EXECUTIVE SUMMARY,A INTRODUCTION 1,B OVERVIEW 3,What is Technology Based Learning TBL 4. Technology Based Learning s Potential 4,Benefits and Challenges 6. Benefits 6,Challenges 8,C METHODOLOGIES AND TOOLS 13. Methods and Tools 13,Asynchronous and Synchronous Delivery Modes 15. Instructor Centric Content Centric and Learner Centric Teaching 16. Simulations and Goal Based Scenarios 17,Blended Learning 19. D APPLICATIONS 20,Government 20,Industry 22,Education 27. K 12 Education 28,Adult Education 28,Post Secondary Education 29. E MEASURING SUCCESS 33,F PROMISING APPROACHES AND EMERGING TRENDS 35. G BIBLIOGRAPHY 39,EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, Technology based learning TBL constitutes learning via electronic technology including the. Internet intranets satellite broadcasts audio and video conferencing bulletin boards chat. rooms webcasts and CD ROM TBL also encompasses related terms such as online learning. and web based learning that only include learning that occurs via the Internet and computer. based learning that is restricted to learning through the use of computers E learning is. synonymous with TBL and has largely replaced it in scholarship and industry as the term of. TBL holds the promise of substantially transforming the way learning takes place because of its. numerous advantages Among these TBL fosters greater accessibility to learning by offering. anytime and anywhere delivery It is readily scalable to both large and small groups since it can. accommodate larger numbers of learners at little extra cost and smaller groups of learners that. otherwise would not be able to participate in traditional classroom training for lack of. enrollments Further the content of TBL courses especially those that are delivered online can. be centrally developed and updated whenever the need arises therefore the cost of replacing. outdated course materials and retraining teachers and instructors drops significantly From the. learners point of view TBL can be self paced and matched to the learner s needs and building. on pedagogy that emphasizes the merits of discovery learning it offers the prospect of promoting. greater comprehension and retention particularly for complex materials because of its clear. opportunities for the hands on manipulation of course materials and the use of simulations and. game playing Perhaps for these reasons TBL has witnessed marked growth in the training. marketplace in government industry and education, At the same time TBL is not without its challenges Among the most important of these is the. digital divide caused by low computer literacy rates and lack of access to technology among. some learner populations Additional challenges include social loafing characterized by. students who work less diligently than they otherwise might or who become frustrated by course. material or technology and thus less engaged because of the relative absence of instructor. learner and learner learner interaction Further some TBL has been characterized by high. attrition rates among learners Course developers face their own challenges as they grapple with. problems related to technological incompatibility and they must be certain to make appropriate. accommodations to promote access for learners with disabilities Finally TBL still lacks. credibility Some employers and academicians view TBL instruction as less credible than. traditional face to face instruction and may be less likely to hire someone with a TBL certificate. unless provided by an accredited institution, Although these benefits and challenges apply in a general sense TBL in fact is an umbrella term. that encompasses multiple delivery modes and methods with each having particular strengths. given certain contexts and learning objectives For example TBL includes tutorials web. conferences online forums simulations and gaming among other methods The learning can be. synchronous when delivery occurs when instructors and learners meet at a specific time in a. physical or virtual classroom or it can be asynchronous when the learning does not occur at a. pre specified time and thus can be self paced Further different applications can be. predominately instructor centric which have an expert at the core who delivers a lecture either. synchronously or as an asynchronous narrated tutorial or they can be content centric where. learners interact with content that is embedded in a learning system and experience little. instructor learner or learner learner interaction or they can be learner centric where the learner. is the navigator the learner s interests and needs drive the learning and the learning environment. is open In actuality much TBL mixes these different methods and modes Furthermore TBL is. increasingly seen as being most effective when it is used in concert with rather than as a. replacement for more traditional face to face instruction in a style that has come to be known as. blended learning, Given the promise of TBL it is not surprising that its applications have increasingly been seen in. government industry and education For example in 1997 the Department of Defense initiated. Advanced Distributed Learning ADL a comprehensive strategy to integrate technology and. learning content to further the department s training efforts In industry IBM has embraced. blended learning that incorporates strategies for diverse learning styles including a web based. On Demand Model with just in time learning embedded in the workflow as well as traditional. face to face classroom sessions Similarly Southwest and Delta Airlines have used TBL to. make in house training accessible to all of their company employees as has Home Depot which. has installed computer kiosks in each of its stores and encourages its employees to access. asynchronous training modules during working hours on topics that include customer service. safety product knowledge and crafts such as plumbing gardening and painting TBL has also. been used in K 12 post secondary and adult education In fact most post secondary institutions. now offer distance learning either as selected courses offered online as part of traditional on. campus programs or as entire certificate undergraduate and graduate programs offered. primarily or solely online The University of Phoenix is a pioneer in the latter and provides. asynchronous activities group study and meetings with an academic counselor. With the widespread adoption of TBL measuring its effectiveness has become more of a. priority Different facets of evaluation include measuring learners satisfaction with the. experience measuring their skill gains through pre and post tests sometimes in comparison to. learners who received traditional classroom approaches gauging how learners applied their new. knowledge in work settings and estimating how the institution itself benefited from employee. learning In return on investment calculations the latter entails an assessment of whether the. benefits are commensurate with the cost of providing the training. Although rigorous wide scale research evaluating TBL s effectiveness by any of these criteria is. sparse the available evidence seems to suggest that TBL generally seems to work at least as well. as traditional approaches and is often less costly Nonetheless it also seems clear that to realize. its full potential TBL should not dispense with opportunities for human interaction either face. to face or electronically and that it should provide opportunities for the active engagement of. learners provide content that is relevant and linked with what learners already know and offer. opportunities for feedback and support, What is clear as well is that TBL is rapidly evolving in adopting these principles as new. technologies emerge and old ones fall out of favor as training designers and educators learn how. to use these tools to increasingly better effect Recent trends include the gravitation towards. online delivery and the adoption of Learning Objects The latter consists of small units of. instructional content that can be assembled reused and rearranged for use in multiple lessons. and courses,A INTRODUCTION, This paper is the result of a Quick Research Task Order to assist the Employment and Training. Administration gain a better understanding of the concept and state of technology based learning. and the application of technology based learning in government industry and education. The report provides an overview of recent trends in industry and media that have made. technology based learning such a rapidly growing phenomenon The report then defines the. term and compares and contrasts it with related terms such as e learning and distance learning. and next describes the benefits and challenges that are associated with providing learning via. technology, The report also provides brief descriptions of the main delivery modes as well as methods and. tools used in providing technology based learning programs and provides examples from. government industry and education, The report concludes by describing the most common framework used today to measure the. success of technology based learning programs and looks at future questions for technology. based learning,B OVERVIEW, Technology based learning TBL in the early 21st century is transforming the way people learn. at a time when two powerful trends converge The first trend is the rapid acceleration of. technological change and the demand that this change places on education and workforce. training While successful economies have always depended on a skilled and knowledgeable. workforce today s rate of change in production processes and workplace tools requires much. more training and retraining of individuals on the job than it did in the past As more workers. become knowledge workers the demand for frequent retraining is further accelerated with each. technological shift Industry has to be able to retrain its workforce much more quickly and the. development cycles of training programs have to be shortened if companies want to stay. competitive Given that updating workers skills rapidly and as the need arises is so critical in. today s economy the efficiency with which companies do so can thus be critical in helping them. maintain a competitive edge,The second major trend is the. US Internet Users,change that the digital revolution. as Percentage of Total US Population,has brought to media usage. 100 among Americans While in,1995 only 22 million Americans. used the Internet in 2005 more,60 62 than 184 million were users 1. 40 51 Even more remarkable in 2004,U S Internet users spent almost. twice as much time on the,1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005. Internet than they did watching,television 2 This represents not. Fox and Madden 2005, Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society 2004. B Overview, just a shift in consumer habits but also a shift in the way users interacted with the medium. Internet users have shifted away from a spectator role in the hierarchical broadcasting medium. toward a much more participatory role with the new medium where they can create and modify. content and where content creation and distribution is shared. The convergence of these two trends means that at a time when the nature of work is changing. profoundly the way workers learn how to do that work is also transforming. What is Technology Based Learning TBL, For the purpose of this report we are using the widely accepted definition of technology based. learning as the learning of content via all electronic technology including the Internet intranets. satellite broadcasts audio and video tape video and audio conferencing Internet conferencing. chat rooms e bulletin boards webcasts computer based instruction and CD ROM 3 TBL also. encompasses related terms such as online learning and web based learning that only include. learning that occurs via the Internet and computer based learning that is restricted to learning. using computers E learning is synonymous with TBL and has largely replaced it in scholarship. and industry as the term of choice Therefore the report uses these terms interchangeably. TBL is distinguished from distance learning or technology delivered learning in that TBL. includes methodologies where instructors and learners are in the same room or instruction is. computer based and there is no distance involved On the other hand TBL is more narrowly. defined in that it does not include text based learning and courses conducted via written. correspondence that would be covered by either distance learning or technology delivered. learning Furthermore technology enhanced learning describes a methodology in which. technology plays a subordinate role and serves to enrich a traditional face to face classroom. Technology Based Learning s Potential, Whereas even ten years ago the majority of TBL depended on shipping video tapes or on. expensive satellite upload and downloads in selected sites most TBL content today is distributed. via CD ROMs or the Internet, The Internet holds particular promise among educational technologies since it easily. accommodates multiple learning styles and distributed learning models 4 On the Internet users. Brown 2002,B Overview, Online Course Takers cannot only view all types of. content from text to pictures to,music they can also interact with it. alter it create new content and,2002 disseminate it back to a wider. 2001 community In addition the,0 5 10 15 20 25 30,medium is well matched to the new. requirements of education and,training in the knowledge based economy. Because of these facts growth in online course delivery has been strong In just the past 5 years. the number of adults who said that they had taken an online course has grown from one in ten to. one in four 5 Growth in this area is still accelerating This explains why the CEO of Cisco John. Chambers calls e learning the Internet s killer app. Education in the Knowledge Economy 6,Old Economy New Economy. Four year Degree Forty year Degree,Training as Cost Center Training as Competitive. Learner Mobility Content Mobility,Distance Education Distributed Learning. Correspondence Video High Tech Multimedia Centers,One Size Fits All Tailored Programs. Geographic Instituting Brand Name Universities,Celebrity Professors. Just in Case Just in Time,Isolated Virtual Learning Communities. In the new economy training is less dependent on credit hours towards a degree and more on. being able to demonstrate a measurable competency in a given skill It is also much more time. sensitive In fact most technology companies have no idea what knowledge or skills their. employees will need five years from now to stay competitive. PEW Internet and American Life Project 2005,Erwin 1999 p 8. B Overview, Another key feature of TBL is that it emphasizes learning solutions and learning results and. is contextual and can be personalized As such it allows for a new way to integrate learning with. work Rather than training workers on every possible procedure that they may need throughout. their working lives in an e learning or TBL model workers have access to the training module. for a given process only if and when they need it perhaps delivered via a handheld computer In. addition technology is already in place that allows TBL delivery systems to anticipate future. information and learning needs by recognizing patterns in learning styles and delivering training. in chunks as needed by the learner, Since much of TBL technology is so new no leading paradigm has been established regarding. the most effective delivery of content for the various modes that are available In fact a number. of technologies ended up on the trash heap in just the past few years after appearing to be. tremendous breakthroughs when first introduced To avoid this potential pitfall the following. sections will describe different TBL methodologies and their applications without trying to rank. them or rate their efficacy,Benefits and Challenges. TBL comes with substantial benefits Most of all it offers geographic reach and a scalability of. training and educational efforts that face to face interaction cannot achieve It also offers a wide. range of learning modes and an opportunity to track progress and measure outcomes as a. seamless part of learning However as with all technology applications the use of technology in. itself poses some new challenges In TBL the most significant problem is the digital divide. which still splits the country into digital haves and digital have nots In addition transferring. learning into a TBL environment creates additional challenges for educators and training. There are numerous advantages to TBL in comparison to face to face learning Five of the. primary benefits are the following, Accessibility offering anytime and anywhere delivery. Training that is self paced and matched to the learners needs. Full scalability,Timely dissemination of up to date information. Streamlined and effective learning delivery,B Overview. Accessibility A major benefit of many TBL courses is that learners may enroll in a course at. any time rather than at the start of a semester They can also fulfill their learning requirements. at any time of day or night This flexibility holds particular promise for working adults and. parents whose life schedules are not compatible with the time of day a particular course is. offered 7 8 Likewise it can also be appealing to incumbent workers who cannot afford to take. time off from their jobs to advance their careers, Technology based training can also increase the geographic reach of training and bring access to. those with transportation barriers For example Creighton University has a TBL program for. obtaining a Doctor of Pharmacy degree Forty percent of the students in this program are not. within driving distance of a pharmacy school 9 In fact for students with a laptop TBL can be. accessed from anywhere in the world where there is Internet access 10 As a result many TBL. programs have entirely migrated to an online only delivery model. Self Paced Learning Matched to Need Another benefit of TBL programs is that they allow. learners to advance through required or desired course content at their own pace For. example Toshiba uses a self paced sales training program for its sales representatives While. time spent in each module is self paced the learners have to test with a score of 80 percent or. higher before progressing to the next module 11 Additionally TBL programs can serve as a low. cost self paced refresher course British Airways for example requires that their employees. participate in TBL programs and then revisit the same program every few years to refresh and. retest their knowledge 12, Scalability Well designed TBL programs can also accommodate larger volumes of customers at. little extra cost For traditional face to face training there are two options to scale up a training. program and reach more learners 1 increase class size or 2 have trainers repeat the training at. different times or locations TBL on the other hand can be scaled up with relatively little additional. effort and little marginal cost for additional students Classroom limitations do not apply and. modern learning management systems LMS allow the management of learning outcomes for large. Australian Flexible Learning Framework 2004,Twigg 1995. Sloan Consortium 2004,Twigg 1995,Harris 2005,Summerfield 2005.
Parameters and the computed current distributions on the model. Fig. 2 a) The 1002 Segment SIMOP Model of C-130/Hercules. Fig. 2 b) Wing Root Notch Detail. From the comparative HF performance analysis plots presented in the ACES 2004 paper, it can be seen that the Dorsal Notch and Tail Probe are clearly superior to the other antennas.
K.T. McDonald and D.P. Russell Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (Oct. 20, 1988) Abstract We discuss experimental techniques for measurement of the density of beam particles in both the transverse and longitudinal phase space. The second moments of a two-dimensional
numerical analysis in the fall of 2003 at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York. The notes rely on my experience of going back over 25 years of teaching this course. Many of the methods are illustrated by complete C programs, including instructions how to compile these programs in a Linux environment. These programs can be found at