1 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL DEVICE MANUFACTURER CODE OF CONDUCT Updated and Revised FAQ items are now organized by topic
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INTRODUCTION, As a goal setting process SLOs incorporate the core. elements of teaching they are based on standards, curriculum their use and results help inform instruction. and they are monitored and measured using assessment. Curriculum, At the intersection of these core elements is strategic data. use and SLOs Through a variety of assessment, techniques teachers constantly use qualitative and SLOs. quantitative data to monitor student learning and guage. the effectiveness of short and long term standards based Instruction Assessment. instruction The process of setting goals and monitoring. progress toward those goals is simply part of strong. instructional practice and participating in goal setting. processes increases the impact an educator has on student. In Rhode Island educators create SLOs based on long term learning goals for students When writing an. SLO teachers ask themselves the following three Essential Questions. 1 What are the most important knowledge skills I want my students to attain by the end of. the interval of instruction, 2 Where are my students now at the beginning of instruction with respect to the objective. 3 Based on what I know about my students where do I expect them to be by the end of the. interval of instruction and how will they demonstrate their knowledge skills. Once educators have answered the first two essential questions by identifying the Priority of Content and. examining baseline data and information they are ready to answer the third essential question and think. about where students should be at the end of the interval of instruction targets and how they will. demonstrate their skills knowledge evidence sources. A CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF TARGET SETTING,AS PART OF THE SLO PROCESS. WHAT IS A TARGET AND WHY IS SETTING ONE AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THE SLO PROCESS. The third essential question prompts educators to articulate the level of content knowledge or skills that. are critical for students to develop while in the educator s class this is the target s Writing a target. involves defining the level of content knowledge and skills that students will have at the end of the. interval of instruction A target is not simply a test score A. target may be expressed as a score on an assessment but that. score must represent a level of performance that reflects students. A target is not simply a, performance on critical content knowledge and skills Only after. you define the knowledge and skills that students will develop test score. can you find or create the right evidence source to allow students. to demonstrate these knowledge and skills along with defining cut scores if necessary. Furthermore, There must be a target for each student in the class represented by the SLO. The target should be measurable and, The target should be rigorous yet attainable for the interval of instruction in most cases the. target should be tiered to reflect students differing baselines. At its most basic target setting for SLOs occurs when educators describe. where students are in regards to the prioritized content knowledge or. skills at the beginning of the interval of instruction Point A and then. name a goal for where students will be in regards to that knowledge and. skills at the end of the interval of instruction Point B. One Rhode Island school leader described the SLO process and the act of setting targets as follows An. SLO is nothing more than a roadmap We have a destination but there are pits and stops along the way. where you pull over and use the map to reflect and to redirect where necessary so that you can get to that. destination, In order to set rigorous but realistic targets you need at least. a basic idea of where students are starting that is baseline. It is important to note that data Tool 2 in the Assessment Toolkit along with the. accompanying online module discusses baseline data and. the three elements, information and how it can help with the target setting. included in the three process For a link to the resources please see page 15. essential questions are, It is important to note that the elements included. interconnected knowledge skills baseline data information targets and. assessments in the three essential questions are, interconnected targets are connected to student baseline data information and also to the assessment an. educator is using all of which is related to the content and skills of the objective statement. HOW DO YOU DETERMINE TARGETS THAT ARE RIGOROUS YET ATTAINABLE. While setting targets educators and evaluators are encouraged to consider what is rigorous yet attainable. for students But educators often ask How do you determine what is rigorous and attainable Setting. targets that are too rigorous so that they are unrealistic hurts students and teachers alike Conversely. setting targets that are not adequately rigorous can hurt students by lowering the expectations adults. have for them and decreasing necessary urgency for significant progress Finding a middle ground by. trying to answer this question directly is rarely fruitful. Alternatively educators and evaluators should use the following three questions to guide them as they. write review and approve SLO targets for students in the educator s class or course. 1 What does mastery or proficiency of the relevant course or grade level standards or. curriculum look like, 2 What amount of progress toward that mastery or proficiency represents a year s worth of. 3 What are the implications if students make a year s worth of learning. Answering the three questions above can be challenging but it s a vital task for educators to engage in. Ultimately it will help educators and districts as they simultaneously write SLOs develop their. comprehensive assessment systems and work toward larger educational goals As educators answer. these questions they can utilize data from prior SLOs to better evaluate the breadth and depth of content. rigor of target and student readiness for the next level of instruction. For additional guidance on answering the three core questions that educators and evaluators should use. to help them write review and approve SLO targets see below. 1 WHAT DOES MASTERY OR PROFICIENCY OF THE RELEVANT COURSE OR GRADE LEVEL. STANDARDS AND CURRICULUM LOOK LIKE, Once the content focus of an SLO has been set the teacher should think about or if possible discuss with. colleagues what it would look like for students to demonstrate that learning. What would students know and be able to do by the end of the interval of instruction. How can students demonstrate what they know and are able to do. Does the evidence source selected for the SLO allow for them to demonstrate that knowledge and. understanding If so the next step is to determine the level of performance on that assessment that would. indicate basic proficiency by asking At what point would the teacher feel adequately confident that the. student has progressed or learned enough to be positioned for success in the next course or grade level. 2 WHAT AMOUNT OF PROGRESS TOWARD MASTERY OR PROFICIENCY REPRESENTS A. YEAR S WORTH OF LEARNING, A rough metric that can be helpful for teachers to keep in mind when setting preliminary targets is the. year s worth of learning Courses and curricula are aligned to standards that represent what is. expected to be learned over the period of instruction Teachers should first look to their standards and. curriculum to determine the skills and content knowledge students should have by the end of the interval. of instruction, While the default target for any SLO should reflect mastery. of the relevant course or grade level standards the reality is. that not all students begin with the same level of While the default target for any. preparedness Educators need to determine what a year s SLO should reflect mastery of the. worth of learning would look like for students who enter relevant course or grade level. significantly below or significantly above grade level standards the reality is that not. expectations and targets may be tiered to reflect,all students begin with the same. differentiated expectations for learning In all cases. educators should use their standards as a guide for level of preparedness. understanding what students should be mastering year to. 3 WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS IF STUDENTS MAKE A YEAR S WORTH OF LEARNING. If educators set targets that reflect a year s worth of learning as defined above they should consider what the. implications would be if students met those targets Ultimately if educators cannot say that targets support. students in being prepared for the next level of instruction narrowing or closing achievement gaps or. deepening their skills and content knowledge to a new and advanced level then they are not rigorous. For simplicity the following guidance is framed for educators whose interval of instruction is a full school. year However the guidance is equally applicable to educators who teach for an interval of instruction. less than a year Educators and evaluators should consider the following while reflecting on their targets for. For students meeting grade level expectations will they make enough progress so that they are. ready for the next level of instruction e g the next course or grade level Students who enter a. course with the necessary prerequisite knowledge or skills should be expected to master the relevant. course or grade level standards If they do not they will fall behind grade level expectations and an. achievement gap will have been created, For those students coming in behind grade level expectations does this amount of progress help. each student narrow or close maintain or widen an achievement gap While students in lower tiers. may have a lower absolute target reaching it may require them to make more progress than students with. higher targets resulting in a closing or narrowing of the achievement gap s At some point these students. who begin the course behind will need to make more than. a year s worth of learning otherwise they will never Since targets can be tiered. catch up Targets can be tiered but they should not calcify. they should not calcify, achievement gaps The need for fairness and appropriateness. should be balanced by the need to challenge lower achieving achievement gaps. students and intensify their services and interventions to. catch up to their peers Obviously this is a challenge that cannot be addressed solely by an individual teacher. setting a target on an SLO The school and district must identify resources needed to help students who have. fallen behind catch up and close the achievement gap. For students who are coming in ahead of grade level expectations does this amount of progress. ensure that each student deepens their skills and content knowledge and continues to be. challenged to a new and advanced level Students who enter the course with prerequisite knowledge. or skills that exceed what is expected or required should deepen their learning or advance to the next set. of grade level skills If students do not make this amount of progress then they have lost their advanced. development, Targets for students who are English Language Learners or for those who have a disability require. additional consideration In some cases evidence may need to be differentiated for English Language. Learners to account for how they currently demonstrate content skills and knowledge All teachers. should ensure their content targets for English Language Learners are informed by students language. comprehension and communication skills Educators of students with IEPs should collaborate with other. teachers and staff members to review present levels of academic and functional performance and. historical data to set appropriate targets that narrow and ultimately close achievement gaps. THE PROCESS OF DETERMINING TARGETS FOR,STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES. There are seven steps for writing an SLO below and they are explained in greater detail in The Process for. Writing a Student Learning Objective A Guide for Educators in Rhode Island. STEPS FOR WRITING A STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVE,1 Write the Logistical Information. 2 Identify What s Most Important Priority of Content. 3 Gather and Analyze Baseline Data and Information. 4 Determine Target s for Students, a Choose the most appropriate type of target to utilize. The appropriateness of the type is very much dependent on the content. addressed by the SLO and in some cases the instrument available to measure. that learning In addition a single SLO might employ different types of targets. for different groups of students For more information on types of targets see. b Tier target s based on student starting points and supports. Look at baseline data and information and consider what a year s worth of. learning would look like for different students based on their starting points. Consider the variety and level of supports students will receive throughout the year. For more information on tiering targets see page 10. c Ask the reflection questions, For students entering on grade level will they make enough progress so that. they are ready for the next level of instruction e g the next course or grade. For those students coming in behind grade level expectations does this amount. of progress help each student narrow or close maintain or widen an. achievement gap, For students who are coming in ahead of grade level expectations does this. amount of progress ensure that each student deepens their skills and content. knowledge and continues to be challenged to a new and advanced level. d Write a rationale for the target s, The rationale does not need to be overly detailed or complex but should give. context to the targets,5 Describe your Evidence Source s. a Does your evidence source s allow students to demonstrate what they know. and are able to do in relation to the content addressed by the SLO and your. If multiple evidence sources are used what is the relationship between them For. more information on using multiple measures see page 15. 6 Review the SLO, 7 Use the SLO to Inform Teaching and Learning Throughout the Year. This document focuses on Steps 4 and 5 though all the steps are interconnected and cannot be divorced. from one another While the factors described in steps 4 and 5 represent a logical process one does not. have to follow it in its exact order That being said all of them are important for educators and their. evaluators to consider and set thoughtful targets Short case studies that illustrate the different ways. educators can set targets can be found on pages 13 14. If educators are at Step 4 in the SLO writing process and are ready to determine targets for student. learning then they should have already considered factors that may impact targets like the following. Grade level or course standards and curriculum, Baseline data and information including historical data on the growth and mastery of past. students as well as national norms if applicable,The interval of instruction. When writing or reviewing targets in an SLO educators should consider three criteria to determine their. quality including, 1 Are all students included in the SLO addressed by the tiers Every student in the class needs a. target If tiers are being utilized then every student in a specific tier has the same target whether. it defines the amount of progress or level of mastery students will achieve. 2 Is the target s measurable Could you track the progress of the students e g X move from. level A to level B given how the targets are defined If not it s not measurable. 3 Based on the baseline data information or assumptions about student mastery levels does the. target s reflect a learning goal that is rigorous yet attainable for all students by the end of. the interval of instruction In other words are you able to answer positively to all three reflection. These three criteria are included on the SLO Self Audit for LEAs and Schools and are referenced in the. SLO Quality Review Tool Links to these resources are located on page 18. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT TARGET SETTING, Many teachers in Rhode Island have been setting goals for students for a long time so the process of. selecting an instructional focus and articulating the objective of an SLO can feel familiar Additionally all. teachers assess students and many have been deepening their assessment literacy in recent years through. coursework Professional Growth Goals and district professional development initiatives On the other. hand setting specific targets that capture students progress throughout an extended instructional time is. less familiar for most Through state wide surveys trainings workgroups and conversations educators. have reported that setting targets continues to be a challenging aspect of the SLO process for teachers and. administrators in Rhode Island this is understandable and has resulted in educators raising many. important questions that get to the heart of teaching and learning. Below are five questions that educators across the state have been asking as they write SLOs and set. targets for student learning, HOW DO I KNOW WHAT THE STANDARD FOR PROFICIENCY SHOULD BE FOR A LOCAL. ASSESSMENT, Standard setting is the process of selecting cut scores on an assessment that reflect the target knowledge. and skills A cut score is the score that defines the minimum performance required for a particular level. of achievement on an assessment In the most basic version a single cut score might define the level of. achievement or proficiency necessary to pass an assessment The actual score can take many forms a. 3 on a 4 point rubric a C on an essay exam or a 70 on a 100 point test. Whatever the form the basic cut score should indicate the same thing this student has demonstrated. minimal proficiency needed to meet the expected performance The number or letter itself is arbitrary. without a strong link to the insight it provides about student learning How high the standard should be. set depends on the difficulty of both the construct the material being measured and the assessment s. design For instance a health teacher might set a cut score of 90 on a multiple choice quiz that assesses. basic but critical knowledge For that assessment earning a score of 90 demonstrates minimal. proficiency In other cases like an AP exam minimal proficiency is set at 3 on a 5 point scale RIDE has. developed A Process for Local Standard Setting that groups of educators can use to determine an. appropriate cut score on teacher created assessments A link to this document can be found on page 18. HOW CAN THERE BE COMPARABILITY BETWEEN LOCAL ASSESSMENTS. Implementing educator evaluation in ways that are consistent and fair is important Many evaluators. want to ensure there is comparability across SLOs in terms of their breadth and depth and the rigor of. the assessments and targets However scores on different assessments represent very different amounts. and types of learning If one classroom s students all earn an 80 on one literacy assessment it isn t. necessarily comparable to an 80 on a different math assessment So even if everyone in the state had the. same cut score it would not mean that the targets are comparable Rather comparability can be achieved. when groups of educators work together to examine assessments to ensure they are of high quality and. provide evidence of the desired target Groups of educators participating in standard setting processes. and aligning targets vertically across grades and horizontally across classrooms within grades can also. enhance comparability between schools within and ultimately among districts Most important to. remember is that a target is not a score on an assessment a target names the level of knowledge or skills. students will attain and a score on an assessment indicates whether students have demonstrated the. extent of knowledge and skills you identified as the target. WHY ISN T ASSIGNING TARGETS THE SOLUTION TO COMPARABLE RIGOR. Although setting targets is a challenge it is also the case that assigning targets to teachers is not the. solution Most importantly when districts departments or administrators assign targets educators lose. the opportunity to engage reflect and learn from the work embedded in the SLO process The questions. and conversations that must be had as part of writing SLOs are meaty and important in many ways they. cut to the heart of teaching and learning These conversations and the challenges they can unearth are. not only worthy but crucial for educators schools and districts to grapple with. Additionally assigned targets often feel arbitrary and or ill fitting for teachers who may not have a clear. understanding of why a particular target has been chosen by the district their administrator or even a. group of their colleagues It can feel more like something that was plucked from thin air than a. meaningful guidepost for student learning e g 80 of students will reach X and 20 of students will. reach Y When this occurs the target feels disconnected from their work and as a result the SLO process. ceases to be productive and informative, This is why a key feature of Rhode Island s SLO model is that it encourages teachers ideally in. collaboration with their colleagues to be actively involved in setting targets for their own students The. teachers participation is critical to the target being both meaningful and appropriate. HOW CAN I TIER TARGETS SO THAT THEY ARE RIGOROUS BUT ATTAINABLE FOR ALL. As educators we know that our students enter our classrooms with a range of knowledge and skills In. some courses most students enter with very little background knowledge about the subject area as in an. introductory course to a world language for example In this case the teacher would likely have similar. expectations for what students will know and be able to do upon completion of the course In other cases. particularly in courses that focus on more linear content that spans many grade levels such as reading. comprehension students background knowledge and skills will have significant bearing on their. expected performance by the end of the course When a group of students enters a course with great. differences in how prepared they are to access the content the teacher will likely want to set tiered. targets This means that different students or more. commonly different groups of students are expected to. make different amounts of progress or reach different All students are expected to. levels of proficiency by the end of the interval of meet their targets but those. instruction All students in a course including multiple. sections if applicable should be included in an educator s. targets should be tiered to be, SLO and all students are expected to meet their targets but appropriate for each student. those targets should be tiered to be appropriate for each. Setting tiered targets based on students prerequisite knowledge and skills helps to ensure that the targets. are rigorous and attainable for all students Students entering a course with high proficiency or robust. prerequisite skills will need to be challenged by a higher target For students entering a course with lower. proficiency or lacking prerequisite skills a more modest target may be appropriate in order to ensure that. it is reasonably attainable within the interval of instruction That said the intent of tiered targets is not to. solidify achievement gaps but to support their narrowing The need for fairness and appropriateness. should be balanced by the need to challenge lower achieving students to catch up to their peers. Additionally while students in lower tiers may have a lower absolute target reaching it may require. them to make more progress than students with higher targets. Teachers can set as many tiers as is appropriate to help ensure that each student is appropriately. challenged While they have the option to set a different target for each student in most cases that is not. necessary because students can be grouped into tiers with peers who have similar prerequisite skills or. preparedness In some classes there may be two distinct groups in others there may be four However a. fairly simple approach that can be used to begin is to group students into one of three categories those. who are entering the course with the expected level of preparedness those who are entering the course. with a lower than expected level of preparedness and those who are entering the course with a higher. than expected level of preparedness Of course in order to do this the teacher must have a sense of. students incoming knowledge and skills which underscores the need for sound baseline data and. information, Figure 1 below illustrates this concept with a 6th grade math class which includes twenty four students. with three different starting places and targets,5th grade 6th grade 7th grade. skills content skills content skills content,knowledge knowledge knowledge. In the figure above the group of students in blue began the year with the prerequisite skills and. knowledge for 6th grade Their targets would get them to a place where they could demonstrate. preparedness for 7th grade skills and content knowledge The students in red who arrived a year behind. their on level peers had targets that would narrow their learning gap In this case it might have been. unattainable to expect students to completely close the gap but if they reach their targets and make a. similar amount of growth the following year they will be able to eliminate the achievement gap and reach. proficiency The four students in purple who started the year with more advanced skills and content. knowledge had targets that were comparable in growth to the blue students setting the expectation that. they will improve by a year s worth of learning If the purple group met their target they would maintain. their above grade level status, As shown in Figure 1 it is unlikely that there will be an equal distribution of students across all three. categories There may not be any students who fall into one of these categories Or the teacher may. decide that there are important differences among the students in one of the groups and it needs to be. disaggregated into a fourth tier The point of this exercise is not to permanently label students or create. tidy groupings Rather the point is to give teachers a way to meaningfully differentiate targets so that. they are adequately rigorous and reasonably attainable for all students. Figure 2 below shows what can happen when one mastery target is set for all students In this example. the target appears to be rigorous and attainable for the blue group but it does not seem feasible that the. red group would completely close their learning gap in a single year Additionally if these targets were. met the purple group would make little progress and lose the advanced status they started with. 5th grade 6th grade 7th grade,skills content skills content skills content. knowledge knowledge knowledge, Figure 3 illustrates an example of an SLO with a common goal that all students make about a year s. worth of learning While this might be rigorous and attainable for some students it sets the expectation. that the red group which is currently behind grade level will not make any progress toward narrowing. the achievement gap In fact in the example below the achievement gap will have widened for the red. group It is also important to consider what additional supports the group may receive or be eligible for. In other words if it is important for the red group to make more than a year s worth of learning and they. are receiving additional support then it makes sense for them to have a more rigorous target. 5th grade 6th grade 7th grade,skills content skills content skills content. knowledge knowledge knowledge, SHOULD I EXPRESS TARGETS IN TERMS OF PROGRESS OR ACHIEVEMENT. There are two ways of expressing targets and neither is. better than the other Rather it is essential that the type Each way of expressing targets. of target chosen fits the content and assessment being. shows students progress, used Each way of expressing targets shows students. progress toward the mastery of essential skills and toward proficiency on essential. knowledge Below are descriptions for how targets can skills and knowledge. be articulated, Progress or the amount of improvement A target can be expressed in terms of the progress or the. amount of improvement the teacher expects the students to make from the beginning to end of a given. interval of instruction Given that they are based largely on students starting points describing a target. this way is most appropriate for constructs the content being measured that are linear in nature or that. clearly build upon pre requisite knowledge and skills Reading levels are a good example of this type of. construct because there are many well established scales that describe sequential levels of attainment. Progress targets can be individual or tiered but the critical piece is that the amount of progress should be. based on asking the Core Questions and by following the steps outlined earlier on pages 7 and 8 Lastly. if expressing targets in terms of progress it is important to note that a true pre test post test approach. does not have to be utilized For more guidance on when a pre test post test approach would be. appropriate please see the Using Baseline Data to Set SLO Targets guidance document and online. module which are linked on page 18, Achievement expectations Targets can also be expressed in a way that describes achievement. expectations students must meet by the end of the interval of instruction in order to be considered. proficient or ready to advance to the next course or grade Expressing targets in this manner by defining. mastery of content knowledge or skills may be more appropriate for some content areas without well. established levels or scales e g Chemistry U S History or Health It should be noted however that the. same level of mastery needn t be set for all students just as the same amount of progress needn t be. identical for all students It may be appropriate given students differing levels of background. knowledge or preparedness for the course to expect different groups of students to meet different levels. of mastery e g Minimally Proficient Proficient Proficient with Distinction or different levels of. However a target is expressed there are a few key, points that are necessary to highlight First no single. No single way of phrasing a target way of phrasing a target whether in terms of student. whether in terms of student progress progress or achievement is better or more rigorous. or achievement is better or more than the other Oftentimes targets can simply be. rephrased from one form into another For instance an. rigorous than the other Oftentimes, elementary teacher with an SLO focused on literacy. targets can simply be rephrased from, development could have targets aimed at increasing. one form into another, student reading levels The following table illustrates. that while the targets can be described in either of two. ways the targets remain the same, or Tier of Students Baseline Data Information Target. 1 Reading Level P Reading Level S,2 Reading Level R Reading Level U. 3 Reading Level T Reading Level W,Target s expressed in terms of progress. All students will make 3 levels worth of progress by the end of the year. Target s expressed in terms of achievement, Students in Tier 1 will read at level S by the end of the year. Students in Tier 2 will read at level U by the end of the year. Students in Tier 3 will read at level W by the end of the year. The targets above are expressed in terms of a test score but what they indicate about student learning is. the key While these targets may represent a year s worth of learning the implications are that if. Student 1 is behind grade level then the achievement gap will have persisted into the following school. year Note that in the example above all students made the same amount of progress three levels. however it may be appropriate for some students like those in Tier 1 to show more progress than their. peers as discussed on pages 11 and 12, The way you choose to express the target for an SLO. should not be arbitrarily chosen nor should it be selected The appropriateness of the type of. wholesale for use across a district or school The target is very much dependent on. appropriateness of the type of target is very much. the content addressed by the SLO,dependent on the content addressed by the SLO For. example content areas that focus more on the acquisition. of a body of knowledge such as Biology or U S History may be less appropriate to express targets in. terms of progress and more appropriately suited to express them in terms of student achievement In fact. some teachers might have one SLO that is described through progress e g improved reading levels and. another defined through mastery e g mastery of ELA content such as literacy devices narrative. structure character archetypes etc In addition a single SLO might employ differently worded targets. for different groups of students For example a teacher might set a mastery target for the majority of the. class and a progress target for a smaller group who are unlikely to meet proficiency within the interval of. instruction due to a lack of prerequisite skills, Whether expressing targets in terms of progress or. mastery all students must have targets that challenge them. It is not appropriate to state that a appropriately whether they begin the course at below or. percentage of students will meet a above grade level expectations It is not appropriate to. target and another percentage will state that a percentage of students will meet a target and. simply show growth without another percentage will simply show growth without. having clear measurable targets having clear measurable targets that are appropriately. that are appropriately rigorous rigorous If above grade level students are expected to. maintain a certain usually high level of proficiency across. an interval of instruction then their target should represent. student learning across that interval it should not be the expectation that students will simply not lose. the knowledge or skills with which they entered the course The expectation should be that students. arriving above grade level expectations maintain their high level of proficiency or performance on a new. set of standards on increasingly rigorous texts content or according to a more rigorous rubric or. assessment, HOW CAN I WRITE TARGETS IF I INCLUDE MULTIPLE MEASURES. In some cases a single assessment cannot measure the full. breadth of an SLO and some educators may worry about. Whenever any assessment is used, putting so much stock in a single assessment Rhode Island. in SLOs whether it is a single, educators are encouraged to use multiple measures in their. assessment or a variety of, teaching and in their SLOs in order to gain a more complete. picture of student learning Targets with multiple assessments the goal is always to. measures can be interpreted in different ways and the offer students opportunity to. following section attempts to differentiate and discuss the demonstrate their skills and. elements of each Whenever any assessment is used as an content knowledge and for. evidence source for an SLO whether it is a single educators to determine if students. assessment or a variety of assessments the goal is always to can perform at the desired level. offer students opportunity to demonstrate their skills and. content knowledge and for educators to determine if. students can perform at the desired level, Multiple assessments that measure different constructs The most common way multiple measures are. used in SLOs is when an educator has multiple assessments that measure different constructs the content. being measured For example an ELA teacher might have an SLO that focuses on student progress in. narrative argument and expository writing The SLO might be measured by three summative writing. pieces spanning these three types of writing A World Language final exam might be made up of a. written portion and an oral portion Or an art or science portfolio assessment might include many pieces. of student work representing a range of skills addressed by the SLO or indicating that students can. consistently demonstrate a certain level of proficiency In these examples it is recommended that the. multiple measures be conjunctive rather than compensatory Conjunctive measures are used in tandem. because they measure different content or skills that are both addressed by an SLO Typically the. expectation is that the student will meet the target on each source of evidence. Multiple assessments that measure the same constructs A second way of having multiple measures is. by using multiple assessments that measure the same constructs like if an elementary teacher assessing. students literacy skills used AIMSweb DRA2 and STAR While these three assessments are not. identical the skills they measure have great overlap One important caution in this approach is checking. to ensure students are not being over assessed through redundant testing If the assessments truly. measure the same construct and new insight into student learning is not provided through additional. assessments then the higher quality or better aligned evidence source should be used. If these assessments are used conjunctively as described above then students are expected to reach. targets on each independent measure Educators should consider why it would be appropriate to require. students to demonstrate the same knowledge and skills on multiple assessments If used in a. compensatory manner then the assessments compensate for each other and high performance on one.
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1 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL DEVICE MANUFACTURER CODE OF CONDUCT Updated and Revised FAQ items are now organized by topic
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