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14 T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional. and researches that address this subject increased as well as internet sites For example in the Google search. engine the term emotional intelligence appears more than a million times In addition an integrated curriculum. based on this theory has been developed that aims to increase the capacity for emotional intelligence in students. Elias Hunter Kress 2001, The idea of emotional intelligence based on the hypothesis suggests that thinking is better if emotional data are used. where emotions include knowledge which reflects an individual s relations with the world around him For instance. fear shows that the individual faces a strong threat when he is unable to control the source of that fear Age usually. reflects feeling of injustice This means that emotions are governed by certain rules and principals Frijda 1988. Therefore there are individual differences in recognizing the information with respect to different life even. understanding this information using it and organizing it to solve problems Mayer Salovey 1997. Although research in emotional intelligence is relatively recent it may correspond to cognitive intelligence if not. surpass it Goleman 1995 Emotional intelligence has its own effect on the individual s personality in various. educational professional and cognitive aspects, Individual performances in cognitive intelligence tests non emotional tests have been a basic indicator of the. judgment process in an individual s level of success for a long time and as a predictor of future achievement in. academic practical and vocational fields However few studies or and researches have pointed out that cognitive. intelligence is no longer a good predictor alone in these fields Cherniss 2000 If cognitive intelligence and. cognitive skills are required in order to gain employment emotional intelligence offers the professional success for. individuals Goleman 1995 Goleman 1998 2001 found that cognitive intelligence contributes to success by. between 10 and 20 and attributes 80 90 of this success to other factors. Alkhadher 2001 summarizes the reasons behind the scientists attention to emotional intelligence on a limited. number of scales that can adequately and successfully measure the mental abilities of individuals in different life. situations Social and professional areas being the most important Others point out that 10 and 20 of variance in. the scales of professional success can be attributed to cognitive abilities While professional success requires further. abilities such as emotional and social skills control of the emotions and self management In the professional work. field the researchers concluded that persons of high IQ were not always the best Whereas giving attention to. workers personal skills in institutions led to the development and increase in skills like self motivation. perseverance initiative flexibility acceptance of change the ability to work effectively within a team and. withstanding pressure, The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement is very important in education. Although there are researchers who argue about the difficulty of changing cognitive intelligence IQ through with. experience and learning emotional factors can be improved and taught. Natural Sciences Publishing Cor, T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional 15. Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory, One of the scales whose use has spread in previous studies is the Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth.
Version for adolescents between 7 and 18 years Several studies have been conducted on this scale to verify its. validity and reliability in other environments The following are some of these studies. The purpose of Shuler s 2004 study was to contribute to the understanding of emotional intelligence as it occurs in. children and adolescents by investigating the psychometric properties i e validity of the Emotional Quotient. Inventory Youth Version EQ i YV The validation of this instrument involved the consideration of its. relationship to cognitive intelligence self report of personality and parent report of behaviour A battery of tests. that included a measure of intellectual functioning an omnibus personality test a measure of childhood behavioural. problems and the EQ i YV was administered to a sample of 143 children ranging in age from 8 to 18 years A. small positive relationship was found to exist between Full Scale IQ and the broadband measure of emotional. intelligence Many significant correlations were obtained between the subtests of the EQi YV and the omnibus. personality test suggesting a high degree of relationship Significant correlations were evidenced among the scales. of the EQ i YV and the measure of childhood behavioural problems i e parent report of behaviour but to a much. lesser extent than with personality The EQ i YV demonstrated the ability to predict significant emotional. disturbance as measured by a clinically elevated score on a broadband measure of emotional difficulties Lastly. aspects of personality were found to contribute more heavily to the prediction of overall emotional intelligence than. did cognitive intellectual functioning, A study by Al Qafaas 2007 targeted to verify the Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version used two. aspects of psychological adjustment The sample consisted of 518 male and female 10th grade students average age. was 16 Psychological adjustment for teenagers were applied Then Cronbach s alpha coefficient was calculated. The values of ranged between 0 38 0 63 The correlation between the value of each item and its scope was also. calculated All correlations were statistically significant at 0 01 The results indicated a statistically significant. correlation at the level of 0 01 between Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version and the two aspects of. psychological adjustment This result confirms the validity of the Bar On Inventory in the Arabic environment. Another study by Al Milli 2011 aimed at discovering the differences between highly intelligent students and. students of average intelligence in the dimensions of emotional intelligence It also verified the significance of. differences in the variables of excellence and gender To achieve the objectives of the study the psychometric. properties of Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version were verified Then it was applied to a sample. of 293 students of average and highly intelligent 10th grade students average age was 16 Trustees validity was. also verified Matrix correlation between the Dimensions of inventory were calculated all correlations were. significant at the level of 0 01 The reliability was also verified and calculated Half split values were between. Natural Sciences Publishing Cor, 16 T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional. 0 44 0 730 test re test values were between 0 36 0 69 and Cronbach s alpha coefficient values were between. In spite of translating the list to suit the Arabic environment in Al Qafaas study 2007 and Al Milli 2011 the. two studies use the full form of the list which is about 60 phrases applied to 10th grade students So the translated. lists are not suitable for application to students of the first stage of basic education who are between 8 and 10 years. old Here came the necessity to this study to verify the psychometric properties and norms of the short form of Bar. On Emotional Quotient Inventory which consists of 30 items and will be used with first stage students of basic. education The significance can be summarized as follows. 1 Previous research provided evidence supporting the use of EQ i YV because it is reliable and valid In addition. the short version was used here on account of time constraints Austin Farrelly Black Moore 2007. 2 Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version can be used in educational counseling and clinical. situations for pupils of first stage of basic education in the governorate of Muscat in the Sultanate of Oman. 3 The inventory can be used to measure the emotional intelligence of Omani children between 8 and 10 years old. 4 The ability to use the psychological profile in drawing a psychological map of emotional intelligence for Omani. children similar to the file developed by Bar On Profile refer to Figure 1 in the appendix. Research questions, 1 What indicators measure the reliability of the Bar On EQ i YV S of pupils from grades 1 4 in basic. 2 What indicators measure the validity of the Bar On EQ i YV S of pupils from grades 1 4 in basic education. 3 What are the standards of raw scores for the Bar On EQ i YV S for pupils of grades 1 4 in basic education. Participants, A random sample of 465 boys and girls was selected of the pupils in the first level of basic education in the. Sultanate of Oman their ages ranged between 8 and 10 years M 9 25 SD 0 63 Table 1 shows the distribution of. the study sample by gender and age, Table 1 Distribution of the sample by gender and age.
Age Boys Girls Total,8 24 25 49,9 126 124 250,10 81 85 166. Total 231 234 465,Natural Sciences Publishing Cor, T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional 17. The Bar On EQ i YV S was developed for situations where time is of the essence where the individual being. tested has limited reading or comprehension abilities where the respondent might be fatigued from a longer set of. items or where multiple administrations of the instrument are desired The short form was developed using the large. normative sample of the EQ i YV N 9 172 The goal was to develop a scale that would include a sufficient. number of items 6 per scale to reliably assess Intrapersonal Interpersonal Stress Management and Adaptability. competencies the sum of which would render a total EQ scale It was determined that the EQ i YV S would also. include the same 6 item Positive Impression scale included in the EQ i YV Thus the EQ i YV S would have 30. items The 6 item Intrapersonal scale was retained from the long form For the Interpersonal Stress Management. and Adaptability scales from the long form the item pool for each scale was subjected to confirmatory factor. analysis testing a uni dimensional model To create 6 item versions of each subscale only the 6 items with the. highest loadings with the latent variables were used Bar On Parker 2000. Procedures, 1 The Bar On inventory was translated from English into Arabic and after reviewing the translation and revisions. it was presented to a group of specialists in educational psychology measurement and evaluation for the purpose of. ascertaining the accuracy of the translation and the validity of the paragraphs and suitability for pupils of the first. cycle of basic education in the Sultanate of Oman The arbitrators agreed on the validity of the translated version. although they suggested some amendments all of these amendments were incorporated Then the amended version. of the inventory was presented along with the original copy to a specialist in English teaching methodology for the. purpose of matching the Arabic and English language versions The specialist agreed with the translation and did. not offer any observations on them, 2 The researcher applied the Bar On inventory during the month of April 2011. 3 The Bar On inventory has been corrected using key corrections which come with the test given scores were 1. 2 3 4 the alternatives to the four never true for me seldom true for me sometimes true for me often true for me. very often true for me respectively Thus in theory sub dimensions of scale scores range between 6 and 24 and. total IQ scores between 24 and 96,Statistical analysis.
The raw data file in the SPSS programme and the following statistical methods were used Mean Standard. Deviation Cronbach s alpha coefficient Pearson s correlation coefficient Independent samples T test and. Deviation I Q,Natural Sciences Publishing Cor, 18 T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional. Item analysis, The psychometric properties of the items were analyzed and used for selection of items with acceptable properties. The respondents backgrounds were analyzed first by the SPSS programme In the item analysis four indicators. were utilized They were item reliability index item discrimination index. The item reliability index was the relationship between each item score and the test total score The index was. calculated by Pearson s correlation coefficients This index was analyzed by the SPSS program A moderate. coefficient r 0 3 was expected for item reliability to indicate an acceptable item Cohen 1988. The item discrimination index was a t score and is the product of the mean difference test of the total score between. high scorers and low scorers To analyze the index the samples were divided into two groups which were the. highest scoring 27 percent and the lowest scoring 27 percent group as suggested for a large sample size study. Gregory 2004 The difference of item means between the two groups was examined by a t test conducted using. the SPSS programme T test was used as an indicator of a well discriminated item. Intrapersonal Dimension, Indicators of reliability coefficient of items of interpersonal dimension ranged see Table 2 between 0 08 and 0 37. According to Cohen s Criteria 1988 the 12 and 26 items are below the required level The items discrimination. coefficient calculated t values ranged between 7 60 and 17 10 which are all statistically significant at a level. which is not below 0 01 See Table 2 below, Table 2 Item reliability index and Item discrimination Index for Intrapersonal sub scale. Item reliability Item discrimination,index Index, 2 I am good at understanding the way other people 0 34 16 58.
6 It is hard to control my anger 0 31 14 09,12 I have a temper 0 16 8 62. 14 I am able to respect others 0 37 17 10,21 I fight with people 0 37 15 21. 26 I try to use different ways of answering hard 0 08 7 60. Interpersonal Dimension, Indicators of reliability coefficient of items of Interpersonal dimension see Table 3 range between 0 31 and 0 37. According to Cohen s Criteria 1988 all items are acceptable The items discrimination coefficient calculated t. values ranged between 7 65 and 15 47 which were all statistically significant. Natural Sciences Publishing Cor, T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional 19. Table 3 Item reliability index and Item discrimination Index for Interpersonal sub scale. Item reliability Item discrimination,index Index,1 I enjoy having fun 0 35 11 61.
4 I am happy 0 31 7 65,18 I have good thoughts about everyone 0 37 8 59. 23 I like to smile 0 36 11 60, 28 It is hard to talk about my deep feelings 0 31 15 47. 30 I can come up with good answers to hard questions 0 36 12 96. Stress Management Dimension, Reliability coefficient indicators of the Stress Management section were see Table 4 between 0 17 and 0 47. According to Cohen s Criteria 1988 item number 5 was below the required level The item discrimination. coefficient calculated t value ranged between 8 53 and 16 60 which were all statistically significant at a level. which is not below 0 01, Table 4 Item reliability index and Item discrimination Index for Stress Management sub scale. Item reliability Item discrimination,index Index,5 I care what happens to other people 0 17 8 53.
8 I like everyone I meet 0 33 14 47,9 I feel sure of myself 0 47 15 81. 17 I can talk easily about my feelings 0 39 16 60,27 Nothing bothers me 0 35 15 02. 29 I know things will be okay 0 28 12 57,Adaptability. Reliability coefficient indicators of the Adaptability dimension see Table 5 were between 0 31 and 0 47. According to Cohen s Criteria 1988 all items were at an acceptable level The item discrimination coefficient. indicators calculated t values ranged between 11 7 and 16 66 which were all statistically significant at a level. which is not below 0 01, Table 5 Item reliability index and Item discrimination Index for Adaptability sub scale. Item reliability Item discrimination,index Index, 10 I usually know how other people are feeling 0 35 13 63.
13 I think that most things I do will turn out okay 0 47 15 71. 16 It is easy for me to understand new things 0 38 14 84. 19 I hope for the best 0 43 16 66,22 I can understand hard questions 0 39 14 86. 24 I try not to hurt other people s feelings 0 31 11 37. Natural Sciences Publishing Cor, 20 T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional. Positive Impression Dimension, Reliability coefficient indicators of Positive Impression dimension see Table 6 were between 0 26 and 0 34. According to Cohen s Criteria 1988 items number 15 and 20 were below the required level The item. discrimination coefficient indicators calculated t values range d between 7 82 and 15 03 which were all. statistically significant at a level which is not below 0 01. Table 6 Item reliability index and Item discrimination Index for Positive Impression sub scale. Item reliability Item discrimination,index Index,3 I can stay calm when I am upset 0 31 10 07. 7 It is easy to tell people how I feel 0 32 12 46,11 I know how to keep calm 0 30 10 49.
15 I get too upset about things 0 28 7 82,20 Having friends is important 0 26 15 03. 25 I try to stick with a problem until I solve it 0 34 12 88. Correlation Matrix, The reliability coefficient indicators of Pearson s correlation were between 0 06 0 46 which were all statistically. significant at a level which is not below 0 05 except the two sub inventories which are Interpersonal and Stress. Management where it was 0 57 and not statistically significant Table 7 shows the matrix of Person s correlation. coefficient, Table 7 Correlation Matrix for Bar On s Sub scales. A Intrapersonal,B Interpersonal 0 23,C Stress Management 0 14 0 06. D Adaptability 0 27 0 38 0 12,E Positive Impression 0 32 0 37 0 17 0 46.
Note Correlation is significant at the 0 01 level Correlation is significant at the 0 05 level. Reliability, Cronbach s alpha coefficient was calculated the coefficients were acceptable compared to the inventory guide Bar. On Parker 2000 Table 8 shows that, Table 8 Reliability of the Bar On inventory using a Cronbach s alpha. Sub scales of Bar On Number of items alpha,Intrapersonal 6 0 51. Interpersonal 6 0 45,Stress Management 6 0 61,Adaptability 6 0 66. Total EQ 24 0 64,Positive Impression 6 0 51,Natural Sciences Publishing Cor.
T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional 21. The norms are important because they give raw scores a meaning and they enable us to explain the scores obtained. by the student furthermore norms are an essential characteristic of the standardisation process Gronlund 2006. The percentile ranks were extracted as norms for the raw scores of the standardisation sample n 465 as they are. the norms most used in intelligence tests generally Nitko Brookhart 2007 and particularly in the progressive. matrices tests e g Bar On Parker 2000 Percentile ranks are also good indicators of the individual s relative. position in his group Furthermore percentile ranks are used because they are easy to calculate and their meaning is. easily interpreted Anastasi Urbina 1997 In addition they are suitable for explaining the ranks of both young. and adult people They may be utilized in educational clinical and industrial institutes Thorndike Hagen 1977. The corresponding deviation I Q was calculated on the basis of adjusted norm scores with an average score a mean. of 100 and the standard deviation of 15 Bar On Parker 2000 The result is shown in Figure 1. Discussion, The third study aimed at verifying reliability validity and norms of the Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory. Youth Version In general the results indicated that the inventory achieves acceptable psychometric indications. According to the literature of measurement and evaluation on methods of reliability and validity their different. connotations and ways of measuring them the inventory fulfilled most of these indicators. Regarding validity several studies in the related literature discussed three types of validity Gregory 2004 Moss. 2007 Sireci 2007 which are content validity criterion related validity and construct validity This inventory. indicated that cover the three types Studies such as Anastasi Urbina 1997 indicated that content validity divides. into two parts face validity and logical validity In the current study face validity was verified through the views of. a jury to ensure translation validity All calculated t values of criterion related validity were statistically significant. between both the highest the lowest groups in all items of the inventory when calculating discrimination indicator. which is an indicator of criterion related validity To ensure construct validity the correlation between the sub. inventories of the inventory were verified through calculating the correlation matrix as in table 7 The results of. validity indicates that the inventory measures what it purports to measure which is EQ and can be used in clinical. and educational fields with children at the first stage of basic education. To ensure reliability Cronbach s alpha coefficient was calculated to each sub scale In general results were. acceptable comparing them with the previous studies such as Al Qafaas 2007 Al Milli 2011 This study is the. only one that calculates reliability through Reliability Index indicators Although some indicators were below the. required level according to Cohen s Criteria Cohen 1988 these indicators can be compared to the subsequent. studies in order to discover and its level and for the purpose of evaluation. With regard to the norms of the inventory IQ deviations were calculated for crude grades in each sub inventory. separately according to the chronological age variable Norms were summarized in the psychological profile which. is characterised by simplicity and clarity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each student whose EQ is. Natural Sciences Publishing Cor, 22 T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional. Recommendation, Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version can be used in educational counseling and clinical situations. for pupils of the first stage of basic education in the governorate of Muscat in the Sultanate of Oman in addition the. inventory can be used to measure the EQ of Omani children between 8 10 years old It can be also used the draw a. psychological profile of EQ for Omani children between 8 10 years old. Suggestions, Based on the results of this study it could be suggested that. 1 Standardizing the Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory for the use of Omani students aged between 11 18 years. 2 Verifying the psychometric properties of the full form of the Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory which. consists of 60 items and comparing them with the psychometric properties of the short form which contains 30. Limitation, The restrictions to generalizability of the results are limited to the students of fourth grade basic education pupils in.
the Governorate of Muscat in the Sultanate of Oman Using Bar On scale for measuring EQ may be not suitable for. children with reading and language problems as the test is heavily reliant in language comprehension. References, Alkhadher O 2001 Emotional Intelligence the theoretical framework Paper Presented at the International Social Science and. Community Development College of Social Sciences Kuwait University from 10 12 April In Arabic. Al Milli S 2011 Differences in Emotional Intelligence between Gifted and Normal Students in Damascus A Field Study of. the first secondary class students in Damascus city Damascus University Journal 27 1 2 283 320 In Arabic. Al Qafaas W K 2007 Validity of the Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version using both sides of the. psychological adjustment College of Education Journal University of Benha 17 70 1 50 In Arabic. Al Shayeb A 2010 Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Version of the Wakeman Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Jordan Journal of Educational Sciences 6 1 53 71 In Arabic. Anastasi A Urbina S 1997 Psychological Testing 7th ed New Jersey Prentice Hall. Austin E J Farrelly D Black C Moore H 2007 Emotional intelligence Machiavellianism and emotional manipulation. Does EI have a dark side Personality and Individual Differences 43 179 189. Bar On R Parker J D A 2000 The Bar On Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version EQ i YV Technical Manual. Toronto Canada Multi Health Systems, Cherniss C 2000 Emotional intelligence What it is and why it matters Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society. for Industrial and Organizational Psychology New Orleans. Cohen J 1988 Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences 2nd ed New Jersey Lawrence Erlbaum. Natural Sciences Publishing Cor, T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional 23. Elias M J Hunter L Kress J S 2001 Emotional intelligence and education In J D Mayer J Ciarrochi J P Forgas. Eds Emotional intelligence and everyday life A scientific inquiry pp 133 149 Philadelphia Psychology Press. Frijda N 1988 The law of emotion American Psychologist 43 349 358. Goleman D 1995 Emotional intelligence New York Bantam Books. Goleman D 1998 Working with emotional intelligence New York Bantam Books. Goleman D 2001 An EI based theory of performance In C Cherniss D Goleman Eds The emotionally intelligent. workplace pp 27 44 San Francisco CA Jossey Bass, Gregory R J 2004 Psychological testing history principals and applications 4th ed Boston Pearson Education Group. Gronlund N E 2006 Assessment of student achievement 8th ed Boston Pearson Education Inc. Mayer J D Salovey P 1997 What is emotional intelligence In P Salovey D Sluyter Eds Emotional development. and emotional intelligence Implications for educators pp 3 31 New York Basic Books. Mayer J D Ciarrochi J Forgas J P 2001 Emotional intelligence and everyday life An introduction In J Ciarrochi J P. Forgas J D Mayer Eds Emotional intelligence and everyday life pp xi xviii New York Psychology Press. Moss P A 2007 Reconstructing Validity Educational Researcher 36 8 470 476. Nitko A J Brookhart S 2007 Educational assessment of students New Jersey Pearson Education Inc Upper Saddle. Salovey P Mayer J D 1990 Emotional intelligence Imagination Cognition and Personality 9 3 185 211. Shuler C N 2004 An analysis of the Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version as a measure of emotional intelligence in. children and adolescents Unpublished PhD thesis The Florida State University. Sireci S G 2007 On validity theory and test validation Educational Researcher 36 8 477 481. Thorndike E L 1920 Intelligence and its uses Harper s Magazine 140 227 335. Thorndike R L Hagen E P 1977 Measurement and valuation in psychology and education 4th ed New York. Macmillan Publishing Company,Natural Sciences Publishing Cor.
24 T Al Said et al Psychometric Properties of Bar On Emotional. BarOn EQ i YV S Profile for Omani Children,Name Gender Male Female. Circle One,Birthdate Age Today s Date,Month Day Year Month Day Year. 8 8 years of age A Intrapersonal Scale D Adaptability Scale. 9 9 years of age B Interpersonal Scale E Total EQ, 10 10 years of age C Stress Management Scale F Positive Impression Scale. A B C D E F,SS 8 9 10 8 9 10 8 9 10 8 9 10 8 9 10 8 9 10 SS. 130 23 23 22 22 20 20 80 81 24 130,129 24 82 129,128 22 21 80 128.
127 19 81 78 24 127,126 22 24 19 24 79 126,125 24 77 78 24 23 125. 124 24 23 24 124,123 21 20 18 76 77 123,122 18 23 23 122. 121 23 19 23 75 76 121,120 23 77 23 22 120,119 20 20 19 23 22 17 74 75 119. 118 17 22 76 73 74 22 118,117 22 18 75 117,116 22 22 72 73 22 116. 115 19 19 22 16 21 115,114 18 21 16 71 72 114,113 17 21 73 71 21 113.
112 21 21 21 70 21 112,111 18 18 15 72 70 111,110 17 21 20 15 71 69 110. 109 16 20 69 20 109,108 17 20 20 70 68 20 20 108,107 17 20 14 68 107. 106 20 14 69 67 67 106,105 16 19 15 68 105,104 16 19 19 19 66 66 19 19 104. 103 19 13 67 19 103,102 16 13 65 65 102,101 15 19 14 66 64 101. 100 15 18 18 18 18 64 100,99 12 65 63 63 18 18 18 99.
98 15 18 12 64 98,97 13 62 62 97,96 14 14 18 17 17 63 96. 95 17 11 17 61 61 17 95,94 14 12 11 62 60 17 94,93 13 17 61 60 17 93. 92 17 16 16 92,91 13 10 16 60 59 59 16 91,90 13 16 11 10 58 90. 89 12 16 59 58 16 16 89,88 15 15 57 88,87 12 16 9 15 58 57 56 15 87. 86 12 15 10 9 57 86,85 11 56 55 85,84 15 14 14 56 15 15 84.
83 15 8 55 54 14 83,82 11 9 8 14 55 54 82,81 10 11 14 54 53 81. 80 13 13 53 52 80,79 14 7 7 14 14 79,78 9 10 8 13 52 51 13 78. 77 10 52 77,76 13 12 12 51 76,75 6 6 51 49 13 75,74 13 13 7 50 12 13 74. 73 9 9 12 48 73,72 11 11 49 72,71 12 47 71,70 7 12 48 12 70. 69 8 8 11 46 69,68 10 10 47 45 12 68,66 11 46 66,65 7 11 10 45 11 65.
Figure 1 BarOn EQ i YV S Profile for Omani Children.

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