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346 D Ames et al Journal of Research in Personality 46 2012 345 349. 1 2 An interaction with verbal expression on in uence and also to interact with verbal expression to affect. in uence We also expect listening to account for at least some. In addition to the predicted main effects of listening and verbal of the effects of agreeableness and openness on in uence control. expression we expect these two dimensions to interact with each ling for any mediating effects of verbal expression. other to affect in uence Tongue tied inarticulate leaders may not. bene t tremendously from heightened listening behavior having a. more limited ability to translate the relational and informational 2 Method. bene ts of listening into persuasive impact In contrast leaders. able to express themselves well may be better positioned to capi 2 1 Participants. talize on the relational and informational bene ts of listening In. short we expect that the in uence power attributable to listening We collected data from 274 students enrolled in a Master of. will accrue more strongly to those better able to express them Business Administration MBA program at an East Coast univer. selves Thus the positive relationship between listening and in u sity Of the sample 109 36 0 were women and participants. ence should be stronger among those relatively high in verbal mean age was 28 29 SD 2 51 years There was no evidence of. expression gender differences in our results therefore we collapsed across. this dimension in the analyses below, 1 3 Listening as a mediator of the relationship between personality. and in uence 2 2 Procedure, Past work has revealed links between each of the Big Five per As part of a course requirement participants were rated on a. sonality dimensions and in uence and related dimensions in par variety of dimensions by several former coworkers Participants. ticular leader effectiveness e g Judge Bono Ilies Gerhardt identi ed informants who then completed anonymous materials. 2002 An important purpose of the present research is to better online On average participants had 3 87 SD 1 69 former work. understand why the Big Five are related to in uence and whether colleagues serve as raters Raters indicated how well they knew. listening might be a mechanism in this link We hypothesize that the target using a four point scale ranging from not well at all. one way in which some of these personality dimensions express 1 to extremely well 4 The average score on the familiarity. themselves in in uence is via listening behavior Hence we predict measure was 3 12 SD 0 46. that listening may at least partly account for the relationship be. tween several of the Big Five dimensions in particular openness. to experience and agreeableness and in uence 2 3 Measures. Openness to experience that is the tendency to be intellectu. ally curious creative insightful and unconventional e g John 2 3 1 In uence. Srivastava 1999 maps in part onto the informational side of lis Former work colleagues rated the participants in uence power. tening Open individuals may appreciate diverse and novel ideas at work using a seven point scale ranging from never 1 to al. and perspectives McCrae 1996 making them willing to elicit ways 7 for four items S he is able to persuade other people. and listen to others points of view Further others may be more and change their opinions S he is able to build coalitions to. comfortable approaching and speaking to open individuals Detert get things done S he is able to build effective working relation. Burris 2007 giving the latter more opportunities to learn and ships with others who have different opinions or interests and S. thereby exercise listening behavior he fails to direct and steer meetings in his her favor reverse. Agreeableness or the tendency to be warm caring and trusting coded. e g Graziano Eisenberg 1997 maps in part onto the relational. side of listening Agreeable individuals are cooperative get along. 2 3 2 Listening, well with others and may be more likely to listen due to their. Raters judged participants listening behavior at work using a. empathy concern for others and trusting nature In organizations. seven point scale ranging from never 1 to always 7 for ve. for example subordinates may perceive agreeable supervisors as. items As a listener s he gets others to open up elaborate and. more approachable putting the supervisor in a listening role with. share information S he listens effectively to criticism and alter. greater frequency and effectiveness Agreeable individuals may. native points of view After listening s he builds on what s he. gain in uence by occupying central roles in social networks Kan. has heard incorporating it into the conversation When someone. fer Tanaka 1993 this effect may be due in part to their ability to. else is speaking s he interrupts and or shows impatience re. listen and forge powerful network connections, verse coded and When someone is speaking s he tends to drift. Thus we expect listening behavior to at least partially mediate. off appearing distracted or inattentive reverse coded. the positive relationships between each of openness and agree. ableness and in uence Moreover and in accordance with our pre. vious reasoning about how listening is distinct from verbal 2 3 3 Verbal expression. expression we expect listening to act as a mediator over and above Raters assessed participants verbal expression behavior at. any mediating effect attributable to verbal expression A priori it is work using a seven point scale ranging from never 1 to al. not clear that listening will mediate the links between the other ways 7 for seven items When making a point s he is concise. Big Five dimensions conscientiousness emotional stability and brief and clear When communicating with others s he is hon. extraversion and in uence Indeed in the case of extraversion est open and candid S he is able to use vivid images and com. we expect that verbal expression though not listening will be a pelling logic and facts to support an argument S he speaks up. mediator In any event we will test for these possibilities on an and shares his her view when it is appropriate S he is unable. exploratory basis to communicate effectively in person with larger groups and audi. In sum all of our predictions are derived from prior theory and ences reverse coded S he does not produce well written work. research which suggest that listening will be positively related to and communications including letters and email reverse coded. in uence for informational and relational reasons We expect lis and The substance of his her messages gets lost because of how. tening to have a distinct effect separate from verbal expression they are communicated reverse coded. D Ames et al Journal of Research in Personality 46 2012 345 349 347. 2 3 4 Big Five personality Table 2, Raters judged participants using Gosling Rentfrow and Regression models predicting in uence. Swann s 2003 validated TIPI measure of the Big Five personality Independent variables b p Model statistics. dimensions agreeableness openness extraversion conscientious Model of simultaneous main effects. ness and emotional stability on a seven point scale ranging from Verbal expression 0 48 01 F 2 272 119 06. disagree strongly 1 to agree strongly 7 including items for Listening 0 30 01 p 01 R sq 47. agreeableness e g S he is sympathetic warm and items for Model including interaction term. openness e g S he is open to new experiences complex Verbal expression 0 50 01 F 3 271 85 19. Listening 0 31 01 p 01 R sq 48,Verbal expression listening 0 14 01. We examined estimates of inter rater agreement for each of the role as a mediator This method also allowed us to gauge the medi. scales within each of the 274 participants including within group ating role of verbal expression. inter rater agreement multi item rWG J James Demaree We conducted ve separate multiple mediation tests one for. Wolf 1984 with a suggested value of 7 All variables met these each of the Big Five As predicted listening emerged as a signi cant. criteria and we therefore averaged rater judgments of targets in mediator of the relationship between agreeableness and in uence. our analyses Means reliabilities and correlations among our mea and between openness and in uence Table 3 controlling for the. sures are shown in Table 1 impact of verbal expression as a mediator In both cases verbal. expression was a signi cant mediator as well, 3 1 Distinct effects As expected the analysis done on extraversion showed that. verbal expression acted as a mediator of its relationship with. A multiple regression in which listening and expressive in uence whereas listening did not Finally the exploratory anal. communication were simultaneously entered as predictors of yses done on conscientiousness and emotional stability showed. in uence showed that both main effects were positively related that both listening and verbal expression emerged as signi cant. to in uence Table 2 In other words and as predicted listening mediators. accounted for variance in in uence over and above the effect of. verbal expression 4 Discussion, 3 2 Interaction with verbal expression Who is in uential and why Without a doubt those who speak. up and who do so well are more in uential But while the expres. In a second regression model we added the interaction be sive aspects of in uence have received a great deal of attention. tween verbal expression and listening to the aforementioned main less focus has been directed to receptive communication behaviors. effects As expected the interaction was signi cant and positive i e listening leaving many questions unanswered Taking as its. Table 2 Fig 1 illustrates the nature of this interaction based on point of departure prior theory and research showing that listening. the procedures recommended by Aiken and West 1991 as is positively related to in uence for both informational and rela. predicted the positive relationship between listening and in u tional reasons the present study sheds light on a number of impor. ence was stronger among those who were seen as more verbally tant questions Does listening matter above and beyond expressive. expressive communication Does listening interact with expressive commu. nication to shape in uence Does listening help account for the. 3 3 Listening as a mediator relationship between personality in particular agreeableness. and openness and in uence, As shown in Table 1 each of the Big Five dimensions was posi The answer to all three questions is yes First we found that. tively correlated with in uence consistent with the meta analytic people s listening tendencies are positively related to in uence. results of Judge et al 2002 To test our predictions that listening over and above the impact of verbal expression Second we found. would at least partly mediate the links between agreeableness and that in addition to their main effects listening and verbal. openness as independent variables and in uence as the depen expression interacted such that the positive relationship between. dent variable we conducted multiple mediation models following listening and in uence was shown more strongly by those higher. the method outlined by Preacher and Hayes 2008 Listening and in verbal expression Third we found that listening partly. verbal expression were examined simultaneously as mediators mediated the relationships between each of openness and. thereby enabling us to evaluate whether listening has a distinct agreeableness and in uence. Means reliabilities and correlations,Variable Mean SD a items Correlations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7,1 Verbal expression 5 86 50 75 7,2 Listening 5 75 58 79 5 51. 3 In uence 5 54 53 69 4 63 54,4 Agreeableness 5 66 91 53 2 16 57 36. 5 Openness 6 05 65 62 2 39 29 40 30,6 Extraversion 5 46 1 11 76 2 27 07 23 00 33. 7 Conscientiousness 6 26 73 58 2 38 42 38 36 26 03. 8 Emotional stability 5 81 89 75 2 42 56 49 51 28 08 44. 348 D Ames et al Journal of Research in Personality 46 2012 345 349. High verbal expression 1 SD,Interaction term 42,Standardized. Low verbal expression 1 SD,listening listening, Fig 1 Interaction between listening and verbal expression in predicting in uence. Multiple mediation models predicting in uence with Big Five personality dimensions. IV IV effect without mediators IV effect with mediators Mediator effects. Mediator Effect Z p CI Lower CI Upper, Agreeableness b 21 b 10 Verbal exp 0472 2 56 01 0039 1044. t 6 28 p 01 t 3 12 p 01 Listening 0622 2 94 01 0028 1437. Openness b 32 b 13 Verbal exp 1364 5 32 01 0538 2356. t 7 23 p 01 t 3 23 p 01 Listening 0649 3 68 01 0214 1447. Extraversion b 11 b 07 Verbal exp 0543 3 98 01 0224 0964. t 3 85 p 01 t 2 94 p 01 Listening 0119 1 20 23 0339 0059. Conscientiousness b 27 b 07 Verbal exp 1236 5 27 01 0654 1944. t 6 68 p 01 t 1 87 p 06 Listening 0815 4 21 01 0289 1509. Emotional stability b 29 b 11 Verbal exp 1126 5 78 01 0664 1692. t 9 25 p 01 t 3 35 p 01 Listening 0717 3 61 01 0112 1440. Note Mediation effects re ect indirect effects of IV independent variable on in uence through mediators verbal expression and listening following Preacher and Hayes. 2008 CIs con dence intervals re ect 95 con dence with 5000 bootstrap resamples. These results not only help clarify the relationship between lis listening and positively related to verbal expression although both. tening and in uence but also shed light on how personality relates of these relationships were rather modest rs 13 and 15. to in uence In particular the relationship between personality as respectively both ps 05 There was no main effect of narcissism. re ected in the Big Five and in uence is partly mediated by on in uence perhaps because narcissism had different relation. listening Our results also show that part of the relationship ships with listening and verbal expression However the interac. between personality and in uence is accounted for by verbal tion between narcissism and listening was signi cant b 10. expression Previous research has shown that all of the Big Five p 05 in a multiple regression predicting in uence along with. dimensions predict leader effectiveness Judge et al 2002 a the main effects of listening narcissism and verbal expression. construct closely related to our dependent variable of in uence The nature of this interaction was that narcissism tended to be. The present results provide an important extension of the Judge positively related to in uence at higher levels of listening and neg. et al ndings by revealing part of why the Big Five are related to atively related to in uence at lower levels of listening Previous re. in uence namely via listening behavior and verbal expression search has found divergent effects of narcissism on in uence with. The present ndings have additional theoretical and practical some studies showing that narcissism is positively related to. implications If personality is related to in uence in part through in uence e g Brunell et al 2008 and others suggesting that nar. interpersonal communication dimensions such as listening and cissism has negative effects Paulhus 1998 The interaction be. verbal expression it may be worthwhile for future research to tween narcissism and listening suggests that taking listening into. identify other interpersonal communication dimensions that account may help us to predict when narcissism makes people. account for the relationships between personality and in uence more versus less in uential. For instance message clarity may result from conscientiousness Whereas the present study lent support to our predictions it. and conversational reactivity may emanate from emotional does have a number of limitations For instance the measure of lis. in stability tening behavior was based on informant perceptions and re ected. Another avenue for future research is to evaluate whether other naturally occurring rather than manipulated variance in listening. personality dimensions interact with listening to affect in uence Future work might seek more objective or behavioral measures of. One personality dimension for which we have preliminary listening or might seek to manipulate listening behavior Our. evidence is narcissism a construct re ecting a grandiose sense of research also focused on an organizational work setting future ef. one s self and entitlement Judge LePine Rich 2006 Morf forts might examine the relationship between listening and in u. Rhodewalt 2001 Participants in our study completed a self report ence in other contexts While acknowledging these limitations. measure of narcissism Ames Rose Anderson 2006 As might be we also believe the present ndings have some practical implica. expected the measure of narcissism was inversely related to tions Whereas personality change in adulthood may be dif cult. D Ames et al Journal of Research in Personality 46 2012 345 349 349. developing listening behaviors may be more tractable To the ex James L R Demaree R G Wolf G 1984 Estimating within group interrater. reliability with and without response bias Journal of Applied Psychology 69. tent that receptive behavior facilitates in uence individuals may. be able to increase their in uence power by cultivating the kinds John O P Srivastava S 1999 The Big Five trait taxonomy History. of listening behaviors measured in the present study getting others measurement and theoretical perspectives In E Pervin O John Eds. to open up reveal information and share critical points of view Handbook of personality pp 102 138 New York Guilford Press. Johnson S D Bechler C 1998 Examining the relationship between listening. effectiveness and leadership emergence Perceptions behaviors and recall. References Small Group Research 29 452 471, Judge T A Bono J E Ilies R Gerhardt M W 2002 Personality and leadership. Aiken L S West S G 1991 Multiple regression Testing and interpreting A qualitative and quantitative review Journal of Applied Psychology 87. interactions Thousand Oaks Sage 765 780, Ames D R Rose P Anderson C 2006 The NPI 16 as a short measure of Judge T A LePine J A Rich B L 2006 Loving yourself abundantly. narcissism Journal of Research in Personality 40 440 450 Relationship of the narcissistic personality to self and other perceptions of. Anderson C Spataro S E Flynn F J 2008 Personality and organizational workplace deviance leadership and task and contextual performance Journal. culture as determinants of in uence Journal of Applied Psychology 93 702 710 of Applied Psychology 91 762 776. Bavelas J B Coates L Johnson T 2000 Listeners as co narrators Journal of Kanfer A Tanaka J S 1993 Unraveling the web of personality judgments The. Personality and Social Psychology 79 941 952 in uence of social networks on personality assessment Journal of Personality. Blader S L Tyler T R 2003 A four component model of procedural justice 61 711 738. De ning the meaning of a fair process Personality and Social Psychology McCrae R R 1996 Social consequences of experiential openness Psychological. Bulletin 29 747 758 Bulletin 120 323 337, Brunell A B Gentry W A Campbell W K Hoffman B J Kuhnert K W Miller L C Berg J H Archer R L 1983 Openers Individuals who elicit intimate. DeMarree K G 2008 Leader emergence The case of the narcissistic leader self disclosure Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44 1234 1244. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34 1663 1676 Morf C C Rhodewalt F 2001 Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism A. Cialdini R B Trost M B 1998 Social in uence Social norms conformity and dynamic self regulatory processing model Psychological Inquiry 12. compliance In D T Gilbert S T Fiske G Lindzey Eds The handbook of social 177 196. psychology pp 323 390 New York McGraw Hill Paulhus D L 1998 Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self. Detert J R Burris E R 2007 Leadership behavior and employee voice Is the enhancement A mixed blessing Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. door really open Academy of Management Journal 50 869 884 74 1197 1208. Gosling S D Rentfrow P J Swann W B 2003 A very brief measure of the Big Preacher K J Hayes A F 2008 Asymptotic and resampling strategies for. Five personality domains Journal of Research in Personality 37 504 528 assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models Behavior. Graziano W G Eisenberg N H 1997 Agreeableness A dimension of Research Methods 40 879 891. personality In R Hogan J Johnson S Briggs Eds Handbook of personality Yukl G Kim H Falbe C M 1996 Antecedents of in uence outcomes Journal of. psychology pp 795 824 San Diego CA Academic Press Applied Psychology 81 309 317.
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