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Tracey Cullen Editor Hesperia Supplements,Editorial Advisory Board. 1 S Dow Prytaneis A Study of the Inscriptions Honoring the Athenian Councillors 1937. Carla M Antonaccio Duke University 2 R S Young Late Geometric Graves and a Seventh Century Well in the Agora 1939. Angelos Chaniotis Oxford University 3 G P Stevens The Setting of the Periclean Parthenon 1940. Jack L Davis American School of Classical Studies at Athens 4 H A Thompson The Tholos of Athens and Its Predecessors 1940. 5 W B Dinsmoor Observations on the Hephaisteion 1941. A A Donohue Bryn Mawr College 6 J H Oliver The Sacred Gerusia 1941. Jan Driessen Universit Catholique de Louvain 7 G R Davidson and D B Thompson Small Objects from the Pnyx I 1943. Marian H Feldman University of California Berkeley 8 Commemorative Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear 1949. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Gloria Ferrari Pinney Harvard University 9 J V A Fine Horoi Studies in Mortgage Real Security and Land Tenure in Ancient Athens. Sherry C Fox American School of Classical Studies at Athens 1951. 10 L Talcott B Philippaki G R Edwards and V R Grace Small Objects from the Pnyx II 1956. Thomas W Gallant University of California San Diego. 11 J R McCredie Fortified Military Camps in Attica 1966. Sharon E J Gerstel University of California Los Angeles 12 D J Geagan The Athenian Constitution after Sulla 1967. Guy M Hedreen Williams College 13 J H Oliver Marcus Aurelius Aspects of Civic and Cultural Policy in the East 1970. Carol C Mattusch George Mason University 14 J S Traill The Political Organization of Attica 1975. Alexander Mazarakis Ainian University of Thessaly at Volos 15 S V Tracy The Lettering of an Athenian Mason 1975. 16 M K Langdon A Sanctuary of Zeus on Mount Hymettos 1976. Lisa C Nevett University of Michigan, 17 T L Shear Jr Kallias of Sphettos and the Revolt of Athens in 268 B C 1978. Josiah Ober Stanford University 18 L V Watrous Lasithi A History of Settlement on a Highland Plain in Crete 1982. John K Papadopoulos University of California Los Angeles 19 Studies in Attic Epigraphy History and Topography Presented to Eugene Vanderpool 1982. Jeremy B Rutter Dartmouth College 20 Studies in Athenian Architecture Sculpture and Topography Presented to Homer A Thompson 1982. A J S Spawforth Newcastle University 21 J E Coleman Excavations at Pylos in Elis 1986. Monika Tr mper University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 22 E J Walters Attic Grave Reliefs That Represent Women in the Dress of Isis 1988. 23 C Grandjouan Hellenistic Relief Molds from the Athenian Agora 1989. 24 J S Soles The Prepalatial Cemeteries at Mochlos and Gournia and the House Tombs of Bronze Age. Hesperia is published quarterly by the American School of Classical Studies at Crete 1992. Athens Founded in 1932 to publish the work of the American School the jour 25 S I Rotroff and J H Oakley Debris from a Public Dining Place in the Athenian Agora 1992. nal now welcomes submissions from all scholars working in the fields of Greek 26 I S Mark The Sanctuary of Athena Nike in Athens Architectural Stages and Chronology 1993. archaeology art epigraphy history materials science ethnography and literature 27 N A Winter ed Proceedings of the International Conference on Greek Architectural Terracottas of. the Classical and Hellenistic Periods December 12 15 1991 1994. from earliest prehistoric times onward Hesperia is a refereed journal indexed in. 28 D A Amyx and P Lawrence Studies in Archaic Corinthian Vase Painting 1996. Abstracts in Anthropology L Ann e philologique Art Index Arts and Humanities 29 R S Stroud The Athenian Grain Tax Law of 374 3 B C 1998. Citation Index Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals Current Contents IBZ 30 J W Shaw A Van de Moortel P M Day and V Kilikoglou A LM IA Ceramic Kiln in South. Internationale Bibliographie der geistes und sozialwissenschaftlichen Zeitschriften Central Crete Function and Pottery Production 2001. literatur Numismatic Literature Periodicals Contents Index Russian Academy of 31 J K Papadopoulos Ceramicus Redivivus The Early Iron Age Potters Field in the Area of the Clas. Sciences Bibliographies and TOCS IN The journal is also a member of CrossRef sical Athenian Agora 2003. 32 J Wiseman and K Zachos eds Landscape Archaeology in Southern Epirus Greece I 2003. 33 A P Chapin ed Essays in Honor of Sara A Immerwahr 2004. The American School of Classical Studies at Athens is a research and teaching 34 F Zarinebaf J Bennet and J L Davis A Historical and Economic Geography of Ottoman Greece. institution dedicated to the advanced study of the archaeology art history The Southwestern Morea in the 18th Century 2005. philosophy language and literature of Greece and the Greek world Established 35 G S Merker The Greek Tile Works at Corinth 2006. in 1881 by a consortium of nine American universities the School now serves 36 P P Betancourt The Chrysokamino Metallurgy Workshop and Its Territory 2006. 37 N M Dimitrova Theoroi and Initiates in Samothrace The Epigraphical Evidence 2008. graduate students and scholars from more than 180 affiliated colleges and uni. 38 M B Walbank Fragmentary Decrees from the Athenian Agora 2008. versities acting as a base for research and study in Greece As part of its mission 39 Y A Lolos Land of Sikyon The Archaeology and History of a Greek City State forthcoming. the School directs on going excavations in the Athenian Agora and at Corinth 40 S Davies and J L Davis eds Between Venice and Istanbul Colonial Landscapes in Early Modern. and sponsors all other American led excavations and surveys on Greek soil It Greece 2007. is the official link between American archaeologists and classicists and the Ar 41 A Cohen and J B Rutter eds Constructions of Childhood in Ancient Greece and Italy 2007. chaeological Service of the Greek Ministry of Culture and as such is dedicated 42 A L D Agata and A Van de Moortel eds Archaeologies of Cult Essays on Ritual and Cult in. Crete in Honor of Geraldine C Gesell 2009, to the wise management of cultural resources and to the d issemination of knowl. 43 L A Schepartz S C Fox and C Bourbou eds New Directions in the Skeletal Biology of Greece. edge of the classical world Inquiries about programs or membership in the 2009. School should be sent to the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 6 8 Charlton Street Princeton New Jersey 08540 5232. he s per ia 79 2010 Stone Age Seafaring,Pa ges 145 19 0. in the Mediterranean,Evi de n c e f r om t h e,P l ak i as R e g i on f or L owe r.
Pal ae ol i t h i c an d M e s ol i t h ic, Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. H a b i tat i on of C r e t e,Abs trac t, A survey in 2008 and 2009 on the southwestern coast of Crete in the region. of Plakias documented 28 preceramic lithic sites Sites were identified with. artifacts of Mesolithic type similar to assemblages from the Greek mainland. and islands and some had evidence of Lower Palaeolithic occupation dated. by geological context to at least 130 000 years ago The long period of sepa. ration more than 5 000 000 years of Crete from any landmass implies that. the early inhabitants of Crete reached the island using seacraft capable of. open sea navigation and multiple journeys a finding that pushes the history. of seafaring in the Mediterranean back by more than 100 000 years and has. important implications for the dispersal of early humans. Introdu c t i on, How did early humans hominins from Africa reach Europe in the Pleis. tocene Were they confined to the Near Eastern land corridor or did they. cross the Mediterranean When did seafaring in the form of deliberate. direct transpelagic crossings begin When did early humans first reach. Crete an island for some 5 000 000 years that was until recently thought to. have been inhabited for the first time only in the Neolithic period These. are a few of the questions posed by recent discoveries in southwestern Crete. where the Plakias Survey project has conducted two seasons of archaeologi. cal reconnaissance in 2008 and 2009 1 The area surveyed is located on the. 1 The Plakias Survey project was graphic Society and Providence Col also like to thank Nina Kyparissi. conducted under the auspices of the lege For help in the field we thank Apostolika director of the Ephoreia. American School of Classical Studies Natalie Cooper Chad DiGregorio of Palaeoanthropology and Speleol. at Athens and the Greek Ministry of Doug Faulmann Tammie Gerke ogy of Southern Greece and Maria. Culture Ephoreia of Palaeoanthro Hannah Johnson and Epaminondas Andreadaki Vlazaki director of the. pology and Speleology of Southern Kapranos The director of the Ameri 25th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and. Greece and the 25th Ephoreia of can School of Classical Studies Jack Classical Antiquities for their sup. Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities Davis and staff members in particular port Finally we are grateful to the. The project was funded by the Institute Maria Pilali are to be thanked for their anonymous Hesperia reviewers for. for Aegean Prehistory the Loeb Clas support of our project and their assis their helpful suggestions. sical Foundation the National Geo tance in practical matters We would. The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 146 t h o m a s f s t r a s s e r e t a l,0 40 miles. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. E McC 2009 LIBYAN SEA,Figure 1 Map of Crete showing.
coast in the Rethymnon nomos and includes the area from Plakias to the areas surveyed by the Plakias Survey. Preveli Gorge as well as the area around Ayios Pavlos Fig 1 project E McClennen. Although claims for pre Neolithic habitation on Crete have been made. for many decades the Plakias Survey is the first project to identify pre. Neolithic cultural materials in geological contexts that provide approximate. ages for the finds Our survey identified 28 findspots or sites associated with. caves and rockshelters Fig 2 Table 1 and collected a sample of just over. 2 100 lithic artifacts attributable to at least two early prehistoric industries. One industry consists of microlithic artifacts of Mesolithic type found on. 20 sites The other industry or industries is of Palaeolithic type and is. found on nine sites Two findspots Kourtaliotis 1 and Plakias 1 produced. only undiagnostic lithics but they appear to be pre Neolithic Although. there was some overlap in the use of sites in the Palaeolithic and the Meso. lithic at Preveli 2 Preveli 3 and Preveli 8 the artifacts representing the. two periods were for the most part found on different sites. The discovery of Mesolithic sites was the focus of our original research. and was not unexpected in light of recent discoveries of Mesolithic or. Epipalaeolithic sites on other islands such as Kythnos Ikaria Alonni. sos and Cyprus see below The existence of Lower Palaeolithic artifacts. in association with datable geological contexts however was a complete. surprise Given the presence of Mesolithic remains on other islands it. had been assumed that Mesolithic foragers were seafarers but until now. there has been no certain evidence for Lower Palaeolithic seafaring in the. Mediterranean,Figure 2 opposite Details of the, In the following pages we present the evidence from the Plakias Sur. survey areas shown in Figure 1, vey focusing on the artifact assemblages and the details of their geological. with approximate locations of sites, context and dating While there can be no doubt that these discoveries will mentioned in the text a western. have profound implications for the questions posed above at this prelimi area around Plakias b eastern area. nary stage our research cannot sustain far reaching speculations We do around Ayios Pavlos The 100 m. not know precisely when Lower Palaeolithic hominins reached Crete or isobath marks the approximate. whether their occupation of the island was widespread long lasting or extent of the coastal plain at the end. continuous Nor can we say what the implications will be of the discovery of the Pleistocene E McClennen. s t o n e a g e s e a fa r i n g i n t h e m e d i t e r r a n e a n 147. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. LIBYAN SEA,LIBYAN SEA,148 t h o m a s f s t r a s s e r e t a l. Ta b le 1 Chronolo gy of th e Si tes,Sites Palaeolithic Mesolithic Other.
Damnoni 1 x,Damnoni 2 x,Damnoni 3 x,Ammoudi 1 x,Ammoudi 3 x. Ayios Pavlos 1 x,Ayios Pavlos 2 x x, Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Ayios Pavlos 3 x,Schinaria 1 x,Schinaria 2 x,Schinaria 3 x. Schinaria 4 x x,Schinaria 5 x,Schinaria 6 x,Preveli 1 x. Preveli 2 x x,Preveli 3 x x,Preveli 6 x,Preveli 7 x.
Preveli 8 x x,Kourtaliotis 1 x,Kotsiphos 1 x,Plakias 1 x. Timeos Stavros 1 x,Timeos Stavros 2 x,Timeos Stavros 3 x. Timeos Stavros 4 x x,Gianniou 1 x, of Mesolithic inhabitants for our understanding of the arrival of Neolithic. settlers on Crete or elsewhere in the Aegean The results we present here. are but a first step on the path of research leading to a better understanding. of the movements of early prehistoric peoples among the Mediterranean. islands and beyond,Prev io us Resea rch, Previous research concerning the pre Neolithic periods on Crete has pro. duced few conclusive results There are several reasons for this including. ambiguous data and the lack of scholarly training of archaeologists to rec. ognize Palaeolithic or Mesolithic remains 2, The first scholar to claim evidence for pre Neolithic occupation on.
Crete was M L Franchet 3 Sent to Crete and Egypt in 1912 by the French. Ministry of Public Education and Fine Art in order to study c ramique. 2 Hutchinson 1962 p 45, primitive he discovered stone tools at Trypiti and on the Rouses Plain both 3 Franchet 1917 pp 63 81. sites were ca 3 km east of Heraklion and have since been destroyed or cov 4 Hutchinson 1962 p 46 Zois. ered by recent construction 4 In his surface collections Franchet identified 1973a pp 59 60. s t o n e a g e s e a fa r i n g i n t h e m e d i t e r r a n e a n 149. two industries one of obsidian which he assigned to the Neolithic and. the other of limestone Franchet thought the limestone industry was sig. nificant because it was earlier the large pics and per oirs seemed to him. to be characteristic of the campiniennes stages in France and Egypt 5 It. is difficult to know exactly what date Franchet assigned to this material he. states only that it is earlier than the Neolithic then known on Crete. Franchet s research was quickly dismissed by British archaeologists. working on Crete 6 Robert Bosanquet and Arthur Evans in particular. challenged his research claiming that he misinterpreted the retouch. found regularly on Bronze Age stone tools 7 Nevertheless after studying. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. the aceramic Neolithic flaked stone industry from stratum X at Knossos. Zois assigned the unretouched microliths from Trypiti and Rouses to the. Mesolithic period and the larger limestone tools to either the Mesolithic. or the Palaeolithic 8, At Kastellos an important Neolithic and Bronze Age site in the Lasithi. Plain John Pendlebury tentatively identified a red chert tool found there. in the early 20th century as Aurignacian 9 He based this attribution on a. comparison with a similar artifact collected by George Finlay in the 19th. century and housed in Manchester England The latter tool had been iden. tified originally by Abb Breuil Burkitt and Wilfred described the tool in. the publication by Pendlebury and colleagues but insufficient comparative. artifacts and the purely Bronze Age context strongly suggest that it is not. Aurignacian and Pendlebury himself doubted such an early date 10. In addition to stone tools some scholars thought that they saw evidence. of pre Neolithic habitation of Crete in the form of worked bone and antler. artifacts In 1969 S E Kuss identified two pre Neolithic cultures in the. areas of Kalo Chorafi and Grida Avlaki located on the north coast between. Rethymnon and Heraklion 11 He dated the artifacts from Kalo Chorafi. to the Riss glaciation 120 000 100 000 b p and those from Grida Avlaki. to the Riss W rm interglacial 100 000 60 000 b p To the earlier period. he assigned the label keratische Kultur the Antler Culture and to the later. the label osteokeratische Kultur the Bone and Antler Culture reflecting. the media of the respective artifactual industries The type artifact for the. keratische culture is a deer antler heavily scratched and with a worn and. zigzag patterned tip The osteokeratische culture is distinguished by forklike. 5 It should be kept in mind that tools from deer radii and metatarsals The radii have forks on both ends. The Palace of Minos I 1921 had not while the metatarsals are forked only on the distal ends The antlers and. yet been published so the chronology bones come from a now extinct endemic Pleistocene deer Cervus cretensis. was undetermined at this point Although no worked stone tools were found Kuss suggested that stone. 6 Zois 1973a p 62 tools had to have been used to create the bone tools and that the residual. 7 Bosanquet 1918 PM I p 32,striations on the bones supported this conclusion. 8 Zois 1973a p 62 see also Cherry Antony Sutcliffe subsequently questioned Kuss s conclusions 12 He. 1981 p 43 observed deer in the wild and found that they frequently gnawed on the. 9 Pendlebury Pendlebury and bones and antlers of dead deer perhaps because of a calcium deficiency 13. Money Coutts 1937 1938 p 51 Different characteristics could be seen on the gnawed bones and antlers. 10 Pendlebury Pendlebury and, the bones had forked ends while the antlers displayed zigzag patterns Sut. Money Coutts 1937 1938 p 51, 11 Kuss 1969 cliffe also studied bones and antlers collected by the palaeontologist Paul.
12 Sutcliffe 1973 1977 Sondaar who like Sutcliffe was also a faunal analyst and concluded. 13 Sutcliffe 1977 that they were not artifacts,150 t h o m a s f s t r a s s e r e t a l. In 1970 Yannis Tzedakis excavated Gerani Cave 3 located 9 km west of. Rethymnon 14 He reported finding worked bone tools associated with horns. and skulls of deer that J F Cherry in his 1981 study of the early colonization. of Mediterranean islands presumed were the extinct endemic Pleistocene. deer Megaloceros cretensis 15 Tzedakis did not date the tools to the Palaeo. lithic but only reported that they were found among now extinct fauna 16. Asphendos Cave is located in southwestern Crete near a village of the. same name It was discovered independently by Paul Faure and Christos. Papoutzakis and the data were reviewed by Zois 17 Inside are petroglyphs. of abstract symbols and representations of animals Despite the primitive. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. character of the petroglyphs and the interpretation of some of the animal. scenes as representing the hunting of wild animals there are no dates to. confirm an early prehistoric age for these images All archaeological inves. tigations in the cave including one excavation have found only Minoan. pottery 18 Moreover should the scimitar horned animals depicted in the. petroglyphs represent agrimia Cretan wild goats they would belong to the. Neolithic period or later because agrimia are feral forms of domesticated. animals introduced during the earliest stages of the Neolithic 19. In the Samaria Gorge also located in southwestern Crete members. of the Sphakia Survey project discovered a scatter of brown chert initially. thought to be Epipalaeolithic or Mesolithic in character 20 The team exca. vated two test trenches Lithic analysts examined the pieces and determined. that they were not artifacts but fragments of chert broken by trampling. Similar doubts are connected with the possible Palaeolithic or Mesolithic. stone tools associated with now extinct Pleistocene fauna at Phrangomoura. 1 and 2 in eastern Crete reported by Norbert Schlager 21 He was uncertain. whether or not the tools were worked artifacts, Pleistocene human remains are unknown on Crete apart from a single. reported specimen Late in the 19th century Vittorio Simonelli discovered. human skeletal remains in a cave near Chania 22 Facchini and Giusberti re. port that the remains consisted of a cranium and postcranial fragments heavi 14 Tzedakis 1970. ly cemented in a calcareous breccia 23 They used the Protactinium Uranium 15 Cherry 1981 p 43. method to date the breccia to 51 000 12 000 b p but there is no stratigraphic 16 Tzedakis 1970 pp 474 476. context and the bones themselves were not dated Cherry 1981 p 43 however reports. that Jarman had studied the deer bones, Recently Peder Mortensen reported Palaeolithic limestone artifacts. and concluded that the deposits were, from the region of Loutro 30 km west of Plakias 24 Members of the mixed during excavation. Plakias Survey team inspected these objects in the Chania Museum and 17 Faure 1972 pp 406 407. determined that the Loutro objects might despite their suggestive shapes Papoutzakis 1972 p 107 Zois 1973b. be geofacts In light of our discoveries in the vicinity of the Preveli Gorge 18 Faure 1972 p 412 Tzedakis. see below however the area around Loutro should be carefully examined 1973 p 583 Nixon et al 1990 p 216. 19 Groves 1989 pp 50 51, in the future Finally in 2006 at the 10th International Cretological Con 20 Nixon Moody and Rackham.
ference Katerina Kopaka and Christos Matzanas reported that artifacts 1988 pp 171 173 Nixon et al 1990. belonging to all phases of the Palaeolithic were found in a survey on the pp 214 215. island of Gavdos off the southern coast of Crete Fig 1 and they re 21 Schlager 1991 pp 7 10. cently presented some of these artifacts online 25 Although the finds from 22 Simonelli 1897. 23 Facchini and Giusberti 1992, Loutro and Gavdos offer possible corroborative evidence they await full. publication In sum none of the research described above yielded secure 24 Mortensen 2008. evidence in a datable geological context for Palaeolithic or Mesolithic 25 Kopaka and Matzanas 2009. occupation of Crete forthcoming, s t o n e a g e s e a fa r i n g i n t h e m e d i t e r r a n e a n 151. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Figure 3 General view of the land, scape near Plakias Photo N Thompson T h e P la kia s S u rvey. Despite the inconclusive evidence for pre Neolithic habitation of Crete. it seemed likely that evidence for the Mesolithic period would be found. on the island because it had previously been discovered on other islands in. the Aegean Discoveries on Alonnisos Kythnos and other Aegean islands. as well as on Cyprus have shown that an early model that argued that oc. cupation of the islands took place first in the Neolithic was incorrect 26 It. was reasoned that if Mesolithic foragers found these islands attractive for. subsistence Crete must also have been a desirable habitat Crete however. is a very large island which raised the problem of where to look for pre. Neolithic remains, A Mesolithic site location model developed by researchers working. on the Greek mainland and the islands identified areas likely to have early. Holocene sites 27 These areas are habitats that may have been preferred. by Mesolithic foragers and that could also preserve their artifacts We ap. plied this model to Crete The coastal area around Plakias has characteristic. features such as caves rockshelters and proximity to coastal wetlands. Fig 3 that on the Greek mainland were found to fit this Mesolithic site. location model In addition to using the model for the Plakias Survey it. was possible to involve lithic specialists who were familiar with Mesolithic. assemblages from the mainland and who were experienced in identifying. artifacts of this period, 26 For the previous view of the For Mesolithic Alonnisos see Panago.
earliest habitation of the islands see poulou Kotjambopoulou and Karkanas. Cherry 1981 For a current summary of 2001 pp 126 135 for Kythnos see. the evidence see Broodbank 2006 for Sampson et al 2002 For Mesolithic. early humans in the Aegean see occupation on Cyprus see Simmons. Chelidonio 2001 and Panagopoulou 1999, Kotjambopoulou and Karkanas 2001 27 Runnels et al 2005. 152 t h o m a s f s t r a s s e r e t a l,The Pl akias Region. The southwestern coast of Crete is geologically dynamic 28 The Plakias re. gion is a tectonic m lange created as a result of the collision between the. African and Eurasian plates and the warping of the Hellenic forearc 29. The coast is backed by uplifted ranges of limestone mountains and crossed. more or less from north to south by deeply incising river systems such as. the Megas Potamos in the Preveli Gorge Fig 4 a b Today the region. is a complicated mosaic of limestone flysch thrust sheets nappes that. record the accretion of sedimentary and volcanic rocks to the Aegean. margin during subduction of the African lithosphere there are younger. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. extensional normal faults and heavily eroded limestone slopes 30 On the. coast are flights arranged in a steplike fashion of marine terraces and. bedrock erosional planation surfaces Fig 4 a corresponding to intervals. of eustatic sea level high stands in the Upper Pleistocene 130 000 10 000. years ago the preservation of which has been made possible by continual. slow local uplift of rock, The underlying geology of the Plakias region affected our archaeo. logical research in numerous ways The location and nature of faults. surface water and cave shelters were factors that we considered likely to. determine prehistoric site preference see below and the active tectonic. and geomorphologic processes that have worked for hundreds of thousands. of years have served both to preserve sites in some cases and to destroy. them in others Perhaps the most important of these destructive processes. is the ongoing tectonic uplift of the area This uplift creates steep slopes. that can accelerate the deterioration of the caves and rockshelters that. were the focus of prehistoric human land use and the erosion of uncon. solidated sediments has affected the preservation of early prehistoric sites. everywhere, Yet other processes such as the formation of cemented sedimentary. beach deposits i e marine terraces during sea level high stands and their. preservation due to subsequent eustatic sea level regression coupled with. regional rock uplift have helped to preserve evidence of prehistoric human. activity within them The strongly cemented and indurated late Pleisto. cene deposits especially the sedimentary beach conglomerates observed. at Preveli 2 see below are associated with lithic artifacts for example. In other cases such as Preveli 7 see below paleosols buried and or fos. sil soils contain and preserve artifacts of Palaeolithic type 31 Finally the. carbonate rich runoff from cave and rockshelter brows both consolidated. and preserved anthropogenic deposits that had been exposed over time by. the retreat of the brows a factor that has helped to preserve evidence of. Mesolithic occupation, 28 See Thommeret et al 1981 31 The alluvial fans in southwestern Greece by Tjeerd van Andel and his.
Fassoulas and Nikolakakis 2005 Shaw Crete have been studied extensively students especially Kevin Pope and. et al 2008 Wegmann 2008 Nemec and Postma 1993 Pope et al Eberhard Zangger and the basic princi. 29 Fassoulas 2000 Wegmann 2008 2008 Mediterranean paleosols form ples are described in numerous publica. pp 94 139 and mature in seasonal wet dry condi tions including van Andel 1998 Run. 30 Rahl Fassoulas and Brandon tions The use of paleosols in Palaeo nels and van Andel 2003 and van Andel. 2004 lithic archaeology was pioneered in and Runnels 2005 see n 51 below. s t o n e a g e s e a fa r i n g i n t h e m e d i t e r r a n e a n 153. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Figure 4 Views of the Preveli Gorge,from a the west and b the south. The marine terraces and level ero,sional planation surfaces of Preveli 2. located at the middle foreground of,a resemble a staircase Photos. N Thompson b,154 t h o m a s f s t r a s s e r e t a l. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Figure 5 View of a cave Damnoni 3,from the southeast Photo N Thompson.
Me t hod s, As noted earlier our approach was based on a targeted survey method suc. cessfully employed on the Greek mainland to locate Mesolithic sites 32 We. investigated caves and rockshelters and their immediate environs in coastal. zones where early Holocene wetlands the likely focus of prehistoric activity. once existed The steep coast of southwestern Crete faces the abyssal depths. of the Libyan Sea and is close in a horizontal sense to what we believe was. the position of the shoreline in the early Holocene 11 000 9 000 years. ago when local sea levels were ca 35 70 m lower than today Fig 2 a b 33. When eustatic sea level rose rapidly in the early Holocene it would have. flooded low lying land and backed up rivers creating wetlands with both. fresh water and marine resources, In the Plakias area the limestone bedrock is pervasively fractured and. permeable and is subject to both karstic weathering and tectonic forces. Steeply dipping normal faults in the limestone have relatively soft walls that. are attacked by surficial and groundwater flows These flows create small. caves see Fig 5 and the runoff carves out long overhangs of rock the. shallower and wider of which are referred to here as rockshelters Fig 6. Moreover during sea level high stands wave erosion formed level plana. tion surfaces algal reefs sea cliffs notches and sea caves the last being 32 See p 151 and n 27 above. enlarged small karstic cavities at sea level Sea cliffs and associated notches 33 See the coastal reconstructions. for the Aegean in Lambeck 1996 and, usually have the configuration of rockshelters Both caves and rockshelters. Lambeck and Purcell 2005 and the, are regularly degraded by brow and ceiling collapse caused by weathering application of these data for the. erosion and the same tectonic forces and seismic activity responsible for reconstruction of early Holocene. the creation of the fault scarps shorelines in Runnels et al 2005. s t o n e a g e s e a fa r i n g i n t h e m e d i t e r r a n e a n 155. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Figure 6 View of a rockshelter,Damnoni 2 from the west show.
ing the remains of a collapsed brow,Photo N Thompson. The exact size shape and appearance of caves and rockshelters in the. Pleistocene and early Holocene cannot be ascertained without excava. tion and further geomorphological study but today the caves are rarely. more than 10 m deep and typically no more than 2 4 m wide The larg. est cave is the cavern at Ayios Pavlos 3 but the evidence of several large. karstic windows and the dense rockfall from the collapsed brow Fig 7. are testimony that it is too unstable to long endure Large caverns such. as this usually do not remain standing for long There is evidence in the. form of sea notches and holes burrowed by molluscs Lithophaga sp that. these caves were altered during periods of high sea level and that they. were undercut and partially collapsed during periods of lower sea level. Rockshelters differ from caves in that they consist of wide stretches of. discontinuous partly collapsed overhangs of rock often remnants of for. mer sea cliffs and notches that protect shallow benches of sediments or. We examined all caves and rockshelters in the Plakias region found near. the mouths of freshwater perennial streams and rivers emptying into the. Libyan Sea and within 5 km of the present coast To locate these features. we used a combination of topographic maps at a scale of 1 5 000 Google. Earth images and visual inspection of the countryside We were able to. identify more caves and rockshelters than could be investigated by road or. by foot in the time available Some features were at elevations sufficiently. high to be reached only by technical climbing or in extremely remote and. rugged landscape and these were not investigated,156 t h o m a s f s t r a s s e r e t a l. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Figure 7 View of the partially col,lapsed cavern at Ayios Pavlos 3 from. the south Photo N Thompson, Assuming that most caves and rockshelters have retreated in the last. 10 000 years as a result of brow collapse and that deposits resulting from. human occupation are found now outside of the remaining features we. searched in front of each cavity usually downslope Fig 8 Scatters of lithic. artifacts were often found around the present day openings of the caves. and rockshelters and on the slopes directly below the openings We limited. the designation of a site to findspots where lithics were numerous i e. 20 or more and had similar technological and typological characteristics. these were considered unlikely to have been the result of chance artifact loss. resulting from sporadic visitation over long periods of time The extent of. each artifact scatter was estimated by a couple of people walking back and. forth across each findspot and site latitude and longitude were determined. with a handheld GPS unit, When these tasks were completed we collected a sample of the lith.
ics including examples of all classes of lithic debitage i e all objects. modified by flintknapping Because the project s goal was limited to the. determination of the presence or absence of assemblages of Mesolithic. type in the area we decided that it was sufficient to make relatively small. collections of representative lithics from each site Most sites did not have. great numbers of lithics usually 80 100 artifacts making it practical to. collect all debitage But some sites were much larger e g Schinaria 1. consisting of thousands of artifacts see Fig 9 and we were obliged to. be selective in sampling In order to ensure that the samples in the latter. s t o n e a g e s e a fa r i n g i n t h e m e d i t e r r a n e a n 157. Copyright 2010 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Figure 8 Searching for Mesolithic,artifacts on the talus slope in front. of the cave at Damnoni 3 view from,the north Photo N Thompson. Figure 9 A Mesolithic artifact scat,ter at Schinaria 1 The artifacts are.

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