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Research Article Short Term High Intensity Interval
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2 Journal of Diabetes Research, composition confounding factors such as extra physical 2 Method. activity in addition to the training program 5 10 11 and or. the dietary intake of the participants 6 8 13 16 have 2 1 Participants The research ethics committee of the Uni. been neglected in some studies Given the conflicting results versity of Macau approved this study Volunteers were pub. in previous studies 5 17 whether the HIIT intervention licly recruited via local media The inclusion criteria were. induces significant improvements in fat mass lean mass and being between 18 and 30 years of age having a classification. regional fat deposits in comparison with an exercise control of inactivity defined as completion of less than 90 min. remains to be elucidated of moderate intensity exercise per week over the past six. Although some studies have reported that HIIT protocols months and being overweight or obese defined as having. are enjoyable and adherent for both active male subjects 18 a body mass index BMI in kg m 2 over 23 and a body fat. and inactive normal weight subjects 19 some researchers percentage over 30 28 Volunteers who were interested. have contended that for the largely inactive and or obese in the study and met the inclusion criteria were required to. population the strenuous nature of SIT may produce negative complete a PAR Q form and a medical history questionnaire. emotions toward exercise adherence and is likely to be for further eligibility screening Smokers alcoholics diabet. a deterrent to participation 18 20 Given the fact that ics persons with endocrine disorders and users of oral con. the power output of the Wingate based protocol with hard traceptive pills or any prescribed medications known to affect. resistance typically 7 5 of body mass rises quickly and body composition or the endocrine system were excluded. then decreases precipitously over the 30 s 7 this kind of SIT Then the subjects underwent a full physical examination to. training may not be suitable for the inactive female cohort obtain clearance for undertaking vigorous exercise from a. As a result relatively less rigorous interval training protocols doctor. have been developed Little et al 21 designed a low Under the assumptions of a within subject correlation of. demanding HIIT model consisting of 10 60 s work bouts 0 70 between the pre and postintervention measures and a. at 100 maximal heart rate HR interspersed with 60 s of power of 0 80 with an effect size of 0 48 based on the primary. outcome of VO 2peak resulting from high intensity interval. recovery Trapp et al 5 established a brief HIIT protocol of. 8 s sprint cycling interspersed with 12 s of rest for 20 min and training 3 29 the sample size for the HIIT group was. found that 15 weeks of HIIT intervention with this protocol estimated to be eight After the screening phase 22 eligible. could improve cardiovascular fitness body composition and subjects were recruited to participate in this study They all. insulin resistance in young women when compared to 40 min provided written informed consent before being randomly. of MICT with a similar energy expenditure Given that the assigned to either the HIIT group 11 or the MICT. young women with a higher BMI had a greater fat loss in group 11 One participant in the HIIT group and three. Trapp et al s study 5 we speculated that overweight obese participants in the MICT group quit before completing the. women and lean women may have different physiological training intervention for personal reasons Figure 1. responses to the same HIIT training protocol, Hormonal abnormalities play a pathogenetic role in the 2 2 Experimental Procedures Each subject completed a five. development of excess body fat and are associated with week HIIT or MICT exercise intervention four sessions per. metabolic diseases 22 A number of hormones for example week Before and after the training intervention subjects. underwent a body composition analysis and a VO 2peak assess. leptin growth hormone GH testosterone cortisol and. fibroblast growth factor 21 FGF 21 regulate lipid metabo ment and their fasting blood samples were obtained All. lism 23 and affect muscle protein synthesis and muscle pretraining and posttraining measures were conducted in the. hypertrophy 24 It has been reported that acute high follicular stage based on the self reported menstrual cycle. intensity interval exercise may result in optimal responses survey Because of the different menstrual cycles for the. on circulating testosterone 25 growth hormone 26 and subjects the starting time for baseline measures and training. cortisol 26 in well trained males as well as in type 1 intervention were different among subjects with the last sub. diabetic individuals 27 However it is not clear whether the ject starting two weeks later than the first one However all of. hormonal responses to an acute bout of high intensity inter the pretraining measures were taken within 48 to 144 h before. the training intervention and all of the posttraining measures. val exercise can be sustained after a period of training. were taken within 48 to 144 h after the last training session. Collectively the purpose of this study was mainly to com. pare the effects of five weeks of HIIT intervention or MICT on. 2 3 Pretraining Testing Protocol Before baseline measures. body composition and blood glucose as well as the systemic. each subject visited the laboratory to sign the consent form. hormones that may influence body composition and blood. become familiar with all testing and training procedures and. glucose in overweight and obese young women We hypoth provide a three day diet record Baseline measures were con. esized that both training programs would result in similar ducted on three different days separated by at least 24 h and. influences on the improvements of body composition e g all measures were completed at least 48 h before the training. reduce fat mass and increase lean mass and blood glucose intervention Baseline measures consisted of three tests. while the improvements are associated with the upregulated. GH and testosterone and the downregulated cortisol leptin 1 Baseline Blood Sampling Baseline blood samples were. and FGF 21 Furthermore HIIT would be more time efficient taken according to the individuals menstrual status Subjects. and perceived as being easier when compared with MICT were asked to refrain from strenuous activity and caffeine. Journal of Diabetes Research 3,Enrollment,34 individuals joined activity. for initial eligibility,12 individuals excluded because. of not meeting inclusion criteria,Allocation,22 individuals were randomized.
after pretesting,11 individuals 11 individuals,were allocated to were allocated to. HIIT intervention MICT intervention,Compliance,Drop out 1 Discontinued. 1 Discontinued intervention,intervention 2 Conflict of. 10 individuals 8 individuals,completed completed,intervention intervention. Figure 1 Flow of participants through the intervention of the study. for 48 h and fasted overnight 12 h prior to the baseline the mandibular to the upper edge of the line between the iliac. blood sampling 8 mL blood samples were collected from the crests excluding the head and upper limbs Lean mass and fat. cubital veins using serum separation tubes and were left to mass were calculated from the total and regional analysis of. clot at room temperature for 60 min Then the blood samples the whole body scan. were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min at 4 C separated for. serum and subsequently frozen at 80 C until later analysis 3 2peak Test The subjects performed a graded maxi. mal exercise test on a computer controlled cycle ergometer. 2 Anthropometrics and Body Composition Assessment Sub Monark 839E Sweden to determine VO 2peak and peak. jects were instructed to come to the laboratory in the power output PPO After a two minute warm up at 30 W. morning after a fasting state 12 h Height and weight were the subjects pedaled at the initial workload of 50 W and main. determined using standard methods with a stadiometer and tained a cycling speed of 60 5 rpm and the workload was. an electronic scale in light clothing and with no footwear to increased by 25 W every three min until volitional exhaus. the nearest 0 1 cm and 0 1 kg respectively Body mass index tion Respiratory gases were assessed continuously using. was calculated by dividing weight kg by height m squared. an automatic gas analyzer Meta Max 3B Cortex Biophysik. By the same operator subjects were scanned in a supine. GmbH Leipzig Germany and the highest oxygen con, position using a dual energy X ray absorptiometry scanner.
Norland XR 36 DXA densitometer Norland Corporation sumption averaged over the final 15 s was identified as the. VO 2peak 30 PPO was calculated according to the following. Fort Atkinson WS USA and were analyzed with a software. program 3 7 4 2 1 0 Norland Corporation The instrument formula PPO com 180 25 where com is the last. was calibrated daily using the phantoms provided by the completed workload is the time completed in the final. manufacturer and the value of the intra assay coefficient of unfinished workload in seconds 180 is the increment dura. variation CV was 0 53 The abdominal region referred to tion s in each workload and 25 is the workload increment. the area consisting of the line between the two iliac crests the. two edges of the hip and the lateral sides of the femoral necks 2 4 Exercise Training Exercise training commenced at least. The trunk region was defined as being from the lower edge of 48 h after the last baseline measure Both the HIIT and the. 4 Journal of Diabetes Research, MICT exercise training were conducted four days per week intervention as well as during the third week of the inter. for five weeks vention Energy intake and diet component analyses were. Participants in the HIIT group performed 60 repetitions conducted by the Sports Nutrition Research Center National. of high intensity interval exercise 8 s cycling and 12 s passive Institute of Sports Medicine China using the nutrition anal. recovery on a cycle ergometer Monark 874E Sweden for ysis and management system Daily physical activities were. 20 min A prerecorded tape was used to coordinate the HIIT monitored using pedometers Yamax SW 200 digiwalker. intervention and all subjects worked as hard as they could Japan for three days per week for a total of seven weeks on. during the exercise phase The initial resistance of the exercise the weeks before and after training and every week during. phase was 1 0 kg and once an individual could complete exercise training. two consecutive sessions at the given workload resistance. would be gradually increased by increments of 0 5 kg until 2 7 Posttraining Testing Protocol Posttraining assessments. reaching 0 05 body weight HR Polar F4M BLK Finland were performed in the same way as described in the pre. and ratings of perceived exertion RPE Borg scale were training testing protocol and were completed within 48 to. recorded before and immediately after the completion of the 144 h following the last training session Blood samples were. 8 s cycling exercise for every five intervals During the first taken within 96 to 144 h after the intervention whereas body. and last training sessions the metabolic cart was used to composition and VO 2peak were determined within 48 to 72 h. measure energy expenditure The product of all intervention after the last training session The last subject finished all. sessions and the mean value of energy expenditure measured procedures two weeks after the first one. during the two mentioned sessions were regarded as the total. energy expenditure of HIIT 2 8 Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed using PASW. Participants in the MICT group performed a continuous software Release 22 0 IBM NY USA The Shapiro Wilk. cycling exercise at 65 of pre VO 2peak on an ergocycle test was used to assess normality distribution in outcome. Ergometer 900PC Ergoline Germany for 40 min a cycling variables Independent sample t tests were performed to. speed of 60 5 rpm would be maintained throughout each determine the differences in training data HR and RPE. training session With the increasing fitness indicated by and energy expenditure between the two groups A two way. a decreased HR the resistance was gradually increased mixed analysis of variance ANOVA with repeated measures. by 0 5 kg HR and RPE were monitored and continuously was used to test for main time and interaction effects. recorded every five min The energy expenditure for every time group Significant interactions or main effects were. training session was estimated from an individual s VO 2. determined using Tukey s honestly significant difference post. energy expenditure 5 05 kcal L 1 VO 2 L min 1 exer. hoc test As for effect size measure of the main effect and the. 2 was determined using an equa, cise time min whereas VO interaction effect partial 2 was considered small if 2 0 06. tion for leg cycling ergometry VO 2 7 0 1 8 workload. and large if 2 0 14 32 All results were presented as. kg m min 1 body weight kg 31 Exercise time and work mean standard deviation SD and values of 0 05 were. load were recorded during the whole training intervention considered significant. The total energy expenditure of the MICT group was calcu. lated as the product of all intervention sessions and the energy. expenditure of each session 3 Results, There were no significant differences on any measured vari. 2 5 Blood Assays Serum glucose was measured via the glu ables between the two groups on pretraining tests. cose oxidase method using a Roche Hitachi P800 Modular. Chemistry Analyzer Roche Diagnostics GmbH Mannheim. 3 1 Training Data There was no significant difference in. Germany Serum concentrations of testosterone cortisol. training HR between HIIT and MICT 164 8 bpm in the. and GH were analyzed using commercially available elec. HIIT group versus 160 12 bpm in the MICT group, trochemiluminescence immunoassay kits Roche Diagnos. tics GmbH Mannheim Germany whereas leptin and 0 435 However MICT is perceived to be significantly harder. FGF 21 were measured using a commercial enzyme linked compared to HIIT 13 1 in HIIT group versus 15 1 in. immunosorbent assays ELISA kit Abcam Cambridge MICT group 0 042. UK The CVs were 1 1 for glucose 4 5 for testosterone. 4 6 for cortisol 2 9 for GH 2 4 for leptin and 2 6 3 2 Energy Expenditure of the Intervention In the first train. for FGF 21 All analyses were performed using standard ing session the values of energy expenditure were 174. procedures Kingmed Diagnostics Co Ltd Guangzhou 28 kcal in HIIT and 301 45 kcal in MICT and the former. China spent less than the latter 0 001 Similarly the total. energy expenditure of the intervention in the HIIT group. 2 6 Record of Diet and Daily Physical Activity Subjects in 3167 549 kcal was significantly lower than that in the. both the HIIT and MICT groups were instructed to maintain MICT group 6011 505 kcal 0 001. their normal eating habits and normal daily physical activities. during the study period Each subject provided a three 3 3 Diet and Extra Physical Activities The daily calorie. day diet inventory one week before and one week after the intakes Table 3 were not different within group and between. Journal of Diabetes Research 5, groups over time as evaluated before training during train Different forms of HIIT have been shown to significantly.
ing and after training 0 05 The proportions of macro increase VO 2peak 5 6 8 10 11 13 33 and aerobic capacity 10. nutrient intake were approximately 50 35 and 15 for 11 The present study found that after five weeks of this low. carbohydrates fat and protein respectively in both groups volume HIIT protocol the relative VO 2peak and PPO were. with no within group or interaction differences 0 05 increased by 7 9 and 13 8 respectively consistent with an. Physical activities recorded by the pedometers had no within average of 7 3 4 8 increment in VO 2peak reported in a. group or interaction differences before 7673 1145 steps in meta analysis after the Wingate based sprint interval inter. HIIT versus 8062 1367 steps in MICT during 9785 1640 vention in sedentary female cohorts 29 In accordance with. steps in HIIT versus 8517 791 steps in MICT and after previous studies 5 17 our study also did not find any. intervention 7434 1225 steps in HIIT versus 7023 849 additional effect caused by the HIIT protocol when compared. steps in MICT 0 05 to MICT Moreover previous studies have demonstrated that. using the same HIIT protocol VO 2peak was improved by. 3 4 Cardiorespiratory Fitness After five weeks of exercise 15 0 5 2 mL min kg in obese men for 12 weeks 10. training both HIIT and MICT resulted in a significant and was increased by 23 8 7 6 mL min 1 kg 1 in seden. improvement in VO 2peak 0 006 2 0 38 and PPO tary women for 15 weeks 5 respectively Although the 7 9. 0 001 0 61 HIIT training increased VO 2peak and 2 5 mL min 1 kg 1 magnitude of VO 2peak was relatively. PPO by 7 9 and 13 8 respectively whereas MICT training smaller which might be caused by the shorter duration and. increased VO 2peak and PPO by 11 7 and 21 9 respec differences in exercise intensity this present study indicates. tively There were no group differences in the magnitude of that short term training with this brief HIIT protocol could. improvement in VO 2peak and PPO 0 05 Table 1 also result in rapid adaptation in cardiovascular function in. inactive obese young women The possible reasons might. be attributed to the upregulated mitochondrial oxidative. 3 5 Body Composition After the intervention despite no enzyme activity 7 8 21 34 the enhanced fractional muscle. significant changes in weight BMI total fat mass TFM and oxygen extraction 6 35 and or the increased stroke volume. total body fatness TBF for both groups the MICT group 36. experienced significantly decreased total lean mass TLM. 1 7 kg or 3 9 0 011 and leg LM 0 6 kg or 3 3 In addition HIIT is perceived to be easier than MICT. 0 018 Meanwhile TLM and leg LM in the HIIT group Since the HR monitored during exercises were analogous. were unchanged reduced by 0 2 and 0 1 resp 164 8 bpm in HIIT versus 160 12 bpm in MICT between. 0 05 In the regions of the trunk and abdomen no significant the two groups the significantly lower RPE reported in the. changes in lean mass fat mass and fatness were observed HIIT group may be mainly caused by the interval exercise. within group or between groups Table 1 mode with submaximal exercise intensity which was 89. of VO 2peak during the exercise phases and 76 of VO 2peak. during the recovery phases according to the data measured in. 3 6 Fasting Glucose and Serum Hormones Fasting glucose the first HIIT session The game like nature of HIIT varying. tended to be significantly decreased 0 062 2 0 213 between short sprints and recovery intervals may be helpful. after the training intervention but no group difference was in reducing the perception of effort Collectively compared to. found There were no within group or group differences in MICT the present HIIT protocol is a more time efficient and. serum levels of testosterone cortisol the ratio of testosterone easier exercise mode for improving cardiorespiratory fitness. and cortisol T C ratio GH leptin or FGF 21 Table 2 in the overweight female cohort. To our surprise the MICT group lost 1 7 kg of total lean. 3 7 Correlations among the Independent Variables For all mass and 0 6 kg of leg lean mass after training DXA as a. subjects no significant correlations were found among the frequently used method to assess body composition had the. variables of the changes in aerobic capacity body composi smallest detectable differences at 1 39 kg and 1 30 kg for fat. tion and the changes in blood parameters and lean mass in obese children 37 and the CVs for fat and. lean mass were 1 2 and 1 1 in obese females 38 Based on. this evidence we estimate that an approximate 1 kg reduction. 4 Discussion in total and leg lean mass in the MICT group is probably a. This study showed that five weeks of HIIT despite involving consequence of measurement error from the DXA Moreover. half of the time and exercise energy expenditure when we did not detect any significant reductions in total and. compared to MICT resulted in a similar improvement in regional fat mass as well as fasting leptin levels following the. aerobic capacity but had no influence on fat mass or lean five week HIIT training intervention Trapp et al 5 showed. mass in the trunk or abdomen HIIT subjects seemly lost that 15 weeks of HIIT training with a similar protocol. less lean body mass and lean leg mass than did MICT significantly reduced resting leptin levels and the decreases. subjects after training Moreover both short term training in leptin levels were positively correlated with the decreases in. protocols resulted in a trend to decrease fasting serum glucose body weight among normal weight females On the contrary. but had no effects on systemic hormones including leptin a recent study demonstrated that there were no changes. testosterone cortisol GH and FGF 21 in overweight and in fasting serum leptin despite improvement in body com. obese young women position after ten weeks of high intensity interval training. 6 Journal of Diabetes Research, Table 1 Outcome measures before and after five weeks of exercise training. HIIT 10 MICT 8 Time effect Interaction,Pre Post Pre Post 2 2. Age y 19 8 0 8 19 9 2 1,Height m 163 5 4 7 162 3 5 4. Weight kg 68 3 8 9 69 0 8 9 1 1 2 3 69 1 8 8 68 2 7 8 1 1 2 5 0 872 0 002 0 087 0 172. BMI kg m 2 25 5 2 1 25 7 2 2 1 1 2 3 26 2 2 4 25 9 2 2 1 1 2 5 0 921 0 001 0 085 0 174. TLM kg 41 4 4 6 41 4 4 7 0 2 2 0 42 9 4 9 41 3 4 9 3 9 3 3 0 005 0 401 0 008 0 365. Trunk LM kg 18 1 2 4 18 2 2 4 0 7 2 2 18 1 3 3 18 1 2 2 2 2 18 8 0 870 0 002 0 857 0 002. Abdomen LM kg 8 0 1 3 8 0 1 0 1 1 6 3 7 9 1 3 7 7 1 0 2 3 6 5 0 499 0 029 0 337 0 058. Leg LM kg 16 4 1 9 16 4 1 7 0 1 3 5 17 0 2 1 16 4 2 0 3 3 3 0 0 031 0 260 0 063 0 199. TFM kg 25 3 6 0 26 0 6 4 2 8 6 5 25 1 4 9 25 3 4 0 1 8 7 0 0 221 0 092 0 514 0 027. Trunk FM kg 12 8 3 0 13 1 3 4 1 7 8 9 12 7 2 9 12 7 2 6 0 5 6 6 0 597 0 018 0 517 0 027. Abdomen FM kg 4 6 1 2 4 6 1 4 1 0 11 0 4 4 1 0 4 3 0 9 1 0 8 2 0 965 0 000 0 469 0 033. Leg FM kg 8 2 2 9 8 3 2 9 2 3 5 7 8 2 2 1 8 2 1 7 0 4 6 9 0 679 0 011 0 379 0 045. TBF 36 7 4 8 37 4 5 6 1 7 5 0 36 1 3 8 37 0 3 2 2 9 6 0 0 098 0 160 0 773 0 005. Trunk BF 18 6 2 2 18 7 3 0 0 5 7 5 18 3 2 4 18 5 2 1 1 5 5 0 0 465 0 028 0 013 0 001. Abdomen BF 6 6 0 9 6 6 1 3 0 0 10 9 6 2 0 7 6 2 0 8 0 1 7 7 0 949 0 000 0 961 0 000. Leg BF 11 9 3 0 12 0 3 0 1 2 4 4 11 9 2 2 12 0 2 0 1 4 6 0 0 397 0 045 0 975 0 000. 2peak mL min 1 kg 1, VO 34 1 5 7 36 6 6 6 7 9 13 5 34 2 4 3 38 2 6 5 11 7 13 7 0 006 0 380 0 502 0 029. PPO w 134 2 23 7 150 2 24 2 13 8 14 8 127 9 17 5 155 5 25 0 21 9 15 4 0 001 0 61 0 204 0 099. Observed values are expressed as means standard deviation HIIT high intensity interval training MICT moderate intensity continuous training delta. for the change from before to after intervention BMI body mass index TLM total lean mass TFM total fat mass TBF percentage of total body fat and. 2peak peak oxygen uptake Partial 2 value for effect size ES. Table 2 Effect of training intervention on blood parameters. HIIT 10 MICT 8 Time effect Interaction,Pre Post Pre Post 2 2.
Glucose mmol L 1 4 5 0 2 4 4 0 4 2 5 8 4 4 6 0 5 4 4 0 6 4 4 4 9 0 062 0 213 0 640 0 015. Leptin pg mL 1 479 29 503 34 106 6 249 8 476 19 491 37 31 5 39 6 0 131 0 145 0 700 0 010. Testosterone 14 5 6 0 10 9 3 0 112 0 278 8 11 8 4 8 10 0 3 3 33 7 39 3 0 118 0 155 0 614 0 017. Cortisol ng dL 1 428 117 395 118 5 6 11 2 374 138 307 120 3 3 10 1 0 240 0 091 0 692 0 011. T C ratio 10 3 31 9 7 26 9 10 1 9 5 51 9 40 7 36 5 35 5 11 2 64 39 6 0 567 0 024 0 942 0 000. GH pg mL 1 3 1 4 0 2 3 2 6 6 4 20 4 2 7 1 9 1 6 1 5 0 5 62 3 0 203 0 106 0 872 0 002. FGF 21 ng mL 1 0 5 0 4 0 5 0 4 3 0 81 1 0 6 0 7 0 6 0 6 50 4 134 9 0 898 0 001 0 739 0 008. Observed values are expressed as means standard deviation HIIT high intensity interval training MICT moderate intensity continuous training delta. for the change from before to after intervention T C ratio testosterone to cortisol ratio GH growth hormone and FGF 21 fibroblast growth factor 21 Partial. 2 value for effect size ES, Table 3 Carbohydrate fat and protein levels before during and after training. Group CHO FAT PRO Energy intake kcal day 1, HIIT before training 51 3 11 7 33 2 8 9 16 2 5 2 2111 690 3. MICT before training 55 2 8 5 28 7 8 1 16 3 4 5 2151 808 3. HIIT training 49 5 11 9 37 0 9 8 14 0 3 9 1867 704 6. MICT training 55 5 9 7 29 8 9 5 15 4 2 3 2309 456 4. HIIT after training 48 1 8 4 36 2 5 4 15 6 3 3 2181 1072 1. MICT after training 51 7 8 1 32 3 5 8 15 9 6 7 2163 786 8. Observed values are expressed as means standard deviation HIIT high intensity interval training MICT moderate intensity continuous training CHO. carbohydrate and PRO protein,Journal of Diabetes Research 7. in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome 39 has beneficial effects on metabolic disorders 49 Animal. However due to the body composition as assessed using a studies have demonstrated that both acute exercise 48 and. bioelectrical impedance analysis in their study we believed chronic exercise training 50 could increase serum FGF. the notion that short term exercise training 12 weeks does 21 levels in rodents and the increment is accompanied by. not affect leptin levels 40 and that long term exercise train increasing serum levels of ketone bodies glycerol and free. ing that has reduced leptin levels is generally not independent fatty acids 48 Among the few studies examining the effects. of changes in body fat mass 41 Furthermore given that of exercise training on FGF 21 levels in humans it has been. fat losses were reported with the same 8 s 12 s protocol but shown that a single bout of treadmill running exercise 48 as. using longer interventions i e 15 weeks and 12 weeks 5 10 well as two weeks of daily supervised training 23 increased. we speculated that for a less intense HIIT protocol a longer serum FGF 21 levels in healthy men and women. duration is essential for accumulating measurable alterations In the present study neither exercise regimen had an. in fat loss effect on fasting levels of serum testosterone cortisol T C. There is no definite conclusion regarding whether HIIT ratio and GH indicating that short term exercise training. intervention improves body composition in overweight and even at a high intensity cannot induce significant effects. obese individuals Several recent studies have shown that on the resting hormones in inactive overweight and obese. HIIT interval training reduces total fat mass 5 10 12 and young women Although an acute bout of high intensity. abdominal and visceral fat mass 10 12 and improves lean interval exercise or sprint exercise would result in marked. mass 5 8 10 12 effectively in both obese and nonobese increment in cortisol and GH levels 27 previous studies. adults whereas some evidence reported no changes in body have shown that the resting levels of cortisol testosterone. composition in overweight individuals 16 17 or in active and GH are unlikely to be influenced by exercise training. men 42 However SIT a form of supermaximal exercise 24 51 Similar to our study the fasting levels of GH were. intensity of a shorter duration 3 4 seems to be more unaffected by four to six weeks of HIIT SIT in sedentary. effective compared to HIIT for improving body composition men 52 or recreationally active males 53 Given that the. A short Wingate based SIT which lasted for two weeks has hormonal changes respond mainly to acute exercise 24 51. been shown to reduce abdominal and subcutaneous fat mass future studies should examine the acute responses of different. in sedentary overweight obese men reflected by decreases hormones as well as body composition before and after HIIT. in waist 1 4 cm or 1 1 and hip 1 1 cm or 1 0 intervention in overweight and obese individuals. circumferences 13 Consistently six weeks of running SIT This study has several limitations First on the basis of. interventions led to significant decrement of fat mass and sample estimation from the potential changes of VO 2peak. increment of lean mass in recreationally active men 6 and we acknowledged that the small sample size in the present. women 11 and the improvements in body composition study limits the ability to draw a meaningful conclusion. were comparable to that of MICT 6 The similar fat losses regarding the efficacy of HIIT in improving body compo. between HIIT and MICT may result from the increased sition against traditional continuous exercise Second this. excess postexercise oxygen consumption EPOC 43 44 study was conducted during a time of the year that people. and or the improved muscle oxidative capacity 7 8 21 are more likely to gain weight which started from mid. though HIIT had a lower total training volume October and ended in early December The seasonal factors. Additionally in the present study the training interven may also have an influence on body composition since an. tion demonstrated a trend toward improved fasting glucose average net weight gain of up to 0 5 kg in the fall and winter. concentrations in the obese female cohort with normal has been reported in a previous study 54 Because of this. fasting glucose level Previous studies showed that short for future studies aimed at reducing weight seasonal factors. term HIIT and even acute HIIT can rapidly improve glu should be taken into consideration and a nonexercise control. cose control in prediabetic 45 46 and type 2 diabetic group is needed for interpretation of the relative results. patients 21 On the contrary some studies reported that Finally considering the great effect of the combination of a. when compared to baseline short term Wingate based HIIT hypoenergetic diet and exercise on weight loss and preserving. improved insulin sensitivity but had no substantial advantage muscle mass 55 future studies may consider managing. for improving fasting blood glucose in healthy sedentary the factors involving demographic characteristics gender. 47 and overweight and obese men 13 Nybo et al 42 age menstrual cycle etc HIIT modality low and high. found that 12 weeks of 20 minute high intensity interval demanding daily physical activity intensity and amount. running per week had a similar effect of improving fasting and nutrition status high and low protein diet thoroughly. glucose as 60 minute continuous running at 65 VO 2peak This would be helpful to ascertain the impact of high. in sedentary overweight and obese males Taken together intensity interval training on metabolic outcomes and the. the discrepancy in fasting blood glucose resulting from HIIT potential roles of hormone meditation during changes in. may be attributable to differences in protocols intervention overweight and obese populations. durations and initial fasting glucose levels In conclusion the present study shows that when com. We did not find any changes in the basal levels of FGF pared to MICT short term brief HIIT intervention with 8 s. 21 after the HIIT or MICT interventions in this popula of high intensity interval cycling interspersed with 12 s of. tion Accumulated evidence derived primarily from animal rest is a more time efficient approach and is perceived as. models indicates that this novel myokine has therapeutic being easier for improving aerobic fitness and blood glucose. potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes 48 and in sedentary overweight and obese young women Neither. 8 Journal of Diabetes Research, short term HIIT nor the MICT intervention had an effect on 12 J B Gillen M E Percival A Ludzki M A Tarnopolsky and M. body composition or the relevant systemic hormones J Gibala Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves. body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight. women Obesity vol 21 no 11 pp 2249 2255 2013, Competing Interests 13 L J Whyte J M R Gill and A J Cathcart Effect of 2 weeks of.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests sprint interval training on health related outcomes in sedentary. overweight obese men Metabolism vol 59 no 10 pp 1421. Acknowledgments 14 R S Metcalfe J A Babraj S G Fawkner and N B J. Vollaard Towards the minimal amount of exercise for improv. The authors are grateful for the involvement of all partici ing metabolic health beneficial effects of reduced exertion. pants The study was supported by a research grant from the high intensity interval training European Journal of Applied. 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ID 480467 8 pages 2012 L Skinner and D Cameron Smith Metabolic and hormonal. 11 T J Hazell C D Hamilton T D Olver and P W R Lemon responses to isoenergetic high intensity interval exercise and. Running sprint interval training induces fat loss in women continuous moderate intensity exercise American Journal of. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism vol 39 no 8 pp Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism vol 307 no 7 pp. 944 950 2014 E539 E552 2014,Journal of Diabetes Research 9. 27 V A Bussau L D Ferreira T W Jones and P A Fournier The 42 L Nybo E Sundstrup M D Jakobsen et al High intensity. 10 s maximal sprint a novel approach to counter an exercise training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting. mediated fall in glycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes health Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise vol 42 no. 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ACSM s new preparticipation health screening recommenda Exercise Science Fitness vol 10 no 2 pp 97 100 2012. tions from ACSM s guidelines for exercise testing and prescrip 46 M E Francois J C Baldi P J Manning et al Exercise snacks. tion ninth edition Current Sports Medicine Reports vol 12 no before meals a novel strategy to improve glycaemic control in. 4 pp 215 217 2013 individuals with insulin resistance Diabetologia vol 57 no 7. 32 R E Kirk Practical significance a concept whose time has pp 1437 1445 2014. come Educational and Psychological Measurement vol 56 no 47 J A Babraj N B J Vollaard C Keast F M Guppy G Cottrell. 5 pp 746 759 1996 and J A Timmons Extremely short duration high intensity. 33 T N Willoughby M P L Thomas M S Schmale J L interval training substantially improves insulin action in young. Copeland and T J Hazell Four weeks of running sprint healthy males BMC Endocrine Disorders vol 9 article 3 2009. interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young 48 K H Kim S H Kim Y K Min H M Yang J B Lee and M. and middle aged adults Journal of Sports Sciences vol 34 no S Lee Acute exercise induces FGF21 expression in mice and. 13 pp 1207 1214 2016 in healthy humans PLoS ONE vol 8 no 5 Article ID e63517. 34 K A Burgomaster K R Howarth S M Phillips et al Similar 2013. metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint 49 T Reinehr J Woelfle R Wunsch and C L Roth Fibroblast. interval and traditional endurance training in humans The growth factor 21 FGF 21 and its relation to obesity metabolic. Journal of Physiology vol 586 no 1 pp 151 160 2008 syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver in children a lon. 35 S J Bailey D P Wilkerson F J DiMenna and A M Jones gitudinal analysis The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology. Influence of repeated sprint training on pulmonary O2 uptake Metabolism vol 97 no 6 pp 2143 2150 2012. and muscle deoxygenation kinetics in humans Journal of 50 I Petri R Dumbell F Scherbarth S Steinlechner and P Bar. Applied Physiology vol 106 no 6 pp 1875 1887 2009 rett Effect of exercise on photoperiod regulated hypothalamic. gene expression and peripheral hormones in the seasonal Dwarf. 36 J L Trilk A Singhal K A Bigelman and K J Cureton. Hamster Phodopus sungorus PLoS ONE vol 9 no 3 Article. Effect of sprint interval training on circulatory function during. ID e90253 2014, exercise in sedentary overweight obese women European.
Journal of Applied Physiology vol 111 no 8 pp 1591 1597 2011 51 R G McMurray and A C Hackney Interactions of metabolic. hormones adipose tissue and exercise Sports Medicine vol 35. 37 K S Wosje B L Knipstein and H J Kalkwarf Measurement. no 5 pp 393 412 2005, error of DXA interpretation of fat and lean mass changes in. obese and non obese children Journal of Clinical Densitometry 52 H Sasaki T Morishima Y Hasegawa et al 4 Weeks of high. vol 9 no 3 pp 335 340 2006 intensity interval training does not alter the exercise induced. growth hormone response in sedentary men SpringerPlus vol. 38 Z R Cordero MacIntyre W Peters C R Libanati et al. 3 article 336 2014, Reproducibility of DXA in obese women Journal of Clinical. Densitometry vol 5 no 1 pp 35 44 2002 53 K A Stokes M E Nevill P W Cherry H K A Lakomy and G. M Hall Effect of 6 weeks of sprint training on growth hormone. 39 I Almenning A Rieber Mohn K M Lundgren T Shetelig. responses to sprinting European Journal of Applied Physiology. L vvik K K Garn s and T Moholdt Effects of high intensity. vol 92 no 1 2 pp 26 32 2004, interval training and strength training on metabolic cardiovas. cular and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary 54 J A Yanovski S Z Yanovski K N Sovik T T Nguyen P. syndrome a pilot study PLoS ONE vol 10 no 9 Article ID M O Neil and N G Sebring A prospective study of holiday. e0138793 2015 weight gain The New England Journal of Medicine vol 342 no. 12 pp 861 867 2000, 40 R R Kraemer H Chu and V Daniel Castracane Leptin and. exercise Experimental Biology and Medicine vol 227 no 9 pp 55 T M Longland S Y Oikawa C J Mitchell M C Devries and. 701 708 2002 S M Phillips Higher compared with lower dietary protein. during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise pro. 41 C M Florkowski G R Collier P Z Zimmet J H Livesey E A motes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss a randomized. Espiner and R A Donald Low dose growth hormone replace trial American Journal of Clinical Nutrition vol 103 no 3 pp. ment lowers plasma leptin and fat stores without affecting body. 738 746 2016, mass index in adults with growth hormone deficiency Clinical.
Endocrinology vol 45 no 6 pp 769 773 1996,MEDIATORS of. INFLAMMATION,The Scientific Gastroenterology Journal of. World Journal,Hindawi Publishing Corporation,Research and Practice. Hindawi Publishing Corporation,Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Diabetes Research,Hindawi Publishing Corporation,Disease Markers.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation,http www hindawi com Volume 2014. http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014. Journal of International Journal of,Immunology Research. Hindawi Publishing Corporation,Endocrinology,Hindawi Publishing Corporation. http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014. Submit your manuscripts at,http www hindawi com,PPAR Research. Hindawi Publishing Corporation,Research International.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014. Journal of,Evidence Based, Journal of Stem Cells Complementary and Journal of. Ophthalmology,Hindawi Publishing Corporation,International. Hindawi Publishing Corporation,Alternative Medicine. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014.
Parkinson s,Computational and,Mathematical Methods. in Medicine,Behavioural,Research and Treatment,Oxidative Medicine and. Cellular Longevity, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation. http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014 http www hindawi com Volume 2014.

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