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W H Freeman Publishers Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences. 1 Right click on a chapter link below, 2 From the pop up menu select Save Link if you are using. Netscape or Save Target if you are using Internet Explorer. 3 In the Save As dialog box select a location on your hard. drive and rename the file if you would like then click save. Note the name and location of the file so you can open it later. Macintosh users, 1 Click and hold your mouse on a chapter link below. 2 From the pop up menu select Save Link As if you are. using Netscape or Save Target As if you are using Internet. 3 In the Save As dialog box select a location on your hard. drive and rename the file if you would like then click save. Note the name and location of the file so you can open it later. Find a Book SEARCH BY Author SEARCH FOR,Browse Our Catalog Select a Discipline. W H Freeman Register with Us Contact Us Contact Your Representative View Cart. Top of Page,High School Publishing Career Colleges. http www whfreeman com college book asp disc id product 1149000445 compType PREV 2 of 2 6 10 2005 2 51 03 AM. preface 3 5 05 11 13 AM Page i, he principal aim of this text is to ensure that it presents all the material re.
T quired for a course in physical chemistry for students of the life sciences in. cluding biology and biochemistry To that end we have provided the foun. dations and biological applications of thermodynamics kinetics quantum theory. and molecular spectroscopy, The text is characterized by a variety of pedagogical devices most of them directed. towards helping with the mathematics that must remain an intrinsic part of phys. ical chemistry One such device is what we have come to think of as a bubble. A bubble is a little flag on an equals sign to show how to go from the left of the. sign to the right as we explain in more detail in About the book that follows. Where a bubble has insufficient capacity to provide the appropriate level of help. we include a Comment on the margin of the page to explain the mathematical pro. cedure we have adopted, Another device that we have invoked is the Note on good practice We consider. that physical chemistry is kept as simple as possible when people use terms accu. rately and consistently Our Notes emphasize how a particular term should and. should not be used by and large according to IUPAC conventions Finally back. ground information from mathematics physics and introductory chemistry is re. viewed in the Appendices at the end of the book, Elements of biology and biochemistry are incorporated into the text s narrative in. a number of ways First each numbered section begins with a statement that places. the concepts of physical chemistry about to be explored in the context of their im. portance to biology Second the narrative itself shows students how physical chem. istry gives quantitative insight into biology and biochemistry To achieve this goal. we make generous use of illustrations by which we mean quick numerical exer. cises and worked examples which feature more complex calculations than do the. illustrations Third a unique feature of the text is the use of Case studies to de. velop more fully the application of physical chemistry to a specific biological or. biomedical problem such as the action of ATP pharmacokinetics the unique role. of carbon in biochemistry and the biochemistry of nitric oxide Finally in The bio. chemist s toolbox sections we highlight selected experimental techniques in mod. ern biochemistry and biomedicine such as differential scanning calorimetry gel. electrophoresis fluorescence resonance energy transfer and magnetic resonance. preface 3 5 05 11 13 AM Page ii,ii Preface, A text cannot be written by authors in a vacuum To merge the languages of phys. ical chemistry and biochemistry we relied on a great deal of extraordinarily useful. and insightful advice from a wide range of people We would particularly like to. acknowledge the following people who reviewed draft chapters of the text. Steve Baldelli University of Houston,Maria Bohorquez Drake University.
D Allan Cadenhead SUNY Buffalo,Marco Colombini University of Maryland. Steven G Desjardins Washington and Lee University,Krisma D DeWitt Mount Marty College. Thorsten Dieckman University of California Davis,Richard B Dowd Northland College. Lisa N Gentile Western Washington University,Keith Griffiths University of Western Ontario. Jan Gryko Jacksonville State University,Arthur M Halpern Indiana State University.
Mike Jezercak University of Central Oklahoma,Thomas Jue University of California Davis. Evguenii I Kozliak University of North Dakota,Krzysztof Kuczera University of Kansas. Lennart Kullberg Winthrop University,Anthony Lagalante Villanova University. David H Magers Mississippi College,Steven Meinhardt North Dakota State University. Giuseppe Melacini McMaster University,Carol Meyers University of Saint Francis.
Ruth Ann Cook Murphy University of Mary Hardin Baylor. James Pazun Pfeiffer University,Enrique Peacock L pez Williams College. Gregory David Phelan Seattle Pacific University, James A Phillips University of Wisconsin Eau Claire. Jordan Poler University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. Codrina Victoria Popescu Ursinus College,David Ritter Southeast Missouri State University. Mary F Roberts Boston College,James A Roe Loyola Marymount University. Reginald B Shiflett Meredith College,Patricia A Snyder Florida Atlantic University.
Suzana K Straus University of British Columbia,Michael R Tessmer Southwestern College. Ronald J Terry Western Illinois University,John M Toedt Eastern Connecticut State University. Cathleen J Webb Western Kentucky University, Ffrancon Williams The University of Tennessee Knoxville. John S Winn Dartmouth College, We have been particularly well served by our publishers and would wish to ac. knowledge our gratitude to our acquisitions editor Jessica Fiorillo of W H Freeman. and Company who helped us achieve our goal,PWA Oxford JdeP Haverford.
preface 3 5 05 11 13 AM Page iii,Preface iii,Walkthrough Preface. here are numerous features in this text that are designed to help you learn. T physical chemistry and its applications to biology biochemistry and medi. cine One of the problems that makes the subject so daunting is the sheer. amount of information To help with that problem we have introduced several de. vices for organizing the material see Organizing the information We appreciate. that mathematics is often troublesome and therefore have included several devices. for helping you with this enormously important aspect of physical chemistry see. Mathematics support Problem solvingCespecially where do I start Cis often a. problem and we have done our best to help you find your way over the first hur. dle see Problem solving Finally the web is an extraordinary resource but you need. to know where to go for a particular piece of information we have tried to point. you in the right direction see Using the Web The following paragraphs explain. the features in more detail,Organizing the information. Checklist of key ideas Here we collect together the major concepts that we have. introduced in the chapter You might like to check off the box that precedes each. entry when you feel that you are confident about the topic. Case studies We incorporate general concepts of biology and biochemistry. throughout the text but in some cases it is useful to focus on a specific problem in. some detail Each Case study contains some background information about a bio. logical process such as the action of adenosine triphosphate or the metabolism of. drugs followed by a series of calculations that give quantitative insight into the. The biochemist s toolbox A Toolbox contains descriptions of some of the mod. ern techniques of biology biochemistry and medicine In many cases you will use. these techniques in laboratory courses so we focus not on the operation of instru. ments but on the physical principles that make the instruments performed a spe. cific task, Notes on good practice Science is a precise activity and using its language accu. rately can help you to understand the concepts We have used this feature to help. you to use the language and procedures of science in conformity to international. practice and to avoid common mistakes, Derivations On first reading you might need the bottom line rather than a de. tailed derivation However once you have collected your thoughts you might want. to go back to see how a particular expression was obtained The Derivations let you. adjust the level of detail that you require to your current needs However don t. forget that the derivation of results is an essential part of physical chemistry and. should not be ignored, Further information In some cases we have judged that a derivation is too long.
too detailed or too different in level for it to be included in the text In these cases. you will find the derivation at the end of the chapter. preface 3 5 05 11 13 AM Page iv,iv Preface, Appendices Physical chemistry draws on a lot of background material especially. in mathematics and physics We have included a set Appendices to provide a quick. survey of some of the information that we draw on in the text. Mathematics support, Bubbles You often need to know how to develop a mathematical expression but. how do you go from one line to the next A bubble is a little reminder about. the approximation that has been used the terms that have been taken to be con. stant the substitution of an expression and so on, Comments We often need to draw on a mathematical procedure or concept of. physics a Comment is a quick reminder of the procedure or concept Don t for. get Appendices 2 and 3 referred to above where some of these Comments are dis. cussed at greater length,Problem solving, Illustrations An Illustration don t confuse this with a diagram is a short ex. ample of how to use an equation that has just been introduced in the text In par. ticular we show how to use data and how to manipulate units correctly. Worked examples A Worked Example is a much more structured form of Illus. tration often involving a more elaborate procedure Every Worked Example has a. Strategy section to suggest how you might set up the problem you might prefer. another way setting up problems is a highly personal business Then there is the. worked out Answer, Self tests Every Worked Example and Illustration has a Self test with the answer.
provided so that you can check whether you have understood the procedure There. are also free standing Self tests where we thought it a good idea to provide a ques. tion for you to check your understanding Think of Self tests as in chapter Exer. cises designed to help you to monitor your progress. Discussion questions The end of chapter material starts with a short set of ques. tions that are intended to encourage you to think about the material you have en. countered and to view it in a broader context than is obtained by solving numer. ical problems, Exercises The real core of testing your progress is the collection of end of chap. ter Exercises We have provided a wide variety at a range of levels. Projects Longer and more involved exercises are presented as Projects at the end. of each chapter In many cases the projects encourage you to make connections. between concepts discussed in more than one chapter either by performing calcu. lations or by pointing you to the original literature. preface 3 5 05 11 13 AM Page v,Web support, You will find a lot of additional material at www whfreeman compchemls. Living graphs A Living Graph is indicated in the text by the icon attached to. a graph If you go to the web site you will be able to explore how a property changes. as you change a variety of parameters, Weblinks There is a huge network of information available about physical chem. istry and it can be bewildering to find your way to it Also you often need a piece. of information that we have not included in the text You should go to our web. site to find the data you require or at least to receive information about where ad. ditional data can be found, Artwork Your instructor may wish to use the illustrations from this text in a lec. ture Almost all the illustrations are available in full color and can be used for lec. tures without charge but not for commercial purposes without specific permission. preface 3 5 05 11 13 AM Page vi, hemistry is the science of matter and the changes it can undergo Physical.
The structure of physical, chemistry is the branch of chemistry that establishes and develops the prin chemistry. ciples of the subject in terms of the underlying concepts of physics and the Applications of physical. language of mathematics Its concepts are used to explain and interpret observa chemistry to biology and. tions on the physical and chemical properties of matter medicine. This text develops the principles of physical chemistry and their applications a Techniques for the study of. to the study of the life sciences particularly biochemistry and medicine The re biological systems. sulting combination of the concepts of physics chemistry and biology into an in b Protein folding. tricate mosaic leads to a unique and exciting understanding of the processes re. c Rational drug design,sponsible for life,d Biological energy. conversion,The structure of physical chemistry, Like all scientists physical chemists build descriptions of nature on a foundation. of careful and systematic inquiry The observations that physical chemistry orga. nizes and explains are summarized by scientific laws A law is a summary of expe. rience Thus we encounter the laws of thermodynamics which are summaries of. observations on the transformations of energy Laws are often expressed mathe. matically as in the perfect gas law or ideal gas law see Section F 7. Perfect gas law pV nRT, This law is an approximate description of the physical properties of gases with p. the pressure V the volume n the amount R a universal constant and T the tem. perature We also encounter the laws of quantum mechanics which summarize ob. servations on the behavior of individual particles such as molecules atoms and. subatomic particles, The first step in accounting for a law is to propose a hypothesis which is es.
sentially a guess at an explanation of the law in terms of more fundamental con. cepts Dalton s atomic hypothesis which was proposed to account for the laws of. chemical composition and changes accompanying reactions is an example When. a hypothesis has become established perhaps as a result of the success of further. experiments it has inspired or by a more elaborate formulation often in terms of. mathematics that puts it into the context of broader aspects of science it is pro. moted to the status of a theory Among the theories we encounter are the theo. ries of chemical equilibrium atomic structure and the rates of reactions. A characteristic of physical chemistry like other branches of science is that. to develop theories it adopts models of the system it is seeking to describe A model. is a simplified version of the system that focuses on the essentials of the problem. Once a successful model has been constructed and tested against known observa. tions and any experiments the model inspires it can be made more sophisticated. 2 Prologue, and incorporate some of the complications that the original model ignored Thus. models provide the initial framework for discussions and reality is progressively. captured rather like a building is completed decorated and furnished One exam. ple is the nuclear model of an atom and in particular a hydrogen atom which is. used as a basis for the discussion of the structures of all atoms In the initial model. the interactions between electrons are ignored to elaborate the model repulsions. between the electrons are taken into account progressively more accurately. The text begins with an investigation of thermodynamics the study of the. transformations of energy and the relations between the bulk properties of matter. Thermodynamics is summarized by a number of laws that allow us to account for. the natural direction of physical and chemical change Its principal relevance to. biology is its application to the study of the deployment of energy by organisms. We then turn to chemical kinetics the study of the rates of chemical reac. tions To understand the molecular mechanism of change we need to understand. how molecules move either in free flight in gases or by diffusion through liquids. Then we shall establish how the rates of reactions can be determined and how ex. perimental data give insight into the molecular processes by which chemical reac. tions occur Chemical kinetics is a crucial aspect of the study of organisms because. the array of reactions that contribute to life form an intricate network of processes. occurring at different rates under the control of enzymes. Next we develop the principles of quantum theory and use them to describe. the structures of atoms and molecules including the macromolecules found in bio. logical cells Quantum theory is important to the life sciences because the struc. tures of its complex molecules and the migration of electrons cannot be understood. except in its terms Once the properties of molecules are known a bridge can be. built to the properties of bulk systems treated by thermodynamics the bridge is pro. vided by statistical thermodynamics This important topic provides techniques for. calculating bulk properties and in particular equilibrium constants from molecu. Finally we explore the information about biological structure and function that. can be obtained from spectroscopy the study of interactions between molecules. and electromagnetic radiation,Applications of physical chemistry to biology. and medicine, Here we discuss some of the important problems in biology and medicine being. tackled with the tools of physical chemistry We shall see that physical chemists. contribute importantly not only to fundamental questions such as the unraveling. of intricate relationships between the structure of a biological molecule and its func. tion but also to the application of biochemistry to new technologies. a Techniques for the study of biological systems, Many of the techniques now employed by biochemists were first conceived by physi. cists and then developed by physical chemists for studies of small molecules and. chemical reactions before they were applied to the investigation of complex bio. logical systems Here we mention a few examples of physical techniques that are. used routinely for the analysis of the structure and function of biological molecules. X ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy are. two very important tools commonly used for the determination of the three. Applications of physical chemistry to biology and medicine 3. dimensional arrangement of atoms in biological assemblies An example of the. power of the X ray diffraction technique is the recent determination of the three. dimensional structure of the ribosome a complex of protein and ribonucleic acid. with a molar mass exceeding 2 106 g mol 1 that is responsible for the synthesis. of proteins from individual amino acids in the cell Nuclear magnetic resonance. spectroscopy has also advanced steadily through the years and now entire organ. isms may be studied through magnetic resonance imaging MRI a technique used. widely in the diagnosis of disease Throughout the text we shall describe many tools. for the structural characterization of biological molecules. Advances in biotechnology are also linked strongly to the development of phys. ical techniques The ongoing effort to characterize the entire genetic material or. genome of organisms as simple as bacteria and as complex as Homo sapiens will. lead to important new insights into the molecular mechanisms of disease primar. ily through the discovery of previously unknown proteins encoded by the deoxy. ribonucleic acid DNA in genes However decoding genomic DNA will not al. ways lead to accurate predictions of the amino acids present in biologically active. proteins Many proteins undergo chemical modification such as cleavage into. smaller proteins after being synthesized in the ribosome Moreover it is known. that one piece of DNA may encode more than one active protein It follows that. it is also important to describe the proteome the full complement of functional. proteins of an organism by characterizing directly the proteins after they have been. synthesized and processed in the cell, The procedures of genomics and proteomics the analysis of the genome and.
proteome of complex organisms are time consuming because of the very large num. ber of molecules that must be characterized For example the human genome con. tains about 30 000 genes and the number of active proteins is likely to be much. larger Success in the characterization of the genome and proteome of any organ. ism will depend on the deployment of very rapid techniques for the determination. of the order in which molecular building blocks are linked covalently in DNA and. proteins An important tool is gel electrophoresis in which molecules are sepa. rated on a gel slab in the presence of an applied electrical field It is believed that. mass spectrometry a technique for the accurate determination of molecular masses. will be of great significance in proteomic analysis We discuss the principles and. applications of gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry in Chapters 8 and 11. respectively,b Protein folding, Proteins consist of flexible chains of amino acids However for a protein to func. tion correctly it must have a well defined conformation Though the amino acid. sequence of a protein contains the necessary information to create the active con. formation of the protein from a newly synthesized chain the prediction of the con. formation from the sequence the so called protein folding problem is extraordi. narily difficult and is still the focus of much research Solving the problem of how. a protein finds its functional conformation will also help us understand why some. proteins fold improperly under certain circumstances Misfolded proteins are. thought to be involved in a number of diseases such as cystic fibrosis Alzheimer s. disease and mad cow disease variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease v CJD. To appreciate the complexity of the mechanism of protein folding consider a. small protein consisting of a single chain of 100 amino acids in a well defined se. quence Statistical arguments lead to the conclusion that the polymer can exist in. 4 Prologue, about 1049 distinct conformations with the correct conformation corresponding to a. minimum in the energy of interaction between different parts of the chain and the. energy of interaction between the chain and surrounding solvent molecules In the. absence of a mechanism that streamlines the search for the interactions in a prop. erly folded chain the correct conformation can be attained only by sampling every. one of the possibilities If we allow each conformation to be sampled for 10 20 s. a duration far shorter than that observed for the completion of even the fastest of. chemical reactions it could take more than 1021 years which is much longer than. the age of the Universe for the proper fold to be found However it is known that. proteins can fold into functional conformations in less than 1 s. The preceding arguments form the basis for Levinthal s paradox and lead to a. view of protein folding as a complex problem in thermodynamics and chemical ki. netics how does a protein minimize the energies of all possible molecular interac. tions with itself and its environment in such a relatively short period of time It is. no surprise that physical chemists are important contributors to the solution of the. protein folding problem, We discuss the details of protein folding in Chapters 8 and 12 For now it is. sufficient to outline the ways in which the tools of physical chemistry can be ap. plied to the problem Computational techniques that employ both classical and. quantum theories of matter provide important insights into molecular interactions. and can lead to reasonable predictions of the functional conformation of a protein. For example in a molecular mechanics simulation mathematical expressions from. classical physics are used to determine the structure corresponding to the minimum. in the energy of molecular interactions within the chain at the absolute zero of. temperature Such calculations are usually followed by molecular dynamics simu. lations in which the molecule is set in motion by heating it to a specified tem. perature The possible trajectories of all atoms under the influence of intermolec. ular interactions are then calculated by consideration of Newton s equations of. motion These trajectories correspond to the conformations that the molecule can. sample at the temperature of the simulation Calculations based on quantum the. ory are more difficult and time consuming but theoretical chemists are making. progress toward merging classical and quantum views of protein folding. As is usually the case in physical chemistry theoretical studies inform experi. mental studies and vice versa Many of the sophisticated experimental techniques. in chemical kinetics to be discussed in Chapter 6 continue to yield details of the. mechanism of protein folding For example the available data indicate that in a. number of proteins a significant portion of the folding process occurs in less than. 1 ms 10 3 s Among the fastest events is the formation of helical and sheet like. structures from a fully unfolded chain Slower events include the formation of con. tacts between helical segments in a large protein,c Rational drug design. The search for molecules with unique biological activity represents a significant. portion of the overall effort expended by pharmaceutical and academic laborato. ries to synthesize new drugs for the treatment of disease One approach consists of. extracting naturally occurring compounds from a large number of organisms and. testing their medicinal properties For example the drug paclitaxel sold under the. tradename Taxol a compound found in the bark of the Pacific yew tree has been. found to be effective in the treatment of ovarian cancer An alternative approach. to the discovery of drugs is rational drug design which begins with the identifica. Applications of physical chemistry to biology and medicine 5. tion of molecular characteristics of a disease causing agent a microbe a virus or. a tumor and proceeds with the synthesis and testing of new compounds to react. specifically with it Scores of scientists are involved in rational drug design as the. successful identification of a powerful drug requires the combined efforts of micro. biologists biochemists computational chemists synthetic chemists pharmacolo. gists and physicians, Many of the targets of rational drug design are enzymes proteins or nucleic.
acids that act as biological catalysts The ideal target is either an enzyme of the. host organism that is working abnormally as a result of the disease or an enzyme. unique to the disease causing agent and foreign to the host organism Because. enzyme catalyzed reactions are prone to inhibition by molecules that interfere with. the formation of product the usual strategy is to design drugs that are specific in. hibitors of specific target enzymes For example an important part of the treatment. of acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS involves the steady administra. tion of a specially designed protease inhibitor The drug inhibits an enzyme that is. key to the formation of the protein envelope surrounding the genetic material of. the human immunodeficiency virus HIV Without a properly formed envelope. HIV cannot replicate in the host organism, The concepts of physical chemistry play important roles in rational drug de. sign First the techniques for structure determination described throughout the text. are essential for the identification of structural features of drug candidates that will. interact specifically with a chosen molecular target Second the principles of chem. ical kinetics discussed in Chapters 6 and 7 govern several key phenomena that must. be optimized such as the efficiency of enzyme inhibition and the rates of drug up. take by distribution in and release from the host organism Finally and perhaps. most importantly the computational techniques discussed in Chapter 10 are used. extensively in the prediction of the structure and reactivity of drug molecules In. rational drug design computational chemists are often asked to predict the struc. tural features that lead to an efficient drug by considering the nature of a receptor. site in the target Then synthetic chemists make the proposed molecules which. are in turn tested by biochemists and pharmacologists for efficiency The process is. often iterative with experimental results feeding back into additional calculations. which in turn generate new proposals for efficient drugs and so on Computational. chemists continue to work very closely with experimental chemists to develop bet. ter theoretical tools with improved predictive power. d Biological energy conversion, The unraveling of the mechanisms by which energy flows through biological cells. has occupied the minds of biologists chemists and physicists for many decades As. a result we now have a very good molecular picture of the physical and chemical. events of such complex processes as oxygenic photosynthesis and carbohydrate. metabolism,photosynthesis,l C H O s 6 O g,6 CO2 g 6 H2O l k 6 12 6 2. Carbohydrate,metabolism, where C6H12O6 denotes the carbohydrate glucose In general terms oxygenic. photosynthesis uses solar energy to transfer electrons from water to carbon dioxide. 6 Prologue, In the process high energy molecules carbohydrates such as glucose are synthe.
sized in the cell Animals feed on the carbohydrates derived from photosynthesis. During carbohydrate metabolism the O2 released by photosynthesis as a waste prod. uct is used to oxidize carbohydrates to CO2 This oxidation drives biological pro. cesses such as biosynthesis muscle contraction cell division and nerve conduc. tion Hence the sustenance of much of life on Earth depends on a tightly regulated. carbon oxygen cycle that is driven by solar energy. We delve into the details of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. throughout the text Before we do so we consider the contributions that physical. chemists have made to research in biological energy conversion. The harvesting of solar energy during photosynthesis occurs very rapidly and. efficiently Within about 100 200 ps 1 ps 10 12 s of the initial light absorp. tion event more than 90 of the energy is trapped within the cell and is available. to drive the electron transfer reactions that lead to the formation of carbohydrates. and O2 Sophisticated spectroscopic techniques pioneered by physical chemists for. the study of chemical reactions are being used to track the fast events that follow. the absorption of solar energy The strategy discussed in more detail in Chapter 13. involves the application of very short laser pulses to initiate the light induced re. actions and monitor the rise and decay of intermediates. The electron transfer processes of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. drive the flow of protons across the membranes of specialized cellular compart. ments The chemiosmotic theory discussed in Chapter 5 describes how the energy. stored in a proton gradient across a membrane can be used to synthesize adenosine. triphosphate ATP a mobile energy carrier Intimate knowledge of thermody. namics and chemical kinetics is required to understand the details of the theory. and the experiments that eventually verified it, The structures of nearly all the proteins associated with photosynthesis and. carbohydrate metabolism have been characterized by X ray diffraction or NMR. techniques Together the structural data and the mechanistic models afford a nearly. complete description of the relationships between structure and function in bio. logical energy conversion systems The knowledge is now being used to design and. synthesize molecular assemblies that can mimic oxygenic photosynthesis The goal. is to construct devices that trap solar energy in products of light induced electron. transfer reactions One example is light induced water splitting. H2O l l 1 2 O2 g H2 g, The hydrogen gas produced in this manner can be used as a fuel in a variety of. other devices The preceding is an example of how a careful study of the physical. chemistry of biological systems can yield surprising insights into new technologies. Fundamentals, e begin by reviewing material fundamental to the whole of physical chem. F 1 The states of matter, istry but which should be familiar from introductory courses Matter and. F 2 Physical state, energy will be the principal focus of our discussion.
F 1 The states of matter F 4 Energy, The broadest classification of matter is into one of three states of matter or forms F 5 Pressure. of bulk matter namely gas liquid and solid Later we shall see how this classifica F 6 Temperature. tion can be refined but these three broad classes are a good starting point. We distinguish the three states of matter by noting the behavior of a substance F 7 Equations of state. enclosed in a rigid container Exercises, A gas is a fluid form of matter that fills the container it occupies. A liquid is a fluid form of matter that possesses a well defined surface and. in a gravitational field fills the lower part of the container it occupies. A solid retains its shape regardless of the shape of the container it occupies. One of the roles of physical chemistry is to establish the link between the prop. erties of bulk matter and the behavior of the particles atoms ions or molecules. of which it is composed As we work through this text we shall gradually establish. and elaborate the following models for the states of matter. A gas is composed of widely separated particles in continuous rapid. disordered motion A particle travels several often many diameters before. colliding with another particle For most of the time the particles are so far. apart that they interact with each other only very weakly. A liquid consists of particles that are in contact but are able to move past. one another in a restricted manner The particles are in a continuous state. of motion but travel only a fraction of a diameter before bumping into a. neighbor The overriding image is one of movement but with molecules. jostling one another, A solid consists of particles that are in contact and unable to move past one. another Although the particles oscillate around an average location they. are essentially trapped in their initial positions and typically lie in ordered. The main difference between the three states of matter is the freedom of the par. ticles to move past one another If the average separation of the particles is large. there is hardly any restriction on their motion and the substance is a gas If the. particles interact so strongly with one another that they are locked together rigidly. then the substance is a solid If the particles have an intermediate mobility between.

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