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Student Thinking and Learning in the PYP Transdisciplinary
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McGuinness Swartz Sproule,PYP Thinking Skills Project. Final Report September 2016,Table of Contents,Acknowledgements. Part 1 Overview, 1 Background Purpose and Structure of the Final Report 4. 2 Deep Learning and Thinking The Wider Landscape 9. Part 2 Research Methodology, 3 Research Questions Research Design and Methodology 18. 4 Pen Portraits of the Case Study Schools 28,Part 3 The Role of Thinking in Deep Learning.
5 The Role of Thinking in Deep Learning Perspectives Classroom Approaches 32. 6 Findings from the Case Studies Deep Learning Research Question 1 62. 7 Findings from the Case Studies Teaching Thinking Research Question 2a 66. 8 Findings from the Case Studies Teaching Thinking Research Question 2b 71. 9 Concluding Comments 80,Part 4 Progression in Thinking. 10 Progression in Thinking Research Perspectives 81. 11 Thinking Progress Maps Examples 92, 12 Findings from the Case Studies Progression Research Question 3 106. Part 5 Recommendations,13 Recommendations 120,Bibliography 126. Appendices 132,McGuinness Swartz Sproule,PYP Thinking Skills Project. Final Report September 2016,Acknowledgements, The research team would like to extend their sincere thanks.
to the PYP schools co ordinators teachers and students. who participated in this project,McGuinness Swartz Sproule. PYP Thinking Skills Project,Final Report September 2016. Part 1 Overview, 1 Background Purpose and Structure of the Final Report. 1 1 1 Background Purpose and Scope of the Report, The focus for this report is on the transdisciplinary framework of the IB s Primary Years Programme. PYP specifically how the transdisciplinary skills framework can advance deep learning and thinking. for PYP learners aged 3 12 years of age Using a mixture of theoretical analyses literature review and. empirical findings from PYP case study schools the report will address the following research. What is the relationship between deep learning and thinking and specifically the role of. thinking in deeper learning What are the views of PYP case study schools on this question. What kinds of teaching promote skillful thinking and deep learning and how are they best. organized What are the current practices in PYP case study schools. How are progressions in thinking represented at various levels in the research literature in. national curricula How are students thinking progressions defined in PYP school based. The research team recognize that they are not beginning from scratch with regard to interrogating the. PYP curriculum and that they have already submitted a literature review and an audit and evaluation. of PYP with regard to developing and assessing thinking skills and made recommendations to the IB. Swartz McGuinness 2014a 2014b The data for those previous reports were confined to desk. based research whose purpose was to address 1 the current state of the art with regard to. identifying important and teachable kinds of thinking how they can be taught and how they can be. assessed primarily through the literature review and 2 how the three IB programmes aligned with. that picture based on an audit of IB guidance materials During that work An Integrated Research. and Practice Informed Framework for Developing and Assessing Thinking Skills and Related Constructs. see Appendix 1 was created and recommendations were made to the IB with regard to the position. of teaching and assessing thinking across the three programmes In summary we noted how well. placed the PYP transdisciplinary curriculum was to advance students thinking skills and our. recommendations pointed to how IB guidance for the PYP could be strengthened Specifically we. noted 1 the need to be more explicit in how thinking is articulated as a curriculum objective 2 the. need for thinking strategies to be made more explicit more visible to children and thus more. McGuinness Swartz Sproule,PYP Thinking Skills Project.
Final Report September 2016, learnable and 3 the need to help PYP schools and teachers create more specific assessment criteria. and assessment strategies related to thinking, The current report builds on those previous reports in several ways First the research lens is. extended 1 to examine more closely the relationship between thinking and learning specifically. the role that thinking plays or interplays in creating deep learning however that is defined and 2. to look at how progressions or developmental continua in thinking might be best articulated As the. project developed we recognized that these were two very different pieces of work Surprisingly they. draw on two different research literatures and we had not reviewed the progression literature in the. previous reports to any great extent For that reason we are structuring the current report into. several different parts see below for outline of the structure of the report. Second an important limitation of the previous work was the absence of any contact with IB schools. or direct information about what PYP teachers were doing in classrooms beyond the examples we. had accessed from the IB website Using a case study methodology this current research allows us. to collect information directly from PYP schools about the school s specific approach beliefs and. practices and includes interviews with PYP co ordinators and teachers as well as opportunities to. discuss some video lessons with teachers, 1 2 Distinctive Features of the PYP Transdisciplinary Curriculum related to. learning and thinking, What follows is a brief overview of the distinctive features of the PYP drawn from the IB s own. guidance materials The PYP curriculum framework includes the following essential elements. Table 1 Essential Elements of the PYP written curriculum. PYP Making it Happen 2009 p 10, Knowledge Significant relevant content that we wish the students to explore and know about.
taking into consideration their prior experience and understanding. Concepts Powerful ideas which have relevance to the subject areas but also transcend them. that students must explore and re explore in order to develop a coherent in depth. understanding, Skills Those capabilities that the students need to demonstrate to succeed in a changing. challenging world which may be disciplinary or transdisciplinary in nature. Attitudes Dispositions that are expressions of fundamental values beliefs and feelings about. learning the environment and people,McGuinness Swartz Sproule. PYP Thinking Skills Project,Final Report September 2016. Action Demonstrations of deeper learning in responsible behavior through responsible. action a manifestation in practice of the other essential elements. Working with an inquiry pedagogical approach the PYP curriculum framework is designed to achieve. the learning goals of international mindedness embedded in the IB Learner Profile learners as. inquirers knowledgeable thinkers communicators principled open minded caring risk takers. balanced and reflective, Thinking skills is one of five skill sets within the PYP transdisciplinary skills element and their. description is derived largely from Blooms taxonomy with some additional kinds of thinking included. dialectical thought and metacognition The other skill sets are Social Skills Communication Skills. Self Management Skills and Research Skills, Table 2 Thinking Skills as part of the PYP Transdisciplinary Skills Framework.
PYP Making it Happen 2009 p 21,PYP Transdisciplinary Thinking Skills. Acquisition of Gaining specific facts ideas vocabulary remembering in a similar. Knowledge form, Comprehension Grasping meaning from learning material communicating and. interpreting learning, Application Making use of previously acquired knowledge in practical or new ways. Analysis Taking knowledge or ideas apart separating into component parts. seeing relationships finding unique characteristics. Synthesis Combining parts to create wholes creating designing developing and. innovating, Evaluation Making judgements or decisions based on chosen criteria standards. and conditions, Dialectical thought Thinking about two or more different points of view at the same time.
understanding those points of view being able to construct an. argument for each point of view based on knowledge of the other s. realizing that other people can also take one s own point of view. Metacognition Analyzing one s own and others thought processes thinking about. how one thinks and how one learns, Importantly the PYP is characterized as a concept driven curriculum with the role of key concepts. being to deepen understanding by having students re visit the key concepts across units of inquiry. McGuinness Swartz Sproule,PYP Thinking Skills Project. Final Report September 2016, and across the years in order to appreciate how they transcend subject boundaries Key concepts. thus are intended to act as a meta framework and help to increase conceptual coherence across the. curriculum both in the programme of inquiries and in subject specific teaching The key concepts. identified for the PYP are Form Function Causation Change Connection Perspective. Responsibility and Reflection Key concepts are very well developed in the PYP documentation and. a lot of learning seems to depend on them For example it is claimed that A concept driven. curriculum helps the learner to construct meaning through improved critical thinking and the transfer. of knowledge These key concepts are exemplified in each of the PYP scope and sequence subject. guides and they are the only transdisciplinary element to be illustrated in this way. However the main transdisciplinary thrust of the PYP framework with regard to knowledge is. accomplished through the transdisciplinary themes central ideas and lines of inquiry within each unit. of inquiry Six inquiries are completed by the students each year 4 in the early years and these are. timetabled alongside teaching in specific subjects which follow either the IB scope and sequence or a. nationally or locally prescribed curriculum The main pedagogical approach inquiry is deliberately. intended to create opportunities for thinking and deep learning. Table 3 The process of inquiry within the PYP curriculum framework. PYP Making it Happen 2009 p 29,What does an inquiry look like. Inquiry interpreted in the broadest sense is the process initiated by the students or the. teacher that moves the students from their current level of understanding to a new and deeper. level of understanding This can mean,Exploring wondering and questioning.
Experimenting and playing with possibilities, Making connections between previous learning and current learning. Making predictions and acting purposefully to see what happens. Collecting data and reporting findings, Clarifying existing ideas and reappraising perceptions of events. Deepening understanding through the application of a concept. Making and testing theories,Researching and seeking information. Taking and defending a position,Solving problems in a variety of ways. McGuinness Swartz Sproule,PYP Thinking Skills Project.
Final Report September 2016, So despite the Thinking Skills element being labelled thinking there are clearly several other. essential curriculum elements as well as the pedagogical approach that are designed to promote. thinking and deep learning The complexity of this should be borne in mind throughout the report. 1 3 Structure of the Report,The report is structured into five parts. Part 1 which includes this preliminary section goes on to position the concepts of deeper learning. and thinking into a wider landscape of educational discussions about the role of 21st century skills in. curriculum design and learning It introduces the concept of adaptive competence as an important. educational goal for effective learning rehearses some of the findings from our previous review of the. literature on teaching thinking and links key ingredients for effective learning with parallel ingredients. for effective thinking in an effort to understand more fully the relationship between effective learning. and effective thinking, Part 2 includes an overview of research design methodology and data collection Then the case study. schools are introduced through pen portraits, Part 3 delves deeper into some of the research questions Research Questions 1 and 2 examining. more closely the role of thinking in deep learning In order to bring these discussions closer to. classroom practice we have used classroom vignettes to make their meaning clearer The findings. from the Case Studies related to the first two research questions are then reported and considered in. relation to themes from the research literature, Part 4 focuses on the issue of progression in thinking Research Question 3 Some important.
distinctions are made between the scale and scope of different types of progression and examples of. the different types from the research literature and from national curricula are examined The findings. for the Case Studies related to this research question are then reported. Finally Part 5 makes recommendations,McGuinness Swartz Sproule. PYP Thinking Skills Project,Final Report September 2016. 2 Deeper Learning and Thinking The Wider Landscape. 2 1 Deeper Learning and 2lst century skills, At the beginning of this report we would like to situate the issues raised by the research questions. into the wider and ongoing educational discourses about the nature of learning deeper learning and. 21st century skills, For many years what students learn in schools has been critiqued particularly in developed countries. as leading only to a superficial understanding of curriculum topics e g Bransford et al 1999. Pellegrino Hilton 2012 This level of understanding is perhaps sufficient to pass tests or. examinations but not sufficiently robust to be applied beyond the school context in which the learning. occurred Students understanding it is argued is fragile consisting of isolated and overly specific. concepts without sufficient generality Students can learn to solve problems when they are presented. in predictable ways but not when they are encountered in less predictable and messy real world. environments e g Perkins 2014, A general response to this has been to argue for the school curriculum to be broadened to include.
what are called 21st century skills as educational goals Such skill sets normally encompass both. cognitive and non cognitive skills cognitive skills such as critical thinking and creativity interpersonal. skills such as collaboration and negotiation as well as more personal skills such as self management. and being capable of acting autonomously e g OECD Key Competences 2005. https www oecd org pisa 35070367 pdf National Research Council Workshop 2011 Proponents. of this view which include the current authors argue that these are the types of learning that will. endure and be helpful to learners in later life and work Yet critiques of this approach say that the. traditional goal of schooling is to give students access to established bodies of knowledge and ways of. knowing associated with disciplinary knowledge or school subjects They argue that mastering these. areas of learning still remains important educational goals even at primary school level. In the past 10 years several important research policy practice publications have appeared that. attempt to make connections between these contrasting points of view about curriculum priorities. and what is important for school learning The terms deep learning Fullan Langworthy 2014. deeper learning Hubermann et al 2014 Pellegrino Hilton 2012 and initiatives such as New. Pedagogies for Deep Learning http npdl global have begun to appear and even the claim that this. shift in terminology represents a more significant change and a new synthesis between what were. previously considered two opposing approaches e g Bellanca 2015. McGuinness Swartz Sproule,PYP Thinking Skills Project. Final Report September 2016, For example a Committee of the US National Research Council was charged with Defining Deeper. Learning and 2lst Century Skills drawing on existing educational and pedagogical research Pellegrino. Hilton 2012 Having reviewed the 21st century skills literature and linking it to what constitutes. growing expertise in a variety of knowledge domains e g typical school subjects such as science. mathematics and history they concluded, the link between deeper learning and 21st century competencies lies in the classic concept. of transfer the ability to use prior learning to support new learning or problem solving in. culturally relevant contexts We define deeper learning not as a product but as processing. both within individual minds and through social interactions in a community and 21st. century competencies as the learning outcomes of this processing in the form of transferable. knowledge and skills that result Chapter 4 p 74, The key point in this definition is the recognition of 21st century skills as a potential vehicle for transfer. of learning, Another portrait of deeper learning has grown from an initiative of the William and Flora Hewlett.
Foundation in the US Hubermann et al 2014 Bitter et al 2014 Drawing on a range of research. and interviews with experts they concluded that deeper learning consists of six dimensions which. have collectively become the focus of a national project to promote deeper learning in schools These. Mastery of core academic content,Critical thinking and problem solving. Effective communication,Ability to work collaboratively. Learning how to learn,Academic mind sets, Chow 2010 the Director of the Education Program at the Foundation argues that these are a set. of skills and competences that reinforce one another and together promote rigorous and deeper. learning The key point here is that these dimensions focus more on the role of 2lst century skills in. furthering the mastery of core academic content revealing a question as to the primary goals for. teaching 2lst century skills for promoting mastery of core curriculum content or toward transfer and. lifelong learning or both,McGuinness Swartz Sproule. PYP Thinking Skills Project,Final Report September 2016.
In the following sections we will examine more closely the research conclusions from these two. research traditions one where learning is the primary focus and the other where thinking is the. primary focus to see in what ways they complement one another. 2 2 Becoming a More Effective Learner Perspectives from Research on. For this section we rely on the consistent pattern of conclusions to emerge from substantial reviews. of the research literature over the past 15 years These research reviews have been conducted with. a specific focus on educational practice the US National Research Council s How People Learn. Bransford Brown Cocking 1999 and subsequent related publications How Students Learn. History Mathematics and Science in the classroom Donovan Bransford 2005 the International. Academy of Education s How Children Learn Vosniadou 2001 and the OECD s The Nature of. Learning Using Research to Inspire Practice Dumont Istance Benavides 2010 particularly the. chapter in that volume by de Corte on Historical Developments in the Understanding of Learning. These publications do not use the term deep learning preferring the terms effective learning or. productive learning Towards the end of this Section 2 we will make comments on these. terminological distinctions, The conclusions from these research syntheses about what constitutes effective learning draws. extensively on the notion of adaptive expertise an idea which has become very influential in. understanding how flexible or not prior learning is in response to new learning challenges The term. can be traced back to Hatano 1990 who drew a distinction between routine expertise and what he. called adaptive expertise when he observed for example two types of Japanese sushi experts one. excels following a fixed recipe creating wonderful flavours and textures with a specific recipe while. the other is more flexible and more adaptable to external demands can improvise and use alternative. ingredients and so on The idea of adaptive expertise has fed into a more general concept called. adaptive competence which is best represented in the OECD s research synthesis by de Corte and. his colleagues de Corte 2010 although the roots of the idea can be traced to the extensive US. National Research Council report How People Learn Bransford et al 1999 p 33 de Corte now. considers that adaptive competence should be considered as the ultimate goal of education Adaptive. competence is defined as the ability to apply meaningfully learned knowledge and skills flexibly and. creatively in new situations de Corte 2010 p 47 as opposed to routine expertise which is comprised. of being able to complete typical school tasks competently but without much understanding The key. McGuinness Swartz Sproule,PYP Thinking Skills Project. Final Report September 2016, adjective here is adaptive indicating a readiness and an ability to successfully respond to changing. contexts and future learning challenges what transfer of learning usually implies. Building on this body of research de Corte and his colleagues outline the key ingredients of adaptive. competence see Table 4 taken directly from de Corte 2010 p 47 Note that acquiring adaptive. competence means learning much more than would be traditionally expected of even well mastered. subject knowledge and subject skills the well organised and flexibly accessible domain specific. knowledge referenced in the first row in Table 4 It also means the learners become well practised in. using a repertoire of what are termed heuristics or thinking strategies While these might first be. encountered and learned in specific contexts they have the potential to be more generally applicable. across contexts hence their heuristic value The other three ingredients recognize the importance of. newer forms of learning knowledge about how to learn how to organize and manage oneself as a. learner underpinned by positive beliefs about oneself as a learner and about the to be learned. material The dynamic integration of these ingredients creates adaptive competence according to. this view The picture of learning presented here is in sharp contrast to the more minimalist meanings. of learning as remembering or even learning as understanding that are often portrayed in earlier. theories of learning, De Corte also argues that to become an effective learner learners should be made explicitly aware of. these components as educational goals and that learning environments and classroom practices. should be designed to achieve them de Corte Masui 2004 We will have more to say about how. to do this in later sections of the report, Table 4 Key Ingredients of Adaptive Competence verbatim from de Corte 2010 p 47.
Well organised and Well organised and flexibly accessible domain specific knowledge bases. flexible knowledge involving the facts symbols concepts and rules that constitute the. contents of a subject matter field s or any to be learned material. Heuristic methods Heuristic methods i e search strategies for problem analysis and. transformation e g decomposing a problem into sub goals making a. graphic representation of a problem which do not guarantee but. significantly increase the probability of finding the correct solution through. a systematic approach to the task, Metacognitive Meta cognitive knowledge involving on the one hand knowledge about. knowledge one s cognitive functioning or meta cognitive knowledge e g believing. that one s cognitive potential can be developed through learning and. effort and on the other hand knowledge about one s motivation and. McGuinness Swartz Sproule,PYP Thinking Skills Project. Final Report September 2016, emotions that can be actively used to improve learning e g becoming. aware of one s fear of failure in mathematics, Self regulatory Self regulatory skills regulating one s cognitive processes activities. skills meta cognitive skills or cognitive self regulation e g planning and. monitoring one s problem solving processes and skills regulating one s. volitional processes activities motivational self regulation e g. maintaining attention and motivation to solve a given problem. Positive beliefs Positive beliefs about oneself as a learner in general and in a particular. subject or contexts about the classroom or other context in which. learning takes place and about the more specific content within the. domain or any to be learned material, 2 3 Becoming a More Effective Thinker Perspectives from Research on.
Teaching Thinking, For this section we will draw primarily on the analysis and conclusions from our previous review of the. research practice literature on developing and assessing thinking Swartz and McGuinness 2014a. Report Part 1 all references to Sections below refer to this report Although several theoretical. perspectives were identified in the literature there is agreement that at least these three ingredients. are important for effective thinking and thus should become explicit teaching objectives for any. thinking curriculum, Important Thinking Skills The first key ingredient is to identify important thinking processes or. thinking skills and explicitly make these the objectives for instruction Section 2 1 While. acknowledging the dominant influence of Bloom s taxonomy of educational objectives and more. recent modifications we argued that it was not sufficient just to name different kinds types of. thinking e g analysis evaluation prediction important though they are Helping students to. become more effective thinkers demands that they get to know more about what it means not just. to analyse but to analyse more skillfully Section 2 3 We pointed to Swartz and colleagues models. of skillful thinking as useful guides for helping students to do this For example how to use guiding. questions to prompt students to think more skillfully about parts and wholes What is the whole. object What are the parts of the object What would happen if the part was missing What is the. function of the part What is the relationship between the parts and the whole how do they work. together See Section 4 2 We also argued that the types of thinking described in Bloom s taxonomy. need to be expanded to include important types of thinking for action such as problem solving and. decision making Section 2 2 and Appendix I in this Report Creating thinking maps with students. McGuinness Swartz Sproule,PYP Thinking Skills Project. Final Report September 2016, and using thinking organizers such as graphic organizers and thinking routines that highlight the. mental moves needed for more skillful thinking have lots of advantages for classroom teachers. making thinking more visible more teachable and thus more assessable Sections 4 2 4 3 and 4 4. Thinking Dispositions Recognizing that simply having the ability to think is not sufficient for effective. thinking the literature points to the importance of a range of other learner attributes or dispositions. to support thinking ensuring that a person has the will to think well in addition to the skill In How. We Think 1933 after advocating that we teach students strategies for what he called reflective. thinking in 21st century terms critical thinking John Dewey said You can teach students how to. think reflectively but if they don t care about doing this they won t Examples of such dispositions. include being open minded wanting to seek out the truth seeking clarity respecting alternative. perspectives being curious being adventurous in thinking persevering and so on Various. frameworks for thinking dispositions and how teachers might go about cultivating them are outlined. Sections 2 5 and 4 7, Metacognitive Thinking Becoming an effective thinker involves exerting some degree of strategic.
control over one s own thinking involving a range of so called metacognitive skills Section 2 4 This. means effective thinkers need to have some knowledge about thinking and thinking strategies be. aware of their own thinking as well as having the ability to plan and adjust their thinking in the face. of new challenges Being able to do this on a regular basis without external prompting from others. means that these metacognitive processes have been internalised and effective thinking thus. becomes self regulating Section 4 5 2 Achieving this level of metacognitive thinking is very. important in promoting the likely transfer of previously successful thinking skills and strategies to new. situations Section 4 5 3 There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrate the power of. metacognitive strategies for learning in general and for teaching thinking Section 2 4. As well as pointing to the importance of these key ingredients as curriculum objectives the review. pointed to the importance of adopting certain classroom practices that would help to realise the these. objectives strategies for making thinking more visible in the classroom the importance of dialogue. and talking about thinking collaborative thinking how to adopt a metacognitive perspective in the. classroom how to teach for transfer and generally how to create the classroom conditions to foster. a culture of thinking Section 4 Principles and Practices for Teaching Thinking. Table 5 presents an overview of the final position articulated in the previous reports about teaching. McGuinness Swartz Sproule,PYP Thinking Skills Project. Final Report September 2016, Table 5 Key Ingredients for Teaching Effective Thinking. adapted from Swartz and McGuinness 2014a,Thinking Objectives Teaching. Thinking Skills Principles Practices,Advance deep thinking Design lessons units and. challenges through infusing inquiries that explicitly focus on. thinking into curricular topics thinking as an objective. and units Give students something,challenging to think about more.
than routine tasks,Make thinking organizers Teach explicit thinking. explicit organizers strategies in the,classroom graphic organizers. thinking routines,Prompt the students to make the,thinking that results from their. use visible and public, Engage students in Use collaborative groups arrange. collaborative thinking to the classroom to facilitate. ensure joint meaning making interaction develop a thinking. interaction and dialogue language support sustained. dialogue about thinking, Thinking Dispositions Cultivate thinking dispositions Make explicit the behaviors.
and habits of mind associated with thinking,dispositions. Create classroom norms and,expectations about,thoughtfulness and the habitual. use of thinking strategies, Metacognitive Prompt students to adopt a Teach students explicit strategies. Thinking strong metacognitive to plan monitor and evaluate. perspective their thinking skills and thinking,dispositions. Teach for transfer of the Give students time to do this. skillful thinking Explicitly teach to facilitate the. transfer of learned thinking,procedures to other curricular.
and non curricular contexts, Culture of Thinking Generalize the approach from Prioritize teachers professional. thinking classrooms across all development and teachers.

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