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Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Section Cell Theory 3 1 Study Guide
STUDY GUIDE CONTINUED,Cell Structure and Function, MAIN IDEA Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and most internal structures of. eukaryotic cells, In the top left side of the Y shape below write the characteristics of eukaryotic cells In. the top right side of the Y shape below write the characteristics of prokaryotic cells At. the bottom of the Y shape below write the characteristics that both kinds of cells have in. common Then lightly cross out those characteristics at the top of the Y. Eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells, Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. Vocabulary Check,8 What is cytoplasm,9 Where do you find organelles. 10 What statements summarize scientists concepts of cells. 11 Which type of cells have no nucleus,2 Study Guide Unit 2 Resource Book. McDougal Littell Biology,SECTION CELL THEORY,3 1 Power Notes. Cell Structure and Function, Scientists who contributed to the cell theory The principles of cell theory. Important technological advances,The cell theory is. Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. This is a cell,This is a cell,All cells have,Unit 2 Resource Book Power Notes 3. McDougal Littell Biology,SECTION CELL THEORY,3 1 Reinforcement. Cell Structure and Function,KEY CONCEPT Cells are the basic unit of life. The invention of the microscope in the late 1500s revealed to early scientists a whole. new world of tiny cells Most cells are so small that they cannot be seen without a. microscope The discoveries of scientists from the 1600s through the 1800s led to the. cell theory which is a unifying concept of biology The cell theory has three major. principles,All organisms are made of cells, All existing cells are produced by other living cells. The cell is the most basic unit of life, All cells can be divided into two major groups prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cells. The main differences between the two kinds of cells are in their structure. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus defined by a membrane while prokaryotic cells. have no nucleus, In eukaryotic cells the DNA or genetic information is found in the nucleus In. prokaryotic cells the DNA is found in the cytoplasm the jellylike substance. that fills both types of cells, Eukaryotic cells have organelles structures that perform jobs for a cell Most. organelles are surrounded by membranes Prokaryotic cells do not have organelles. surrounded by membranes, Prokaryotic cells make up organisms called prokaryotes All prokaryotes are tiny. and consist of single cells Bacteria are prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells make. up eukaryotes You are a eukaryote as are plants and some types of single celled. organisms All multicellular organisms or organisms that have many cells are. eukaryotes, Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. 1 What is the smallest most basic unit of life,2 Where is the DNA in a prokaryote in a eukaryote. 3 Why would you need a microscope to see a prokaryotic organism. 4 A friend tells you he read somewhere that rotting garbage can turn into maggots which. are fly larvae and the maggots then can grow into adult flies What part of the cell. theory could you use to refute his claim,4 Reinforcement Unit 2 Resource Book. McDougal Littell Biology,SECTION CELL ORGANELLES,3 2 Study Guide. Cell Structure and Function,KEY CONCEPT,VOCABULARY. Eukaryotic cells share many cytoskeleton Golgi apparatus lysosome. similarities nucleus vesicle centriole,endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion cell wall. ribosome vacuole chloroplast,MAIN IDEA Cells have an internal structure. 1 Look at Figure 3 5 in your textbook What are the functions of a cytoskeleton. 2 How is a cytoskeleton like your skeleton,3 How is a cytoskeleton like your muscles. MAIN IDEA Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins. Write either the function or the name of each organelle Draw a sketch to help you remember. Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. Organelle Function Sketch,5 helps in the production of. proteins and lipids,6 ribosomes,7 Golgi apparatus,8 carries certain molecules from. place to place within a cell,Unit 2 Resource Book Study Guide 5. McDougal Littell Biology,STUDY GUIDE CONTINUED,Cell Structure and Function. MAIN IDEA Other organelles have various functions, Write the function of each organelle Draw a sketch to help you remember it. Organelle Function Sketch,9 mitochondrion,10 vacuole. 11 lysosome,12 centriole, MAIN IDEA Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts. 13 What role do cell walls play in a plant, 14 What is the difference between a cell wall and a cell membrane. Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. 15 Why are chloroplasts important,Vocabulary Check. 16 Which cell part is a maze of folded membranes where proteins and lipids are produced. 17 Which cell part converts food into energy that is usable by a cell. 6 Study Guide Unit 2 Resource Book,McDougal Littell Biology. SECTION CELL ORGANELLES,3 2 Power Notes,Cell Structure and Function. Cell Organelle Organelle Function Organelle Image, Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. Unit 2 Resource Book Power Notes 7,McDougal Littell Biology. SECTION CELL ORGANELLES,3 2 Reinforcement,Cell Structure and Function. KEY CONCEPT Eukaryotic cells share many similarities. Plants animals and some single celled organisms are eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells have an organized. internal structure and organelles that are surrounded by membranes Organelles look different from. each other and have different functions Several have a specific job in making and processing proteins. so that a cell can live function and reproduce Plant and animal cells have a lot of the same parts but. a few of their parts are different The list below tells you what each cell part does. Part Job and Description, nucleus double membrane layer that stores and protects DNA includes the nucleolus a. dense region where ribosomes are assembled, endoplasmic network of thin folded membranes that help produce proteins and lipids two kinds. reticulum ER of ER smooth and rough, ribosomes tiny round organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins may be in the. cytoplasm or on the ER which makes it look rough, Golgi apparatus stacked layers of membranes that sort package and deliver proteins. vesicles little sacs that carry different molecules where they re needed made and broken. down as needed by the cell, mitochondria bean shaped organelles that release energy from sugars for the cell. centrioles found in animal cells organize microtubules to form cilia and flagella. vacuoles sacs that store materials for the cell the materials might be water food molecules. ions and enzymes, cell walls strong layer that protects supports and gives shape to plant cells not found in. animal cells, chloroplasts change energy from the sun into chemical energy for the plant not found in animal. cytoplasm jellylike substance that fills a cell, cell membrane double layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and its. surrounding environment, Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. lysosomes membrane bound organelles that contain enzymes. 1 What are two characteristics of eukaryotic cells. 2 What is the function of mitochondria, 3 What two organelles are found in plant cells but not in animal cells. 8 Reinforcement Unit 2 Resource Book,McDougal Littell Biology. SECTION CELL MEMBRANE,3 3 Study Guide,Cell Structure and Function. KEY CONCEPT,VOCABULARY, The cell membrane is a barrier that cell membrane selective permeability. separates a cell from the external phospholipid receptor. environment,fluid mosaic model, MAIN IDEA Cell membranes are composed of two phospholipid layers. 1 Draw a phospholipid in the box below Label the three major parts. 2 Which part of a phospholipid is charged or polar. 3 Which part of a phospholipid is nonpolar, Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. 4 What type of molecules interact with water polar or nonpolar. 5 Where does a cell membrane come into contact with water. 6 Why do the phospholipids surrounding the cell form a bilayer. A cell membrane has other types of molecules embedded in the phospholipid bilayer List a. function of each type of molecule in the table below. Molecule Function,7 Cholesterol,8 Proteins,9 Carbohydrates. Unit 2 Resource Book Study Guide 9,McDougal Littell Biology. STUDY GUIDE CONTINUED,Cell Structure and Function,10 In what way is a membrane fluid. 11 Draw a picture in the box below to represent selective permeability. outside inside, MAIN IDEA Chemical signals are transmitted across the cell membrane. 12 A detects a signal molecule and carries out an action in response. 13 A is a molecule that acts as a signal when it binds to a receptor. 14 A ligand that can cross the cell membrane can bind to an receptor. Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. 15 A ligand that cannot cross the cell membrane can send a message to a cell by binding to. a receptor which then shape,Vocabulary Check,16 What is the fluid mosaic model. 17 The cell membrane allows some but not all molecules to cross What term describes. this property,10 Study Guide Unit 2 Resource Book,McDougal Littell Biology. SECTION CELL MEMBRANE,3 3 Power Notes,Cell Structure and Function. Functions Phospholipids,Cell Membrane,Fluid mosaic model. Other molecules, Sketch a semipermeable membrane Selective permeability. Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. Intracellular,Unit 2 Resource Book Power Notes 11,McDougal Littell Biology. SECTION CELL MEMBRANE,3 3 Reinforcement,Cell Structure and Function. KEY CONCEPT The cell membrane is a barrier that separates a cell from the external. environment, The cell membrane forms a boundary that separates the inside of a cell from the outside. environment It plays an active role by controlling the passage of materials into and. out of a cell and by responding to signals The membrane is made of molecules called. phospholipids which consist of three parts 1 a charged phosphate group 2 glycerol. 3 two fatty acid chains, The structure of phospholipids gives them distinct chemical properties The phosphate. group and glycerol form a polar head The fatty acid chains form a nonpolar tail Cells. are both surrounded by water and contain water In the cell membrane phospholipids. form a double layer or bilayer In this way the polar heads interact with the polar water. molecules outside and inside a cell The nonpolar tails are sandwiched together inside. the bilayer away from the water, The cell membrane also includes a variety of molecules that give the membrane properties. it would not otherwise have,Cholesterol molecules make the membrane stronger. Proteins help molecules and ions cross the membrane and can act as receptors. proteins that detect a signal and respond by performing an action. Carbohydrates help cells distinguish one cell type from another. The fluid mosaic model describes the characteristics and makeup of the cell membrane. The phospholipids can slip past each other like a fluid The membrane is made up of. many different molecules like a mosaic, Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. The cell membrane has a property called selective permeability which means that it. allows some molecules to cross but blocks others Selective permeability helps a cell. maintain homeostasis, Cells have receptors both in the cell membrane and inside the cell Receptors help cells. communicate with other cells and respond to the environment. Membrane receptors bind to signals that cannot cross the cell membrane They cross. the membrane and transmit a message inside the cell by changing shape. Intracellular receptors are located inside a cell and bind to molecules that can cross. the cell membrane They may interact with DNA to control certain genes. 1 Why do phospholipids form a bilayer in the cell membrane. 2 How does a sieve or colander demonstrate the property of selective permeability. 12 Reinforcement Unit 2 Resource Book,McDougal Littell Biology. SECTION DIFFUSION AND OSMOSIS,3 4 Study Guide,Cell Structure and Function. KEY CONCEPT,VOCABULARY, Materials move passive transport osmosis hypotonic. across membranes diffusion isotonic facilitated diffusion. because of,concentration gradient hypertonic,concentration. differences, MAIN IDEA Diffusion and osmosis are types of passive transport. 1 What is a concentration gradient, 2 What does it mean for a molecule to diffuse down a concentration gradient. Complete the concept map below about passive transport. Passive transport 7,requires no,example example, Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. is gets energy from is,the diffusion,5 6 of water, 8 The higher the concentration of dissolved particles in a solution the. the concentration of water molecules in that solution. Unit 2 Resource Book Study Guide 13,McDougal Littell Biology. STUDY GUIDE CONTINUED,Cell Structure and Function, Suppose you have three solutions with different concentrations of particles Relative to the. concentration of particles in a cell one solution is isotonic one is hypertonic and one is. hypotonic Use this information to answer the next two questions. 9 Which solution has the highest concentration of particles. 10 Which solution has the highest concentration of water molecules. MAIN IDEA Some molecules diffuse through transport proteins. 11 How does facilitated diffusion differ from simple diffusion. 12 In facilitated diffusion do molecules move down a concentration gradient or against a. concentration gradient,Vocabulary Check, 13 The difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another is a. Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. 14 People with excess energy are described as hyper How does this relate to the meaning. of hypertonic, 15 The word facilitate means to make easier How does this meaning apply to facilitated. 14 Study Guide Unit 2 Resource Book,McDougal Littell Biology. SECTION DIFFUSION AND OSMOSIS,3 4 Power Notes,Cell Structure and Function. Sketch molecules diffusing into a cell Passive transport. 1 outside 3 inside,Diffusion Osmosis,How do different solutions affect cells. Label the type of solution each red blood cell is in. Draw arrows on each cell to show the direction of osmosis. Copyright McDougal Littell Houghton Mifflin Company. Sketch molecules entering a cell by facilitated Facilitated diffusion. 1 outside 3 inside,Unit 2 Resource Book Power Notes 15.
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