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Rethinking masculinities and young age primary school
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Table of Contents,List of Tables vi,List of Figures vii. Key to Transcriptions viii,Abstract ix,Declaration x. Acknowledgements xi,INTRODUCTION Intersections of Age and Gender 1. PART I Situating the Research in Context 7,CHAPTER ONE Theoretical Frameworks 8. Introduction 8,Theorising Gender and Masculinities 8.
Hegemonic Masculinity and Complicit Masculinities 9. Non hegemonic Masculinities 13,External Hegemony Theorising femininities 15. Building on Connell s Framework Post structuralism and discourse 17. Theorising and Researching Gender and Young Age 23. Feminist Approaches to Childhood and Youth 25, Feminist Approaches to Schooling Boys and Masculinities 27. Boys and Hegemonic Masculinity in Connell s Theorising 30. Connell s Masculinities in Empirical Research with Primary School Boys 32. Critiques of Using Masculinities with Primary School Boys 36. Gender Relations in Primary School Masculinities Research 39. Theorising Gender in Primary School Hegemony and discourse 40. Conclusion 42,CHAPTER TWO The Research Process and Methods 43. Introduction 43, Considering Gender Across Age Groups Strategies for the research 43. Conducting Research with Children and Young People 45. Gatekeeping and Access to Schools 46,Listening to and Including Young People 47.
Research Locations The schools and participants 48. Socrates Primary 49,St Catherine s Primary 50,Multiple Voices Teachers and parents 52. Hearing Student Voices Methods for activities 54,Reflexive Notes Issues and assumptions 60. Conclusion 66, PART II Constructing Discourses of Masculinities 67. CHAPTER THREE Sporty and Strong A discourse of hegemonic masculinity 68. Introduction 68,All About Sport 68, Boy Equals Sport Privileging sporting masculinities 69. Sporty Boys and Non athletic girls Excluding girls from constructions of sport 75. Challenges to the Notion of Boy Equals Sport Recognition and potential resistance 78. Perceptions of Physicality and Bodies 80,I am going to get muscles Strength and muscles 80.
If you re manly you should bash a boy not a girl Violence and physicality 82. Future Sexualities 86, Happily married with four children Girlfriends marriage and heterosexuality 86. Dancing Singing and Using Too Many Hair Products Gay as not manly 90. Boys Stuff and Girls Stuff 93, Boys don t have long hair Gender divisions in hair and clothing 93. Sport Wrestling Cars and Videogames Interests activities and popular culture 96. Conclusion 99, CHAPTER FOUR Not the Traditional Boy Mould Plural practices of masculinities 103. Introduction 103, Rough Boys and Quiet Boys Recognition of differences between boys 104. Muscular Intellectualness An alternate discourse of hegemonic masculinity 108. Sporty and Smart Combining a discourse of hegemonic masculinity with other practices 111. Education and Cooking Skills Practical investments 113. You go for it Doing femininity at home 115, Hip Hop Dancing versus Ballet Internal gender divisions 117.
Greek Dancing and Family Culture overrides gender 118. Caring Relations Age challenging a discourse of hegemonic masculinity 119. It s your turn Caring and showing emotions 119,I love you Love of family and friends 121. Girls and boys can be friends Cross gender friendships 123. Conclusion 130, CHAPTER FIVE Top of the Herd Mapping patterns of practices and hierarchies 132. Introduction 132,Socrates Primary Sport sport sport 135. The Year 6 Class It s a bit hard to fit in 135, The Year 1 Class Sporty but generally inclusive 139. St Catherine s Primary Sport and displaying intelligence 141. The Year 6 7 Class A cruisey bunch of kids 141,The Year R 1 Class Smart cool sporty 143.
Conclusion 145,PART III The Broader Gender Picture 148. CHAPTER SIX Beautiful and Nice Discourses of femininities 149. Introduction 149, The Beauty Code Delimiting acceptable appearance 150. Pretty Women Appearance and presentation 151, The most fashionable girl Clothing make up and long hair 152. Very very pretty The aesthetics of appearance 155, Punk Singers and Muscly Athletes Unacceptable appearance and behaviours 158. Does and wears stuff that usually a man would Viewing the singer Pink as masculine 159. No proper girl has large muscles Views on female athletes 161. How to be a Girl Personalities interests and popular culture 165. She has a good personality Personalities and maturity 165. The best of friends Girls friendships 167, Dancing Shopping and Gossiping Interests activities and popular culture 170.
Diversity and Hierarchies amongst Girls and Femininities 174. Most girls aren t like that Diverse femininities 174. Contradictions and Exclusions Hierarchies of femininities 178. Conclusion 181, CHAPTER SEVEN Boys are Better than Girls Gender privilege discrimination and equality 183. Introduction 183,Boys as Superior Girls as Inferior 184. I would not be a girl Constructing girls as inferior to boys 185. If she was a girl then she would have a bow Boys as the norm 186. You re bleeding your period everywhere Negative and different female reproductive bodies 188. Fighting is for boys to do Kung Fu Panda character drawings 192. Understandings of Social and Structural Gender Disadvantages on Girls and Women 196. Cooking Cleaning Washing Ironing The unequal distribution of domestic work 197. Are girls allowed to play AFL football The Australian Football League 202. Gender Equal World Conceptualising discrimination and equality 204. That s Sexist Recognising gender discrimination 205. Supporting Gender Equality Student designed posters 209. Being Yourself Individualism as freedom from gender constraints 217. Conclusion 222, CONCLUSIONS Understanding Masculinities and Gender Relations in Young Age 225. Introduction 225,Age Influences Gender 226,Comparisons Between Age Groups 227. Masculinities are Fluid and Incoherent 230,Suggestions for Practice and Future Research 231.
Appendices 237, Appendix One Studies of Masculinities and Primary School aged Boys 238. Appendix Two Information Letters and Consent Forms 239. Student Participation Letter and Consent Form 239,Background Demographics Form 243. Teacher Interview Letter and Consent Form 244, Parent Guardian Caregiver Interview Letter and Consent Form 247. Appendix Three Participant Details 251,Mrs Searle s Year 1 Class Socrates Primary 252. Miss Karidis s Year 6 Class Socrates Primary 253, Mrs Hartley s Year R 1 Class St Catherine s Primary 254.
Daniel s Year 6 7 Class St Catherine s Primary 255. Interviewed Parents 256,Appendix Four Teacher Interview Questions 257. Appendix Five Parent Interview Questions 259,Appendix Six Student Activities Descriptions 263. Session One Identity Looking up to People and Friendship 263. Session Two Manly and Womanly Famous Faces Descriptions of Girls and Boys and Good and. Bad Things about Being a Boy or Girl 264, Session Three Imagined Futures and Gender in Television Movies and Books 267. Session Four Feedback on Activities and Designing Own Posters Activities 269. Session Five Responding to the Initial Findings 271. Appendix Seven Manly and Womanly Famous Faces Activity Photographs 272. References 274,List of Tables, TABLE 2 1 Background to Participating Schools from My School Website in 2009 49. TABLE 2 2 Data Collection Time Guide Terms 3 and 4 2009 55. TABLE 2 3 Summary of All Student Activities 57, TABLE 3 1 Ranking Male Famous Faces from Most Manly to Least Manly 70.
TABLE 3 2 Mentions of Marriage and Children in Imagined Futures Activity 89. TABLE 3 3 Boys Stuff Activities interests and popular culture for boys 97. TABLE 4 1 Plural Ways of Being a Boy Binaries evident in words describing boys 106. TABLE 4 2 Friendship Map Activity Divided According to Gender 124. TABLE 6 1 Words Describing Girls 151,TABLE 6 2 Good Things about Being a Girl 152. TABLE 6 3 Ranking Female Famous Faces from Most Womanly to Least Womanly 159. TABLE 6 4 Overall Womanly Ranking of Female Athletes 162. TABLE 6 5 Expectations about Being a Girl 166, TABLE 6 6 Girls Stuff Activities interests and popular culture for girls 171. TABLE 6 7 Words Related to Types of Girls and Boys 176. TABLE 7 1 Bad Things about Being a Girl 190, TABLE 7 2 Gender of Characters in Students Kung Fu Panda Drawings 192. TABLE 7 3 Gender of Leader Characters in Students Kung Fu Panda Drawings 194. TABLE 7 4 Gender Messages on Student Designed Posters 210. TABLE 7 5 Perceptions of the Existence of Gender Restrictions 218. List of Figures, FIGURE 4 1 Christos s Kung Fu Panda Drawing Year 6 class Socrates Primary 110. FIGURE 5 1 Contingent Clusters of Practices Mapping masculinities as practices in the classes 133. FIGURE 5 2 Vassilis s Kung Fu Panda Drawing Year 6 class Socrates Primary 137. FIGURE 7 1 Esther and Abbey s Poster Year 6 7 class St Catherine s Primary difference dosent. sic matter 188, FIGURE 7 2 Stelios and Spiro s Poster Year 1 class Socrates Primary Boys playeind sic Soccer.
with gills girls 211, FIGURE 7 3 Jordan and Michael s Poster Year R 1 class St Catherine s Primary 212. FIGURE 7 4 Effie and Rosa s Poster Year 1 class Socrates Primary 212. FIGURE 7 5 Katerina and Yolanda s Poster Year 1 class Socrates Primary the boys are playing. soccer Katerina and Yolanda is sic on the monkey bars 214. FIGURE 7 6 Aphrodite and Nikoletta s Poster Year 6 class Socrates Primary Roses are Red. Violets are Blue Girls and Boys are equal too 215, FIGURE 7 7 Kai and Tony s Poster Year 6 7 class St Catherine s Primary If you want to be my. friend it DON T matter if you r e a Boy or Girl 215. FIGURE 7 8 Regan and Tash s Poster Year 6 7 class St Catherine s Primary 216. FIGURE 7 9 Lucinda and Lily s Poster Year 6 7 class St Catherine s Primary 217. Key to Transcriptions,a speaker is interrupted by another speaker. a speaker interrupts her himself,brief pause,inaudible inaudible. comment comments added in for clarity,laughs other sounds made such as laughter.
talk is edited out, Questions are seldom asked about whether Connell s influential masculinities framework. may be entirely applicable to young people In particular young age is rarely considered as. a potential barrier to hegemonic masculinity Attention to the intersection of. masculinities gender and age is crucial to understanding young people s gender. constructions and illuminating the limits age presents to accessing particular gender. discourses This thesis offers a focused consideration of masculinities in young age. drawing on empirical research in two South Australian co educational primary schools. comparing classes of students aged 6 7 years old and 11 13 years old The views of boys. girls teachers and parents are all included to provide a broad understanding of gender in. students lives, Connell s framework has identified that gender is produced hierarchically and that. hegemonic masculinity is privileged over other masculinities and all femininities which. ensures men s privilege as a group over women as a group Drawing on Foucault s. notion of discourse this thesis considers the usefulness of reframing hegemonic. masculinity as a discourse of hegemonic masculinity This approach was used to. conceptualise how while in the research participants endorsed practices relating to a. particular version of masculinity boys expressed plural and fluid gender practices As a. result of their young age boys were denied full access to physicality and sexuality which. are often viewed as key to hegemonic masculinity Instead the participants constructed a. discourse of hegemonic masculinity largely around sport an activity which many boys had. access to and could practise A discourse of idealised femininity was mainly defined in. terms of appearance and helped to uphold the overall privileging of masculinities. This thesis highlights how young age exacerbates the incoherence and diversity of gender. constructions and explores how while different gender practices may be subordinated. they can sometimes be combined with or challenging to a discourse of hegemonic. masculinity The strength of a hierarchical arrangement of practices relating to. masculinities is also explored The importance of considering masculinities within the. broader gender context is illuminated by an examination of gender relations and the. participants understandings of gender privilege discrimination and equality This thesis. demonstrates the ways in which young age impacts on gender constructions and offers a. more nuanced way for theorising the intersection of age and gender. Declaration, I Clare Bartholomaeus certify that this work contains no material which has been. accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma in any university or other tertiary. institution and to the best of my knowledge and belief contains no material previously. published or written by another person except where due reference has been made in the. I give consent to this copy of my thesis when deposited in the University Library being. made available for loan and photocopying subject to the provisions of the Copyright Act. 1968 I also give permission for the digital version of my thesis to be made available on the. web via the University s digital research repository the Library catalogue and also. through web search engines unless permission has been granted by the University to. restrict access for a period of time, The author acknowledges that copyright of published works contained within this thesis. resides with the copyright holder s of those works. Parts of Chapter One initially appeared in, Bartholomaeus Clare 2009 I m not allowed wrestling stuff The difficult fit.
between hegemonic masculinity and junior primary school boys in GEXcel Work. in Progress Report Volume VI GEXcel Theme 2 Deconstructing the Hegemony of. Men and Masculinities Alp Biricik and Jeff Hearn eds Link ping University. Sweden pp 201 208, Bartholomaeus Clare forthcoming I m not allowed wrestling stuff. Hegemonic masculinity and primary school boys Journal of Sociology. Parts of Chapter Three initially appeared in, Bartholomaeus Clare 2011 What it Means to be Manly Gender Sport and. Primary School Students Outskirts feminisms along the edge 24. Clare Bartholomaeus Date,Acknowledgements, Many thanks to the participants involved in the research I am grateful to the head of junior. school and principal for allowing me to conduct research in their schools and to the class. teachers for letting me into their classrooms and for being willing to be interviewed Thank. you also to the mothers who volunteered to participate in interviews Most importantly a. big thank you to all of the students who were involved in the research. Thank you to my thesis supervisors Associate Professor Chris Beasley Professor Emerita. Chilla Bulbeck and Dr Susan Oakley for providing me with support feedback and. confidence that my topic and arguments were worthwhile. Thank you to the GWSI and Politics departments Completing my PhD was assisted in. various ways by staff and students from both departments In particular thanks to Dr. Kathie Muir Professor Margaret Allen Dr Anna Szorenyi Dr Megan Warin Dr Margie. Ripper Dr Pam Papadelos and Dr Kate Cadman Thanks also to Dr Angelique Bletsas for. our theory discussions and her general PhD advice I also appreciate Sarah Hoggard and. Ryan Cortazzo for all of their administrative and technical support and Helen Attar and. Marg Hosking for their library assistance Thanks to fellow PhD students in both. disciplines From GWSI thanks particularly to Gabriella Zizzo Kirsty Whitman Jillian. Schedneck Dr Penelope Eate Dr Pauline McLoughlin Dr Toni Delany Ruthie O Reilly. Kanchana Bulumulle Tom Cole and Tara Bates A special thanks also to Margie. Charlesworth and Sam Williams for their friendship and proofreading efforts Thanks to. my History and Politics friends Jessie Edwards Dana Papuc Kieran McCarron Elspeth. Grant Nicole Berry and Rong Fan for their support and our sanity lunches. I have also gained a great deal from discussing my research with others at conferences and. via email exchanges Thanks especially to Janet Whitten for sharing sources with me. I am grateful to everyone who has helped in some way with my thesis A special thanks to. Emma Eleanor Ciara and Jasmine for their feedback on the student activities and for. their insights into the worlds of young people Thank you also to Susan Ferguson for. allowing me to practise a parent teacher interview I also appreciate the people who have. read various forms of my thesis particularly Andrew and Amy who both proofread the full. Thank you to all of my family for their support especially my parents and brother Stefan. Thanks also to my friends particularly Allana Amy Annabel Steph and Tamsyn for. providing me with much needed distractions from my thesis. I would also like to acknowledge the financial support I have received from the Australian. Postgraduate Award APA scholarship GWSI Postgraduate Funds Postgraduate. Allowance from the School of History and Politics the Karen Halley Fund and the. HUMSS HDR Publications Support Scheme,Introduction Intersections of Age and Gender. INTRODUCTION,Intersections of Age and Gender, Whereas current feminist theory has worked hard to incorporate nuanced.
understandings of racialized differences and those of sexual orientation. however it has not seen age as so important a category a failing that I. suggest requires remedy,Gardiner 2002 93, Age represents the dimension of time and the life cycle and shows even. more clearly than other social divisions how categories and their boundaries. are not fixed and how their social and political meanings can vary in. different historical contexts as well as being continually challenged and. restructured both individually and socially,Yuval Davis 2006 201. The fact that age is always present in studies of children and young people does not mean. it has been adequately theorised Theoretical explorations of age have advanced little since. researchers moved away from the simplistic theories of sex role socialisation in which. children are viewed as passively learning gender by imitating those around them This. thesis focuses on how gender is constructed and understood in young age with a particular. focus on masculinities drawing on empirical research in two co educational primary. schools with students aged 6 7 years old and 11 13 years old In masculinity studies the. main theoretical frameworks appear adult centric and even those writers researching. young people often fail to theorise how gender and age intersect. Within feminist writing it has increasingly been acknowledged that it is important to. consider how gender intersects with practices of social class race ethnicity sexuality. and able bodiedness see for example Davis 2008 Lykke 2010 Ray 2006 460 461. Stacey 2006 480 1 While feminist writing pays attention to the interweaving of gender. and these other factors to differing degrees age has been largely overlooked Age is. Coining the term intersectionality Crenshaw 1989 points out that previously Blacks and women. were both written about but this was actually about Black men and white women Thus the intersection of. Blacks and women that is Black women was largely neglected She argued for the need to go beyond. single axis frameworks to consider the intersectionality of different factors. Introduction Intersections of Age and Gender, unique in that it differs from other factors because it is continuously changing Hearn. 1999 82 2011 94 and thus offers the opportunity to highlight the fluidity and socially. constructed nature of gender In addition attention to young age may illuminate the. process of learning as well as challenging gendered norms potentially revealing. possibilities for social change, A consideration of young or old2 age has had little impact on masculinities theorising. Connell s 2000 2005b theoretical framework of multiple masculinities centred on. hegemonic masculinity3 has been central to the formation of masculinity studies Connell. and Messerschmidt 2005 834 and she is referenced in most works within the field. Beasley 2005 191 192 4 However these theories have received little critique on the basis. of age and there are still comparatively few empirical studies conducted about young or. old age from feminist informed masculinity studies approaches. There are some interesting parallels between young and old age which highlight that. masculinities theorising focuses on a middle age group often perceived to be universal to. all ages or at least the most important While boys and old ageing men are both. privileged by sexism they are disadvantaged by ageism for this point in relation to old. age see Hearn 2011 95 The interaction of age and masculinities also influences the. theorising and lived experience of embodiment Gilbert and Constantine 2005 Hearn. 2011 Hearn and Sandberg 2009 Slevin and Linneman 2010 and produces potential. barriers to constructing masculinities including hegemonic masculinity via avenues such. as athleticism and sexuality Dependency on others common in young and old age Hearn. 1999 83 also interferes with constructing hegemonic masculinity Hearn highlights the. implications of old age and gender for constructing hegemonic masculinity. h egemonic masculinity has limits as a framework for taking on board all. the complexities of ageing men The complex picture with men being. I follow the lead of Calasanti and Slevin who argue for the use of old age rather than older age both as a. way of reclaiming the term old and I think more importantly because older positions this age group in. relation to a centre of middle normal age 2001 9 10 As they note no one suggests that we refer to Blacks. as darker or women as more female Calasanti and Slevin 2001 10. I discuss the concept of hegemonic masculinity in depth in Chapter One. Formerly R W Connell Connell has identified as Raewyn Connell since 2006 Beasley 2008 100 note 4. Connell has specified that she prefers to be referred to as a woman in both the past and present tense. Wedgwood 2009 338 note 2 therefore I use female pronouns when discussing her work However when. referencing her work I use the name which appeared on the original publication R W Raewyn or Bob to. reflect her public identity at the time and to assist with locating references. Introduction Intersections of Age and Gender, both given status through ageing and old age but at the same time.
marginalized is difficult to encompass or conceptualise within the frame of. hegemonic masculinity 2011 95 see also Boden 2009 Hearn and. Sandberg 2009, Despite several similarities the key difference between young and old age groups is that. many boys can look forward to status gained by economic earnings athleticism or at least. are likely to have stronger and more athletic bodies than they have in young age and. sexuality In comparison old men may have enjoyed these things in the past and indeed. may be benefited by finances accrued with old age Hearn 2011 95. Thus the critical point is that masculinities are unlikely to be fully available for young or. old people in the ways in which they have commonly been theorised in masculinity. studies A lack of access to hegemonic masculinity can play out in a number of different. ways some of which are a challenge to dominant gender discourses As has been noted in. relation to men with disabilities this may involve reformulation where hegemonic. masculinity may be redefined in terms of what is accessible the reliance on and a more. fervent take up of aspects of hegemonic masculinity which are accessible or a rejection of. hegemonic masculinity and the creation of alternative masculinities Gerschick and Miller. 2007 Therefore a consideration of masculinities at the margins can highlight both. challenges to and the tenuousness of dominant gender discourses. Attention to young age in masculinity studies has largely focused on high school boys In. comparison there is currently only a small amount of empirical research about primary. school boys and masculinities from feminist perspectives Connolly 2006 141 Swain. 2005a 214 It is important to recognise that young age is not a homogeneous age group. and experiences of gender may vary according to age I outline masculinity studies. theorising and provide a background to research about masculinities and young age. including an overview of previous studies in detail in Chapter One. While feminist informed discussions about young masculinities have not received a great. deal of attention the same cannot be said of popular discourses about boys Broadly. debates about gender in schools and education systems and policies such as in Australia. are now commonly focused on boys rather than girls and gender equity and work with. simplistic understandings of gender Lingard and Douglas 1999 Challenging popular.


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