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STATE OF THE SCIENCE Implicit Bias Review
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As a university wide interdisciplinary,research institute the Kirwan Institute. for the Study of Race and Ethnicity works,to deepen understanding of the causes. of and solutions to racial and ethnic,disparities worldwide and to bring about a. society that is fair and just for all people,Our research is designed to be used to. solve problems in society Research and,staff expertise are shared through an.
extensive network of colleagues and,partners ranging from other researchers. grassroots social justice advocates,policymakers and community leaders. who can quickly put ideas into action,STATE OF THE SCIENCE. IMPLICIT BIAS,2017 Edition,By Cheryl Staats,Kelly Capatosto Lena Tenney. and Sarah Mamo,With funding from the W K Kellogg Foundation.
KirwanInstitute www KirwanInstitute osu edu, WE WOULD LIKE TO EXTEND A SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT to. Cheryl Staats for her exceptional dedication and commitment. to the State of the Science Implicit Bias Review, Cheryl s leadership and execution from the beginning made. this publication possible and she continued to provide vision. and leadership for all five years of its existence. TABLE OF CONTENTS,1 Introduction 12,2 Criminal Justice 18. 3 Education 26,4 Health 38,5 Housing and Neighborhood Dynamics 48. 6 Guarding Against Bias 52,7 Assessments Measurements 62.
8 Neuroscience 66,9 General Contributions 70,CONCLUSION 79. WORKS CITED 80,Reader Guideposts, Given the size and scope of this publication we recognize that readers with interests. in particular subthemes may find the task of identifying their area s of interest a bit. daunting In response to this concern we have identified a few notable subthemes and. assigned them a visual marker for easier identification these icons appear wherever each. subtheme arises in this document regardless of chapter. Generally speaking this While certainly present in the One of the latter chapters. year s academic literature education chapter thematic of this document focuses. continued to extend beyond scholarship related to on general bias mitigation. the Black White binary to be children permeate other areas strategies however some. more inclusive of other racial as well as denoted by this icon domain specific interventions. and ethnic groups This icon appear in other chapters This. identifies these articles icon will identify this literature. wherever it appears,Denotes a link to a downloadable resource. About this Review, With the release of this edition of the State of the Science Implicit Bias. Review the Kirwan Institute celebrates the five year anniversary of this. signature annual publication As part of our commitment to illuminating the. multifaceted ways in which unconscious associations can create unintended. outcomes this publication highlights key selections from the academic. literature published in 2016 as it pertains to the domains of criminal justice. health and health care employment education and housing In addition. to these focus areas this publication also uplifts implicit bias mitigation. strategies and other major contributions to the field. WHILE IMPLICIT BIAS HAS increasingly become a Rather in an attempt to maximize the impact. buzzword in both written and verbal discourse of the content we assessed each potential. our team established some parameters to article for possible inclusion This approach. reasonably limit the scope of this review Nota admittedly involved subjectivity however given. bly given the Kirwan Institute s focus on race our intensive engagement with the literature. and ethnicity we continue to favor articles that over the past five years we have done our best. directly focus on these topics as they intersect to emphasize those that we believe reflected the. with other forms of identity This narrows the greatest contributions to advancing the field. scope of this publication but also allows us to, provide a richer dialogue within this focus area The vast majority of this document reflects liter.
Moreover in perhaps the most significant devi ature published in 2016 however we acknowl. ation from previous editions of the State of the edge that some late 2015 articles and early 2017. Science Implicit Bias Review this year s publica publications are interspersed particularly if the. tion does not attempt to be exhaustive While in latter were available online before print. previous years our team had sought to include, nearly all implicit bias articles and chapters that Finally a note about language this document. were published through formal channels e g tends to use the term implicit bias over un. academic journals but not theses or disser conscious bias though the two terms are often. tations during a given year the substantial used interchangeably in the literature. increase in implicit bias scholarship warranted,a new approach As such this 2017 publication. neither is nor attempts to be comprehensive,About the Authors. KELLY CAPATOSTO is a Senior Research Associate CHERYL STAATS is a Senior Researcher at the Kirwan. working to expand the Kirwan Institute s race and cognition Institute who leads a robust portfolio of race and cognition. work Kelly focuses on applying research on implicit racial research Broadly speaking these projects consider how. bias to inform education policy and practice Much of her cognitive forces that shape individual behavior outside of. work addresses issues of school discipline disability and conscious awareness can contribute to societal inequities. racialized trauma Beyond education Kelly has written Cheryl received her Bachelor s degree from the University. several interdisciplinary reports linking implicit bias insights of Dayton and earned a Master s degree from The Ohio. to other domains including housing and criminal justice State University. Her research interests include exploring how humans. conceptualization of race influences outcomes in the LENA TENNEY is a Coordinator of Public Engagement. following areas social and emotional cognition education at the Kirwan Institute They direct the engagement. housing and lending and predictive analytics and other Big portfolio of the Race Cognition Program which includes. Data applications facilitating presentations workshops and webinars about. implicit bias and structural racism for audiences across the. SARAH MAMO is a Student Research Assistant and country A trained intergroup dialogue facilitator Lena has a. graduate of The Ohio State University with B A s in African background in inclusive education and coalitional activism. American African Studies and Women s Gender and work Their research interests include Whiteness LGBTQ. Sexuality Studies Her interests are in the histories and identities inclusive language higher education and public. current manifestations of oppression of which implicit bias policy Lena earned a Master s of Education and a Masters. is an iteration of Public Administration from the University of Oklahoma. Previous Editions, Given that this is the fifth edition of the State of the Science this document assumes that readers. have a general understanding of implicit bias and its operation For those who would like greater. detail on the foundational ideas of this concept please see our previous publications. 2013 Edition 2014 Edition, The first several chapters For a primer on implicit bias see.
of this edition provide an Chapter One of the 2014 edition. extensive overview of the IM P L IC IT B IAS,This edition also has a quick. concept its operation facts sheet in Appendix B,and its measurement. Cheryl Staats Research Associate,with contributions from. Charles Patton Graduate Research Associate, STAT E O F T H E SC I E NC E I M PL I C I T B I AS R E VI E W 2 0 1 4. I M P L I C I T,2015 Edition BIAS,I M P L I C I T B I A S.
2016 Edition,BIAS A small Mythbusters feature,in the first chapter of this. An early chapter of the 2016,edition has a brief infographic. edition exposes the myths that helps readers visualize some. associated with implicit bias key concepts of implicit bias. STAT E O F T HE S C I E N C E I M P L I C I T B I AS R EV I EW 2 0 1 5. CLASS STATE O F TH E S C I E N C E I MP L I C I T B I AS RE V I E W 2 01 6. Download previous editions at kirwaninstitute osu edu implicit bias review. im plic it bi as im plisit b as The attitudes or, stereotypes that affect our understanding actions and. decisions in an unconscious manner Activated involuntarily. without awareness or intentional control Can be either. positive or negative Everyone is susceptible,Key Characteristics. 1 Unconscious and automatic They are activated without an. individuals intention or control 1 2, 2 Pervasive Everyone possesses them even those avowing.
commitments to impartiality 3 7, 3 Do not always align with explicit beliefs Implicit and explicit biases. are generally regarded as related but distinct mental constructs 8 11. 4 Have real world effects on behavior As discussed in this. publication and other editions of the State of the Science Implicit. Bias Review significant research has documented real world effects. of implicit bias across domains such as employment education and. criminal justice among others, 5 Are malleable The biases and associations we have formed can be. unlearned and replaced with new mental associations 1 5 12 16. Dear Reader, As the interim Executive Director for the Kirwan Institute for the Study. of Race and Ethnicity it is my great pleasure to announce the release. our 2017 issue of the State of the Science Implicit Bias Review. marking the fifth year anniversary of our flagship publication. T his release comes at a very important time More than ever. Kirwan and our partners in equity work can see the importance. of how we shape the narrative of race and equity in this country. For the last five years the State of the Science has been one of the. ways that we have been able to add depth to this often one sided. narrative by pointing to the complex underpinnings of how peoples. conception of race influences our perceptions thoughts and. relationships, This edition of the State of the Science Implicit Bias Review. was originally conceived as a way for Kirwan to get a better. understanding on what was still an emerging topic Five years ago. we could not have imagined how many of our partners would also. be interested in this resource as a way to help broaden the national. discussion on racial equity Kirwan is delighted to be able to share. this work with legal professionals non profit leaders civil rights. activists doctors teachers and everyone in between. If you have used this This release is a shining example of the tremendous effort and. resource and have dedication of our Race and Cognition Program to living out Kirwan s. feedback or just want mission The positive acclaim for this publication and its impact. on addressing real world inequities continues to make the Kirwan. to learn more about the Institute proud,Kirwan Institute please.
do not hesitate to reach At such an important milestone it is not only important to celebrate. out We look forward to the impact of our work but we must also look to the future to ensure. that the implicit bias research will continue to help us all build a more. hearing from you equitable and inclusive world For example we have some exciting. plans to make our research even more accessible and responsive. to the needs of our communities and partners We look forward to. sharing our vision for the future of the State of the Science with you. in 2018 stay tuned,ARTHUR R JAMES M D,In addition to urgent conversations. about race and criminal justice and,employment and gender discussions. about implicit bias have spread to,Hollywood the sciences and the. presidential election,JESSICA NORDELL 2017 17,1 Introduction. A s in prior years the sense that the concept of,implicit bias continually gained momentum.
in both public discourse and academic,ing roles generated a racially monolithic pool. of exclusively White nominees for the second,year in a row Even those who do not follow the. communities was hard to deny Even individuals Oscars at all inevitably heard of the controver. who maybe had never previously heard the sy as it garnered news attention and quickly. term likely were exposed to it at some point in spread through various social media platforms. 2016 As discussed in this chapter the venues ultimately yielding the popular Twitter hashtag. facilitating this exposure perhaps may have OscarsSoWhite. been unexpected or unlikely,Among several explanations that surfaced in. this dialogue one that gained particular atten, Public Discourse tion was implicit bias Scholars commentators. In terms of the general public s exposure to and and even the actors themselves called attention. efforts to grapple with the concept one of the to this unconscious phenomenon as a way of un. memorable moments that shaped early 2016 derstanding how the uniformly White nomina. was the controversy that emerged surrounding tion pool for Best Actor Actress could persist yet. the Academy Awards Indeed long before the another year For example 2014 Best Supporting. iconic gold Oscar statuettes were distributed Actress winner Lupita Nyong o shared her. on February 29th the 2016 Academy of Motion sentiments on the lack of diversity and possible. Picture Arts and Sciences 88th annual ceremo influence of implicit bias when she wrote. ny celebrating the year s achievements in film, had generated tremendous attention and buzz I am disappointed by the lack of inclusion in.
Under different circumstances this likely would this year s Academy Awards nominations It. have been a boon to the Academy holding the has me thinking about unconscious preju. promise of high television viewer ratings and dice and what merits prestige in our culture. publicity The 2016 hype and attention how The Awards should not dictate the terms. ever took a decidedly different tone when the of art in our modern society but rather be. announcement of the 20 contenders for Best a diverse reflection of the best of what our. Actor and Actress for both leading and support art has to offer today I stand with my peers. INTRODUCTION, who are calling for change in expanding the Similarly the term resurfaced in the October 4th. stories that are told and recognition of the Vice Presidential debate featuring Democratic. people who tell them 18 nominee Senator Tim Kaine and the Republi. can contender Governor Mike Pence Pence s,handling of the concept however garnered. some criticism as portions of response failed to,align with research based understandings 26. BOOKENDING THIS DIALOGUE in the latter 27 Notably Governor Pence s quote implying. months of 2016 was perhaps an even more that an individual could not have an implicit. visible platform on which implicit bias emerged bias against his or her own ingroup Senator. as a conversation topic the 2016 Presidential when African American police officers involved. and Vice Presidential debates First during the in a police action shooting involving an African. September 26th Presidential debate between American why would Hillary Clinton accuse. Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton and her that African American police officer of implicit. Republican counterpart Donald Trump NBC bias 28 does not reflect the reality that. news moderator Lester Holt addressed Clinton implicit anti ingroup bias has been documented. with an inquiry regarding whether she believed in the scholarly literature 29 33. police are implicitly biased against Black people, Her response articulated the idea that implicit Finally another notable moment from 2016. bias is not just a challenge for individuals in that provoked implicit bias conversations in the. that specific occupation everyone is susceptible public sphere included an October incident on. to these unconscious cognitive dynamics For Delta airlines in which Dr Tamika Cross a Black. more on the pervasiveness of implicit attitudes OB GYN doctor from Houston was hindered. and stereotypes see 21 Moreover in her from assisting a fellow passenger who was. response Secretary Clinton also acknowledged suffering a medical emergency because the. the often weighty implications of implicit bias flight attendants questioned whether she was. by asserting it can have literally fatal conse actually a medical professional This situation. quences 22 Supporting this latter statement is led to commentaries surrounding how implicit. a considerable body of research appropriately,dubbed shooter bias research that examines.
how law enforcement officers implicit biases,can influence decisions regarding how quickly. weapons are discharged and quite significantly,at whom see e g 23 24 25. OscarsSoWhite The 2016 Academy,Awards created controversy when the. 20 nominees for Best Actor and Actress,were announced and for the second year. in a row all were White,biases notably those involving.
race can shape who is or in,this case who is not perceived. to be a doctor 34,Trends in the Field,Looking at the academic. literature from 2016 several,trends emerged First while. children have long been an,aspect of this field of research. see e g 35 36 41 several,studies this year sought to.
examine not just the presence,of implicit bias in children but. more specifically how implicit,biases may operate differently. for this population compared During the 2016 Presidential. to adults 42 45,debate Hillary Clinton articulated. Also notable this year was substantial dis the idea that implicit bias is not just. course surrounding the notion of the Obama a challenge for individuals but that. effect that is the effect that former President everyone is susceptible to these. Barack Obama may have had on implicit racial unconscious cognitive dynamics. attitudes such as from being a highly visible,She also acknowledged the weighty. counter stereotypical exemplar As discussed in, a later chapter and highlighted in a special issue implications of implicit bias by.
of Social Cognition the research findings on this asserting it can have literally fatal. subject remain mixed consequences,Finally while police related literature on. implicit bias has traditionally been common,this year s work in that realm trended specifi.


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