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Postgraduate Medical Physics academic Programmes
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postgraduate medical physics,academic programmes, the following states are members of the international atomic energy agency. afghaNistaN guatemala paNama,albaNia haiti papua NeW guiNea. algeria holy see paraguay,aNgola hoNduras peru,argeNtiNa huNgary philippiNes. armeNia icelaNd,australia iNdia,austria iNdoNesia,azerbaiJaN iraN islamic republic of Qatar. bahraiN iraQ republic of moldoVa,baNgladesh irelaNd romaNia.
belarus israel russiaN federatioN,belgium italy rWaNda. belize Jamaica saudi arabia,beNiN JapaN seNegal,boliVia JordaN serbia. bosNia aNd herzegoViNa KazaKhstaN,seychelles,botsWaNa KeNya. sierra leoNe,brazil Korea republic of,bulgaria KuWait siNgapore. burKiNa faso KyrgyzstaN sloVaKia,buruNdi lao people s democratic sloVeNia.
cambodia republic south africa,camerooN latVia spaiN. caNada lebaNoN sri laNKa,ceNtral africaN lesotho sudaN. republic liberia sWazilaNd,chad libya,chile liechteNsteiN. sWitzerlaNd,chiNa lithuaNia,colombia luXembourg syriaN arab republic. coNgo madagascar taJiKistaN,costa rica malaWi thailaNd.
c te d iVoire malaysia the former yugoslaV,croatia mali republic of macedoNia. cuba malta togo,cyprus marshall islaNds triNidad aNd tobago. czech republic mauritaNia tuNisia,democratic republic mauritius. of the coNgo meXico,deNmarK moNaco,domiNica moNgolia uKraiNe. domiNicaN republic moNteNegro uNited arab emirates. ecuador morocco uNited KiNgdom of,egypt mozambiQue great britaiN aNd.
el salVador myaNmar NortherN irelaNd,eritrea Namibia uNited republic. estoNia Nepal of taNzaNia,ethiopia NetherlaNds uNited states of america. fiJi NeW zealaNd,fiNlaNd Nicaragua,uzbeKistaN,fraNce Niger. gaboN Nigeria VeNezuela,georgia NorWay VietNam,germaNy omaN yemeN. ghaNa paKistaN zambia,greece palau zimbabWe, the agency s statute was approved on 23 october 1956 by the conference on the statute of the.
iaea held at united Nations headquarters New york it entered into force on 29 July 1957 the. headquarters of the agency are situated in Vienna its principal objective is to accelerate and enlarge the. contribution of atomic energy to peace health and prosperity throughout the world. TRAINING COURSE SERIES No 56,postgraduate medical physics. academic programmes,Endorsed by the international organization. for medical physics IOMP,International atomic energy agency. Vienna 2013,CoPYrIGHt notICe, all iaea scientific and technical publications are protected by the terms of. the universal copyright convention as adopted in 1952 berne and as revised. in 1972 paris the copyright has since been extended by the World intellectual. property organization geneva to include electronic and virtual intellectual. property permission to use whole or parts of texts contained in iaea publications. in printed or electronic form must be obtained and is usually subject to royalty. agreements proposals for non commercial reproductions and translations are. welcomed and considered on a case by case basis enquiries should be addressed. to the iaea publishing section at,marketing and sales unit publishing section.
international atomic energy agency,Vienna international centre. po box 100,1400 Vienna austria,fax 43 1 2600 29302. tel 43 1 2600 22417,email sales publications iaea org. http www iaea org books, For further information on this publication please contact. Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section,International Atomic Energy Agency.
Vienna International Centre,PO Box 100,1400 Vienna Austria. Email Official Mail iaea org,Printed by the IAEA in Austria. December 2013,POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL PHYSICS ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES. IAEA VIENNA 2013,IAEA TCS 56,ISSN 1018 5518,Printed by the IAEA in Austria. December 2013, The safe and effective implementation of technology in radiation medicine requires expert.
medical physics support In order to fulfil their duties medical physicists working as health. professionals should demonstrate competency in their area of specialization by obtaining the. appropriate educational qualification and clinical competency training in one or more aspects. of medical physics, At the international level there are very few established accredited academic education. programmes for medical physics students and no international guidelines exist which provide. the recommended requirements outline and structure of such a programme An increasing. number of Member States with a critical mass of medical physicists are seeking support to. initiate their own national postgraduate education programmes This publication therefore. seeks to provide guidelines for the establishment of a postgraduate academic education. programme in medical physics which could also be used to achieve harmonized standards of. competence worldwide This publication was developed in support of the internationally. harmonized guidelines given in IAEA Human Health Series No 25 on the requirements for. academic education and clinical training of clinically qualified medical physicists. In addition to academic education medical physicists should obtain specialized clinical. training The IAEA has published three Training Course Series publications with. accompanying handbooks which provide guidelines and references to training material for. clinical training programmes for medical physicists specializing in radiation oncology. TCS 37 diagnostic radiology TCS 47 and nuclear medicine TCS 50. Endorsement of this publication has been granted by the International Organization for. Medical Physics IOMP The IAEA officer responsible for this publication was. D van der Merwe of the Division of Human Health,EDITORIAL NOTE. This publication has been prepared from the original material as submitted by the authors The views expressed do not necessarily. reflect those of the IAEA the governments of the nominating Member States or the nominating organizations. This publication has not been edited by the editorial staff of the IAEA It does not address questions of responsibility legal or otherwise. for acts or omissions on the part of any person, The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgement by the publisher the IAEA as to the legal. status of such countries or territories of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. The mention of names of specific companies or products whether or not indicated as registered does not imply any intention to. infringe proprietary rights nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the IAEA. The authors are responsible for having obtained the necessary permission for the IAEA to reproduce translate or use material from. sources already protected by copyrights,1 INTRODUCTION 1. 2 ADMISSION CRITERIA 2,3 INFRASTRUCTURE 3,3 1 ACADEMIC FACULTY 3.
1 INTRODUCTION, Medical physics was classified as a profession by the International Labor Organization in. 2011 1 The International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA International Basic Safety. Standards Interim edition 2 specifically refers to the roles and responsibilities of the medical. physicist in respect of medical exposure patient protection and safety In addition specialized. education training and competencies are a requirement The recognition of medical physicists. remains however a challenge in many regions 3, An international survey of existing medical physics education programmes has shown that. often physicists with little or no background in medical physics are working in the hospital. environment as clinically qualified medical physicists 4 The results of this survey and the. recommended requirements for the academic education clinical training and on going re. certification of medical physicists are represented in Fig 1 as published in recent. International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA publications 4 Several possible modes of. faculty organization and content delivery are also presented in the publication from the. International Organization for Medical Physics IOMP model curriculum project 5. FIG 1 The recommendations on minimum requirements for the academic education and. clinical training of clinically qualified medical physicists 4 Successful completion of. accredited programmes as shown within the dashed line in the figure equips a medical. physicist with the necessary knowledge skills and competence to provide a safe and effective. medical physics clinical service, The academic education programme in medical physics fundamentally prepares a student to. enter a formal clinical medical physics residency 6 10 It will also provide the student with. the basic knowledge needed to embark on a career in the regulatory industry metrology. research and development or innovation through research sectors for instance On these broad. foundations students are then able to build more advanced specialist studies in particular. branches of medical physics depending on their aptitude and inclination Further post. graduate studies would be necessary to pursue a purely academic career in medical physics. An alternative route to enter the medical physics clinical training process for individuals. already holding a post graduate qualification e g Masters or PhD in physics engineering or. the equivalent should ensure that the incumbent in addition take appropriate academic. courses covering all the relevant specialties of medical physics This could be arranged prior. to or during the period of clinical training It should also consist of full time equivalent years. meaning that if the clinical training programme includes academic courses the allocated time. for the clinical training should be extended accordingly 4. The major outcome therefore of the academic programme would be to provide students with a. thorough grounding in the physiological basis analytical methods and fundamental aspects of. medical physics and instill an attitude of integrity professionalism critical thinking and. scientific rigor, The programme should be hosted by an academic institution capable of awarding a Master s. level and PhD post graduate research degree in order to remain sustainable by offering. academic career development pathways This institution should however be linked to a. university teaching hospital complex to ensure proper access to equipment for laboratory. purposes and for the essential exchange with the clinical use of medical physics. 2 ADMISSION CRITERIA, The 3 4 year undergraduate degree of students entering a post graduate medical physics.
academic programme should be in Physics or an equivalent relevant physical or engineering. science Because there are significant differences in the level and composition of tertiary. education worldwide it is often necessary for qualifications authorities to determine the local. degree equivalence prior to student registration For admission to the medical physics. programme it will in addition be necessary to interrogate the academic transcript of the. degree and it is recommended that, At least 2 years of undergraduate level mathematics were completed successfully. o Applied Linear Algebra,o Advanced Calculus,o Complex Variables. o Differential Equations,o Numerical methods, The following physics topics should be covered during undergraduate study If not. they should be completed prior to entry into the medical physics program. o Electricity and Magnetism,o Atomic Physics Nuclear Physics. o Quantum Mechanics,o Classical Mechanics,o Solid State Physics.
o Modern Physics and Relativity,o Thermodynamics Statistical Physics. o Signal Processing,o Physics of Fluids and Gases,o Computational Physics Computer Programming. The admission requirements for other individuals who have already completed a graduate or. post graduate degree in any other field should be the same Generally universities have well. established autonomous criteria to recognize prior learning If credit can be obtained for 67. of the medical physics core modules outlined in this document for instance the award of a. post graduate certificate in medical physics may be appropriate Likewise 33 credit may. result in the award of a post graduate diploma It is recommended that completion of 100 of. the core modules results in the award of a post graduate medical physics degree. 3 INFRASTRUCTURE,3 1 ACADEMIC FACULTY, The academic faculty should include at least one instructor holding a PhD in the medical. physics field The lack of faculty with a PhD will most likely limit the ability of the institution. to offer the course at a post graduate level Teaching is usually provided both by full time. academic staff and by medical physicists and other health care professionals working in the. health care sector The structure should therefore include a formal link with a clinical medical. physics department in a hospital setting with a teaching mandate Ideally an appropriate. number of hospital based clinically qualified medical physicists should hold formal faculty. appointments in the university department hosting the programme Radiobiologists clinicians. and regulators may also assist in providing instruction of appropriate modules In turn the. clinical staff could also hold reciprocal honorary academic contracts. To attain sufficient depth and breadth of competencies the clinical department s supporting. the programme should comply with the minimum staffing levels of medical physics in. accordance with IAEA recommendations 11 national or international staffing guidelines. 3 2 FACILITIES, As part of the formal link between the academic institution or university and the hospital s. there should be an agreement or Memorandum of Understanding MOU providing students. with supervised access to clinical equipment The clinical radiation oncology radiology and. nuclear medicine services that support the academic programme should be equipped with at. least the basic resources required to commence a medical physics clinical training programme. Radiation oncology services should have,o A teletherapy unit.
o A treatment planning system, o A simulator conventional and or computed tomography CT. o Dosimetry equipment including a water phantom,o Brachytherapy and. o Medical imaging services,Radiology services should have. o General X ray units,o Fluoroscopy X ray units,o Mammography unit and. o Dental units, o In addition it would be advantageous to have access to ultrasound units a dual.
energy X ray absorptiometry DXA unit a thermo luminescent dosimetry. TLD system and a magnetic resonance imaging MRI unit. Nuclear medicine services should have, o A gamma camera single photon emission computed tomography SPECT or. SPECT CT system,o Dose calibrator probes and counters. o Phantoms and calibration sources,o Survey meters and contamination probes. o Nuclear medicine therapy services, o In addition it would be advantageous to have access to positron emission. tomography PET or PET CT, Because students will be exposed to the clinical environment all local liability issues.
concerning equipment health and safety radiation safety and protection professional. research and education ethics and patient confidentiality issues need to be clarified in the. MOU In some countries students will in addition need to register with a professional body in. order to participate in any clinical activities, Internet connectivity and access to computer workstations with basic computational software. is important Library access including electronic journal access and the relevant reports and. publications from the major medical physics international reference organizations is important. e g ICRU ICRP NCRP AAPM IAEA NCS IPEM IOMP etc The list of core reference. textbooks associated with the recommended medical physics modules is given in the next. 4 MEDICAL PHYSICS MODULES, The academic modules contained within the medical physics programme should aim at. preparing a student to conduct research and to apply critical and innovative thinking to. problem solving At least a small research project should be included. 4 1 CORE MODULES, The core modules are provided below including an outline of their content. Anatomy and Physiology as applied to Medical Physics. o Anatomical nomenclature,Origin of anatomical names. Prefixes and suffixes,Anatomical position and body plane terminology.
o Structure Physiology Pathology and Radiographic appearance X ray CT. MRI and nuclear medicine imaging of,Bones and bone marrow. Brain and Central nervous system CNS, Respiratory digestive urinary reproductive circulatory lymphatic. endocrine systems,Radiobiology,o Classification of radiation in radiobiology. o Cell cycle and cell death,o Effect of cellular radiation oxygen effect. o Type of radiation damage tissue organ and whole body. o Cell survival curve,o Dose response curve, o Early and late effects of radiation deterministic stochastic and teratogenic.
effects on the developing embryo,o Modelling linear quadratic LQ model ratio. o Fractionation 2 Gy per fraction equivalent total dose EQD2Gy. o Dose rate effect, o Tumour Control Probability TCP Normal Tissue Complication Probability. NTCP Equivalent Uniform Dose EUD, o Tolerance doses and volumes Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects. in the Clinic QUANTEC 12,o Normal and tumour cell therapeutic ratio. o Radio sensitizers protectors,Radiation Physics,o Overview of Modern Physics.
Historical overview,Atomic and nuclear Structure,Radioactive decay. Elementary quantum mechanics,o Photon interactions. o Neutron interactions,o Charged particle interactions. o Multiple scattering theories,o Stopping power,Restricted unrestricted. Linear energy transfer LET,o Transport Equation,Charged particle slowing down.
Continuous slowing down approximation CSDA,o Introduction to Monte Carlo Techniques. o Overview of Non ionizing radiation physics,Radiation Protection. o Introduction historical perspective and sources of radiation. o Radiation protection detection and measurement Geiger Mueller GM. proportional counters scintillators TLDs ionization chambers neutron. o Exponential attenuation half value layer HVL inverse square law tenth. value layer TVL,o Shielding calculations, o Operational dosimetry e g equivalent dose effective dose etc 12. o Legal framework for radiation protection 2,o Occupational public exposure and annual limits. o Emergency procedures,o As low as reasonably achievable ALARA concept.
o Justification,o Radioactive transport and waste management. o Risk assessment and communication of risk,Professional and Scientific Development. Helsinki Agreement,Basis of clinical trials,Ethics review committees. o Professionalism,Clinical governance,Quality management. Code of conduct,Management of medical equipment,o Statistical methods in research.
o Computational tools and analysis,o Peer review Journal club. o Presentation skills,Scientific communication,Techniques of instruction. Research Project,o Research planning,o Literature review.

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