks after exercises,were given. 23 Feb 2011 4 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 4,Paper Presentations, List of academic papers related to the course on the. course page, https www systems ethz ch education fs11 struct social inf networks papers. Every 2 weeks exercise session contains 2 paper,presentations 20 mins each.
Break up into groups of 2 3 students, Choose a paper and a date for the presentation see. table with dates presentations on the course page,Send this information to Kyumars. 23 Feb 2011 5 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 5,Exams and Grading,The exam will be written and in English. The Exam will be in August date to be,60 written exam. 20 exercises,20 paper presentation,Exercises and at least one paper presentation.
are necessary for taking the exam, 23 Feb 2011 6 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 6,Text Book and,Additional Readings. David Easley and Jon Kleinberg,Networks Crowds and Markets Reasoning. about a Highly Connected World,You can download the book PDF find. the link on course web page,Additional readings list of papers for.
presentations at the course webpage, https www systems ethz ch education fs11 struct social. inf networks papers, 23 Feb 2011 7 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 7,Should you have any questions. Kyumars Sheykh Esmaili,CAB F 71 2,kyumarss inf ethz ch. Wednesdays before or after an exercise session,Maria Grineva.
CAB E 72 3,maria grineva inf ethz ch, 23 Feb 2011 8 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 8,Course Overview,1 Graph Theory. 2 Game Theory,3 Markets and Strategic Interaction in. 4 Information Networks,5 Network Dynamics Population Effects. 6 Network Dynamics Structural Effects, 23 Feb 2011 9 The Structure of Social and Information Networks.
Thursday February 24 2011 9, In this course we will study the structure and behavior of large social and information networks such as the Web. Here are the main topics that will be covered in this course. We begin with the basics of two theories graph theory and game theory Graph theory is the study of network structure while game theory. provides models of individual behavior in settings where outcomes depend on the behavior of others We will then apply both of this theories. for network analysis,Course Overview,Graph Theory, Focus on some of the fundamental ideas of social network analysis. Strong and weak ties principle strong ties represent strong social contact inside tightly linked. regions weak ties cross between these regions,Structural holes. Small world or Six Degrees of Separation phenomena everybody is connected via some. Corporate email communication network among 436 employees of Hewlett Packard Research Lab. 23 Feb 2011 10 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 10, In Graph theory part we will focus on some of the fundamental ideas of social network analysis. The following pictures give hints at some of these ideas. Pic 1 Corporate email communication network We can see how the communication is balanced between staying within small. groups of the networks and cutting across the groups This is an example of much more general principle in social networks. strong ties representing close and frequent social contact tend to be embedded in tightly liked regions of the network while. weak ties representing rare social contact tent to cross between these regions. Strong and weak ties principle So this principle suggests thinking about a social network as a set of dense groups of strong ties. and these groups interact between each other via weak ties. Structural holes Parts of the network that interact very little between each other we call structural holes. In this course we will talk about different advantages for a node or a person in a social network to be inside a group or to span. a structural hole, We will also talk about the small world phenomena In real world social networks all people are connected with each other via.
some surprisingly small number of intermediate steps. Course Overview,Graph Theory, Social network analysis can uncover latent conflicts. The theory of Structural balance reasoning about,possible splits of unions inside a network. Latent conflict at Karate club two non interacting groups tend to split into two separate. 23 Feb 2011 11 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 11, Pic 2 Karate club social network This example shows how it is possible to find out a latent conflict in a social network. On the pic you can see the social network of friendships within 34 person Karate club The people labeled 1 and 34 are central. they have many connections with other people and at the same time they are not friends with each other And most people are. only friends with one or the other of them These two people were the instructor and the student founder of the club. You can see the pattern of non interacting clusters It is a symptom of a conflict between the two groups of this social network. The symptom predicts that later this network can split into two smaller parts. Later in this course we will see how the theory of structural balance can be used to reason about possible splits or unions inside. Course Overview,Game Theory, Group of people must simultaneously choose how to act. knowing that outcome will depend on the decisions made by. all of them,choosing a driving route, bidding in an auction Internet advertising principles.
Strategy each player must commit to a strategy, Payoff each player receives a payoff depending on the. strategies chosen by other players, Equilibrium self reinforcing state of a game when there is. no player with an incentive to change their strategy. 23 Feb 2011 12 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 12, There are settings in which a group of people must simultaneously chose how to act knowing that the outcome will depend on the decisions. made by all of them, For example choosing a driving rout during the time when the traffic is heavy. Another example is bidding in an auction If a seller is trying to sell an item via auction then the success of any of the bidder depends not. only on how she bids but also on how everybody else bid The bidder must take an optimal bidding strategy In this course we will talk about. bidding auctions for internet advertising We will see how the system of internet advertising works and its principles. The goal of this part of the course is to abstract these examples into a common framework In this framework a collection of individuals. choose a strategy and receive a payoff that depends on the strategies chosen by everyone So for our example with choosing a route. strategies for a driver are different routes he can take and the payoff is the resulting travel time For bidding auctions the strategies are the. different choices of how to bid and the payoff is the difference between the price and the real value of the product. The fundamental part of this framework is the notion of equilibrium Equilibrium is a special state of a game when there is no incentive for. any player to change her strategy even if the player knows the strategies of others. Course Overview,Markets and Strategic Interaction in Networks.
Graph theory Game theory models of behavior in network. Medieval trade routes the position in the network gives certain economic advantage. 23 Feb 2011 13 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 13, Once we have developed graph theory and game theory we can combine them to produce richer models of behavior on networks. Look for example at this map of medieval trade routes The network structure encodes a lot about the pattern of trade The success of. participants among other economic factors depends on the position in the network The power of a trader depends on the number of. connections that he has and also on the power of the participants he is connected with. Course Overview,Information Networks, Information on the Web has a fundamental network structure. hyperlink network of liberal and conservative blogs. 23 Feb 2011 14 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 14, The information on the web has a fundamental network structure. Links among Web pages for example can help us to understand how these pages are related how they are grouped into different. communities and which pages are the most prominent. This picture illustrates some of these issues it shows a network of links among American political blogs The image and its layout shows the. clear separation of the blogging network into two large clusters These two clusters turn out to correspond to the sets of liberal and. conservative blogs respectively, The network is too large to be presented in a picture So the researchers conducted a detailed analysis of the raw linkage data underlying the. image And they found out that It is possible to understand how important and influential the blog within each of these clusters. Course Overview,Information Networks,Google uses network structure to evaluate the.
quality and relevance of a Web page, PageRank page is prominent if it receives links from. prominent pages Circularity is a kind of equilibrium in. the link structure,Interaction between search engines and authors of. Web pages gives interesting unexpected effects, Web is not static it adapts to new ranking rules black. SEO search engine optimization Content Farms, 23 Feb 2011 15 The Structure of Social and Information Networks. Thursday February 24 2011 15, Current Web search engines such as Google make extensive use of network structure in evaluating the quality and relevance of Web pages.
For producing search results Google evaluates the prominence of a Web page not simply based on the number of links it receives but based. also on its position in the network, Google s PageRank idea is that the web page is prominent if it receives links from pages that are themselves prominent this is a circular kind. of notion in which prominence is defined in terms of itself but we will see that this circularity can be resolved through definitions that are. based on a kind of equilibrium in the link structure. Another interesting example is the interaction between search engines and the authors of Web pages Whenever Google introduces a new. method for evaluating Web pages deciding which pages to rank highly in its results the creators of Web content react to this they optimize. what they put on the Web page So they try to achieve a high rank under the new method. As a result during the recent years Google implicitly has produced a whole market of SEO based businesses We can see so called Content. Farms companies that produce huge amounts of low quality content in order to get a high rank on some Google results A lot of businesses. use black SEO to get their sites up on Google a lot of effort has been put to cheat the algorithm and this of course pollutes the Web. From this we can understand that changes to a search engine can never be designed under the assumption that the Web will remain static. Rather the Web will adapt to the ways in which search engines evaluate content Search methods must be developed with these feedback. effects in mind In this course we will model and analyze the interaction between search engine and creators of Web pages.


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