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PHYSIOLOGY Questions FMGE WORLD Home
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70 Self Assessment Review of FMGE MCI Screening Examination. 16 Heparin inhibits the active form of the following CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. factors except September 2009 25 CVP denotes pressure of September 2005. a V a Left ventricle,b X b Left atrium,c XI c Right ventricle. d XII d Right atrium,17 Autoregulation is seen in March 2010. 26 The first heart sound is due to September 2005,a AV valves closure. b Closing of aortic and pulmonary valves,c Opening of AV valves. d All of the above,d Opening of aortic and pulmonary valves.
18 Factor required for erythrocyte stability March 2010. a Ankyrin 27 Cardiac output depends on all of the following. b Spectrin except September 2005,c NADPH a Cardiac rate. d All of the above b Body surface area, 19 Extrinsic system of coagulation is checked by c Stroke volume. a aPTT March 2010 d Cardiac contractility,b PT 28 QRS complex is due to September 2008. c BT a Ventricular repolarization,PHYSIOLOGY,d PTT b Atrial depolarization. 20 Reticulocytosis is not seen in September 2005 c Conduction through AV node. a Chronic renal failure anemia d Ventricular depolarization. b Hemorrhage 29 Vitamin K causes carboxylation of all of the. c Hereditary spherocytosis following clotting factors except September 2006. d Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria a II, 21 Hereditary spherocytosis is due to deficiency of b VII.
September 2007,a Spectrin,b Pyruvate kinase, 30 Mean pulmonary artery pressure is September 2007. c Cytokeratin,a 10 mm Hg,d Integrin,b 15 mm Hg, 22 Raised aPTT is seen in all of the following bleeding. c 20 mm Hg,disorder except March 2009,a Hemophilia A d 25 mm Hg. b Hemophilia B 31 Mean arterial pressure is calculated as March 2009. c Von Willebrand disease a Diastolic pressure 1 3 Systolic pressure diastolic. d Henoch Schonlein purpura pressure, 23 Platelets are stored at what temperature b Systolic pressure 1 3 Systolic pressure diastolic. September 2010 pressure, a 20 degree Celsius c Diastolic 1 3rd of systolic pressure.
b 15 degree Celsius d Arithmetic mean of systolic and diastolic pressures. c 10 degree Celsius 32 Blood flow in the vessels supplying the. d 5 degree Celsius subendocardial portion of left ventricle occurs. 24 Iron is transported bound to September 2011 during September 2009. a Ferritin a Systole,b Transferrin b Diastole,c Hemosiderin c Throughout the cycle. d Hemoglobin d Diastole and mid half of systole,Physiology 71. 33 Coronary vasodilation is caused by September 2009 41 Aortic valve closure corresponds to the beginning of. a Adenosine September 2011,b Noradrenergic stimulation. c Hypocarbia,b Parasystole,d All of the above, 34 True statement regarding purkinje fibres c Isovolumetric relaxation. September 2009 d Isovolumetric contraction,a Are myelinated fibres ENDOCRINOLOGY.
b Have action potential about a tenth as long as those 42 Anterior pituitary gland secretes all of the following. in the heart muscle except March 2005, c Have conduction velocity of four times than that of. the heart muscle,d All of the above, 35 Negative waves in jugular venous pulse March 2010. a A wave d GnRH,b V wave 43 TSH is normal in September 2006. c C wave a Hyperthyroid,d X wave b Euthyroid, 36 ECG changes seen in hypocalcemia March 2010 c Hypothyroid. a ST segment depression,PHYSIOLOGY,b Prolongation of ST segment.
44 Which of the following is not related to the calcium. c Inversion of T wave, d Prolongation of PR segment metabolism March 2007. 37 Left ventricular failure is said to be present if a Calcitonin. pulmonary capillary wedge pressure exceeds b 1 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol. September 2009 c Vitamin D,a 5 mm Hg d Thyroxine, b 10 mm Hg 45 At what time of the day GH levels are highest. c 15 mm Hg,September 2007,d 20 mm Hg,a 2 hours after sleep. 38 The first reactionary change to occur after vessel. injury and haemorrhage is September 2011 b 2 hours before sleep. a Vasoconstriction c Evening,b Bradycardia d Early morning. c Raised cortisol 46 Fasting blood sugar in normal individuals is. d Raised adrenaline,September 2007, 39 Increased preload is seen in all of the following.
a 80 100 mg 100 ml,except September 2011,a Sympathetic stimulation b 100 120 mg 100 ml. b Rest c 120 140 mg 100 ml,c Arteriovenous fistula d 140 160 mg 100 ml. d Over transfusion of blood 47 True regarding glucose tolerance test are all except. 40 Coronary blood flow is maximum during which September 2007. phase of cardiac cycle September 2011, a Can be done in fasting as well as post prandial state. a Isovolumic relaxation phase, b Isovolumic contraction phase b 1 gram of glucose kg body weight is administered. c Ejection phase c Glucose levels are checked after 2 hours. d Isovolumic contraction phase d Diagnosis of diabets mellitus can be established. 72 Self Assessment Review of FMGE MCI Screening Examination. 48 Which one of the following statements describes 55 Procedure of glucose tolerance test is September 2009. diabetes mellitus September 2007 a Glucose load in fed state measurement of blood. a Rise of blood sugar of 50 mg 100 ml in oral glucose glucose after 2 hours. tolerance test b Glucose load in fasting state measurement of blood. b Fasting blood sugar value more than 200 mg 100ml glucose after 2 hours. c Post prandial rise of blood sugar more than c Glucose load in fasting state measurement of. 50 mg 100 ml urinary glucose after 2 hours, d Glucose load in fed state measurement of urinary.
d All of the above,glucose after 2 hours,49 Which of the following causes hypocalcemia. 56 Corticosteroids suppress September 2009,September 2008. a Parathormone,b Thyroid hormones,c Calcitonin, d 1 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol 57 Thyroxine levels are raised in March 2010. 50 The hormone which helps in milk secretion a Myxedema. September 2008 September 2010 b Endemic goitre,a Oxytocin c Idiopathic nontoxic colloid goitre. b Growth hormone d Grave s disease, c FSH 58 True about Chvostek s sign are all of the following.
PHYSIOLOGY,d Prolactin except March 2010, 51 Features like hypogonadism dwarfism loss of hair a Denotes neuromuscular hyperexcitability. pigmentation and ulcers of skin and decreased b Elicited over face. immunity are associated with deficiency of c Raised calcium level. September 2008 d Facial nerve is stimulated by tapping. a Iron 59 Hypocalcemia results in September 2010,b Zinc a Absent tendon reflexes. c Iodine b Shortened QT interval in ECG, d Copper c Reduced excitability of nerves and muscle cells. 52 Long term status of blood sugar is explained by d Tetany. September 2008 60 Which of the following is seen in cold temperature. March 2011,a Increased Thyroxine release,b Serial measurement of FBS. b Decreased Thyroxine release,c Oral glucose tolerance test.
c Unaltered Thyroxine release,d None of the above,53 Suprarenal medulla secretes which hormones. September 2009, 61 During surgical stress which is not seen March 2011. a Glucocorticosteroids a Increased ACTH,b Catecholamines b Increased insulin. c Androgens c Increased norepinephrine,d Mineralocorticoids d Increased GH. 54 Chronic atrophy of adrenal gland will result in which EXCRETORY SYSTEM. hormone deficiency September 2009 62 Normal glomerular capillary pressure March 2005. a CRH a 15,b ACTH b 25,c Cortisol c 35,d MSH d 45,Physiology 73.
63 Substance which is not absorbed in the loop of 71 PCT absorbs all except September 2008. Henle March 2005 a Sodium,a K b Amino acids,b Urea c Glucose. c Cl d Hydrogen ions,d Na 72 Glucose is reabsorbed at September 2008. 64 Reabsorption of Water is maximum in a PCT,September 2009 b DCT. a PCT c Collecting duct,b DCT d All of the above, c Collecting duct 73 Maximum absorption of NaCl in proximal. d Loop of henle,convoluted tubule occurs due to the effect of.
65 Glomular filtration rate increases if September 2005 March 2009. a Increased plasma oncotic pressure a ADH,b Decreased glomerular hydrostatic pressure. b Aldosterone,c Increased renal blood flow,c Atrial natriuretic peptide. d Increased tubular hydrostatic pressure,d Angiotensin II. 66 Substance used to measure renal perfusion,74 ANP acts at the September 2009. March 2007,a Proximal tubule,PHYSIOLOGY,b Distal tubule.
c Collecting tubule,c Creatinine,d Henle loop,d Mannitol. 67 True regarding water absorption in tubules 75 GFR decreases with the following September 2009. September 2007 a Hypoproteinemia, a Majority of facultative reabsorption occurs in b Hypotension. proximal tubule c Hypertension, b Bulk of water reabsorption occurs secondary to d All of the above. sodium absorption 76 Urinary concentrating ability of kidney increases if. c 25 of water is reabsorbed irrespective of water there is September 2008. balance a Increase in renal blood flow, d Obligatory reabsorption is ADH dependent b Increase in GFR. 68 Site of action of ADH is March 2008 c Decrease in medullary hyperosmolarity. a PCT d Contraction in extracellular fluid volume, b Vasa recta 77 Which is not a constituent of juxtaglomerular.
c Loop of henle complex September 2011,d Collecting ducts a Macula densa. 69 What is glomerular filtration rate March 2008 b Glomerulus. a 100 ml min c Juxtaglomerular cells,b 125 ml min d Extraglomerular mesangial cells. c 150 ml min REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM, d 175 ml min 78 Aldosterone acts chiefly on which of the following. 70 Active resorption of sodium ion occurs in cells September 2011. March 2008,a Ascending loop of henle,b Early distal tubule. c Loop of Henle,c Proximal tubule,d Glomerulus,d All of the above.
74 Self Assessment Review of FMGE MCI Screening Examination. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT 87 Kupffer cells in the liver are March 2008. 79 Faecal mass is mainly derived from March 2005 a Endothelial cells. a Undigested food b Secretory cells,b Digested food c Phagocytic cells. c Intestinal secretions d Excretory cells, d intestinal flora 88 True about active absorption of iron is March 2009. 80 Most potent stimulus for bile secretion is a Absorbed in distal ileum. September 2005 b Absorbed in stomach, a Gastrin c Not absorbed in duodenum and proximal jejunum. b Bile acid d Decreases following gastrectomy,c Bile salt. 89 Mechanism involved in the absorption of glucose. d Secretin,from small intestine is which of the following.
81 Rapidly absorbed in the stomach is September 2006. March 2005,a Active co transport with sodium,b Carbohydrate. b Passive diffusion,c Facilitated diffusion,d Active co transport with potassium. 82 Which of the following is not produced by, 90 Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency is September 2006. hepatocytes September 2006,PHYSIOLOGY,a Lack of intrinsic factor. a Gamma globulin,b Diseases affecting terminal ileum.
c Fish tapeworm infestation,c Fibrinogen,d Prothrombin d All of the above. 83 Urobilinogen is formed in the September 2006 91 Salivary amylase is activated by March 2007. a Liver a Sodium Ion,b Kidney b Chlorine Ion,c Intestine c Potassium Ion. d Spleen d Bicarbonate Ion, 84 Chymotrypsinogen is activated into chymotrypsin by 92 Iron binding protein is September 2010. a Ferritin,March 2007,b Ferroportin 1,c Transferrin. c Renin d Hephaestin, d HCl 93 Which of the following decreases intestinal motility.
March 2011, 85 Ion which promotes glucose absorption in the gut. region September 2007,b Serotonin,b K c Gastrin,c Na d Secretin. d Ca2 94 Which of the following inhibits gastric phase of. gastric secretion March 2011,86 ADEK deficiency is seen in September 2007. a Amino acids in stomach,a Malabsorption syndrome,b Obstructive jaundice b Vagus effect. c Deficiency of pancreatic lipase c Distension of the stomach. d All of the above d Low gastric pH,Physiology 75, NERVOUS SYSTEM 103 Stretch reflex of urinary bladder is integrated at.
95 Bipolar cells is seen in March 2005 March 2007, a Sympathetic ganglion a Sacral portion of spinal cord. b Retina b Lumbar portion of spinal cord,c Cochlear ganglion c Substantia gelatinosa. d Parasympathetic ganglion d Sympathetic plexus, 96 All are carried through anterolateral system except 104 Function of neocerebellum is September 2007. March 2005 a Maintaining posture and equilibrium, a Proprioception b Planning and programming of voluntary. b Temperature movements,c Pain c Maintenance of muscle tone.
d Crude touch d Propioception, 97 All or none law is obeyed by March 2005 105 All of the following are concerned with spatial. a Post synaptic potential orientation September 2007. b Non propagated potential a Vestibular receptors,c Action potential b Eyes. c Proprioceptors in joint capsule,d Spike potential. d All of the above,98 Sensory fiber with least conduction velocity. 106 A cut lesion above the pyramidal tract decussation. September 2005,PHYSIOLOGY,a C fiber results in September 2007.
a Paralysis of the opposite half of the body,b Alpha fiber. b Contralateral loss of propioception,c beta fiber. c Ipsilateral loss of pain and temperature,d Gamma fiber. d Contralateral loss of vibration and joint position. 99 All are primary colours except September 2005, 107 Which lies in the dorsal column of spinal cord. September 2007,a Fasciculus gracilis,b Anterior spinothalmic tract.
c Dorsal spinocerebellar tract,100 True about colour blindness September 2005. d Ventral spinocerebellar tract,a Autosomal dominant inheritance. 108 Phantom limb is explained by September 2007,b Tritanopia is the commonest disorder. a Webers law, c Trichromats are unable to appreciate blue colour. b Law of projection, d Defect in 1 or more prime colours c Fechners law of degeneration.
101 True about semicircular canals is September 2005 d Pascals law. a Submerged in a fluid called endolymph 109 Clasp knife rigitidy is also known as September 2007. b Base of cupula is in close contact with afferent a Inverse stretch reflex. fibres of cochlear division of the eight cranial b Withdrawl reflex. nerve c Lengthening reaction, c Arranged at right angles to each other d Crossed extensor reflex. d Associated with hearing 110 Neurotransmitter depleted in Parkinson s disease. 102 Blind spot of mariotte March 2007 September 2007. a Fovea centralis a Dopamine,b Optic disc b Acetylcholine. c Macula lutea c Glutamate,d Ors serrata d GABA, 76 Self Assessment Review of FMGE MCI Screening Examination. 111 Function of floccunodular lobe of cerebellum is 118 True regarding movements of the cilia in the inner. March 2008 ear are all except March 2009, a Co ordination of movements a It moves when head is rotated. b Equilibrium b It moves when moving person suddenly stops. c Chemoreception c It moves when perilymph moves, d Its movement is guided by the inertia of endolymph.
d Planning of movements, 119 Electrical response due to the effect of light on. 112 Limbic system is concerned with all except,photosensitive compounds of rods and cones. March 2008,March 2009,a Higher function,a Hyperpolarisation occurs. b Depolarisation occurs,c Spike potential is generated. d Planned motor activity,d None of the above,113 Alpha wave in EEG are seen in March 2008.
120 Maximum number of sodium channels per square,a Mental work. micrometer is present in March 2009,b Awake state a Cell body. c Sleep b Axon terminal,d REM sleep c Surface of myelin. 114 Features of occipital lobe of brain are all except d Nodes of Ranvier. PHYSIOLOGY, March 2008 121 Sweating is mediated by March 2009 September 2010. a Visual cortex lies in relation to calcarine fissure a Cholinergic mediated sympathetic activity. b Brodmann s area 17 corresponds to visual cortex b Noradrenergic mediated sympathetic activity. c Geniculocalcarine fibres from the medial half of the c Noradrenergic mediated parasympathetic activity. lateral geniculate terminate on the superior lip of d Cholinergic mediated parasympathetic activity. the calcarine fissure 122 Function of a muscle spindle is September 2009. a Regulates withdrawl reflex, d Its the only area in the brain activated by visual.
b Maintains muscle tone,c Feedback device to maintain muscle length. 115 Dreaming is common in which stage of sleep,d Receptor for inverse stretch reflex. September 2008 123 Sensory organ for responding to texture is. a REM September 2009,b NREM 1 a Meissner corpuscles. c NREM 2 b Merkel cells,d NREM 3 c Ruffini corpuscles. 116 White colour vision Perception of white light is due d Pacician corpuscles. to September 2008 124 Acetylcholine receptors are decreased in. a Stimulation of red cones more than blue or green September 2009. b Stimulation of blue cones more than red or green a Lambert Eaton syndrome. b Parkinson disease, c Stimulation of green cones more than blue or red.
c Alzheimer disease,d Stimulation of red blue and green cones equally. d Myasthenia gravis,117 All are Neuroglial cells in the CNS except. 125 All of the following are cholinergic effects except. September 2008,September 2009,a Oligodendrocytes,a Tachycardia. b Microglia b Salivation,c Astrocytes c Miosis,d Kupffer cells d Bronchoconstriction. Physiology 77, 126 Properties of alpha waves are all of the following 134 Which of the following is not carried in dorsal.
except September 2009 column of spinal cord March 2011. a It is most marked in the parieto occipital area a Proprioception. b It has a frequency of 8 12 Hz b Vibratory sense, c Frequency is decreased by low glucose level c Heat sensation. d Seen in REM sleep d Touch, 127 Melatonin is associated with all of the following 135 Which of the following is not associated with. except March 2010 temporal lobe September 2011,a Vomiting a Audition. b Pituitary gland secretion b Memory,c Sleep mechanism c Spatial relationship. d Jetlag d Behaviour, 128 All of the following effects can occur if vagus is RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
stimulated except March 2009 136 Correct statement regarding high altitude. a Reduction in blood pressure September 2006, b Increase in secretions of the intestine a Po2 is less. c Intestinal musculature constriction b Pco2 is more. d Bronchial musculature relaxation c In the air percentage of oxygen is less. 129 Influx of which of the following ion is responsible d Decrease in number of RBC s. PHYSIOLOGY, for IPSP March 2005 137 Less O2 saturation in blood is seen in. a Potassium ion September 2006,b Chloride ion a R L shunt. c Calcium ion b LV obstruction,d Sodium ion c RV obstruction. 130 Delta waves on EEG are recorded in September 2007 d L V shunt. a REM 138 Shift to right in Oxygen dissociation curve is seen in. b 01 NREM all except March 2007,c 02 NREM a Increased PaCO2.
d Deep sleep b Decreased PaCO2, 131 Temperature regulation is chiefly under the control c Increase in 2 3 DPG. of September 2007 d Decreased pH, a Midbrain 139 Which is responsible for respiratory drive. b Pons September 2007,c Medulla a O2,d Hypothalamus b CO. 132 Vomiting centre is situated in the September 2008 c CO2. a Hypothalamus d Bicarbonate ions, b Midbarin 140 Regarding lung volumes which of the following is. c Pons true March 2009, d Medulla a Functional residual capacity accounts for 75 of.
133 Optic nerve is September 2009 total lung capacity. a 1st order neuron b Residual volume keeps alveoli inflated between. b 2nd order neuron breaths, c 3rd order neuroon c Vital capacity increases in elderly. d 4th order neuron d Residual volume is about 500 ml. 78 Self Assessment Review of FMGE MCI Screening Examination. 141 Bohr effect is described as September 2009 148 Ovulation is due to surge of September 2006 2010. a Decrease in CO2 affinity of hemoglobin when the a FSH. pH of blood rises b LH,b Decrease in CO2 affinity of hemoglobin when the. c Prolactin,pH of blood falls, c Decrease in O2 affinity of hemoglobin when the pH. of blood rises 149 Milk ejection is facilitated by March 2007. d Decrease in O2 affinity of hemoglobin when the pH a Oxytocin. of blood falls b Growth hormone,142 Vagal stimulation causes September 2009 c FSH. a Increase in rate of respiration d LH, b Increase in depth of respiration 150 Separation of first polar body occurs at the time of.
c Bronchodilation,September 2007,d Decreased depth of respiration. a Fertilization,143 Surfactant is produced by March 2010. a Alveolar macrophages b Ovulation,b Lymphocytes in the alveoli c Implantation. c Type I alveolar cells d Menstruation, d Type II alveolar cells 151 All of the following are indicators of ovulation. 144 Haldane effect is defined as September 2010 except March 2008. PHYSIOLOGY,a Important mechanism meant for oxygen transport.
a Increase in cervical mucus,in the body,b Abdominal cramps. b Binding of oxygen to hemoglobin increases capacity. for carbon dioxide c LH surge, c Deoxygenation of blood increases capacity for d Fall in body temperature. carbon dioxide 152 Fertilization occurs in which part of the fallopian. d All of the above tube September 2007, 145 Complete apneusis will result if transection is done. a Fimbrial,at September 2011,a Lower Pons,b Lower Medulla c Ampulla. c Midbrain d Interstitial, d Cerebellum 153 Sperm becomes mobile in March 2008.
146 Which of the following is seen at high altitude a Vas deferens. September 2011 b Prostatic urethra,a Low PaO2,b High PaO2. d Epididymis,c Normal PaO2, d High PaCO2 Low PaO2 154 Asthenospermia means September 2005. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM a Reduction in number of sperms. 147 Which of the following describes In vitro b Reduction in motility of sperms. fertilization September 2005 c Absence of sperms, a Method to judge the time of ovulation so that coitus d Absence of semen. can result in fertilization,155 Ovulation occurs September 2005. b Use of hormones to promote fertilization in the,tubes a 14 days after menstruation.
c Removing mature ova fertilizing it with sperm and b 14 days prior to next menstruation. implanting back in uterus c On 14th day of the cycle. d Artificial insemination d None of the above,Physiology 79. 156 Term period for embryonic period September 2006 c Chloride. a 0 14 days of gestation d Sodium, b 14 days to 9 weeks of gestation 165 Metabolic acidosis is seen in all except. c 9 weeks to birth September 2005, d 22 weeks intrauterine to 7 days after birth a Diabetic ketaacidosis. 157 Impotency may be seen in September 2007 b Emphysema. a Mumps orchitis c Aspirin overdose,b Testosetrone deficiency d Uremia. c Prolactinoma 166 Magnitude of action potential is mainly affected by. d All of the above September 2005, 158 Testosterone production is mainly contributed by a Calcium ion.
March 2011 September 2011 b Hydrogen ion,a Leydig cells c Sodium ion. b Sertoli cells d Potassium ion, c Seminiferous tubules 167 Type of exercise done to increase the muscle. d Epididymis strength September 2005, 159 Interstitial cells of Leydig in testes secrete which a Aerobic isotonic. of the following March 2011 b Isometric,a Inhibin c Isotonic. b Testosterone d All of the above,PHYSIOLOGY, c Anti mullerian hormone 168 Nicotinic receptors are seen in all except.
d Aromatase September 2007, 160 Levels of which of the following hormones are a Neuromuscular junction. increased in post menopausal women September 2011 b Autonomic ganglia of autonomic nervous system. a Estrogen c Bronchial smooth muscle,b FSH d Brain. c Progesterone 169 Normal limit for postprandial after 2 hours blood. d Cortisone glucose level in mg dL March 2008,MISCELLANEOUS a 80 110. 161 Charecteristic of smooth muscle cells in intestine b 110 140. March 2005 c 140 170,a Does not have actin and myosin d 170 200. b Cannot do sustained contraction 170 BMI of underweight individual March 2008. c It contracts when stretched in the absence of any a Less than 18 5. extrinsic innervation b 18 5 24 9, d Does not require calcium for contraction c 25 29 9.
162 Osmolality of plasma in a normal adult d More than 30. September 2005 171 Most abundant ion in intracellular fluid is. a 320 330 mOsm L,September 2008,b 300 310 mOsm L,c 280 290 mOsm L a Protein. d 260 270 mOsm L b Bicarbonate, 163 Hydrogen ion is eliminated by September 2005 c Potassium. a Kidney d Sodium, b Lungs 172 Nearly 20 of normal tensile strength of tissue at. c Liver the site of wound is gained after September 2008. d Stomach a 1 week of wound healing, 164 Which ion helps is resting membrane potential in b 2 weeks of wound healing. neurons September 2005 c 3 weeks of wound healing,a Potassium d 4 weeks of wound healing.
80 Self Assessment Review of FMGE MCI Screening Examination. 173 Major contribution to plasma osmolality is by 181 What is the BMI for obese person March 2010. which ion March 2009 a Less than 18 5,a Sodium b 18 5 24 9. b Potassium c 25 29 9,c Glucose d More than 30, d Calcium 182 A disease occurring before 65 yr of age is termed as. 174 All of the following changes are seen in chronic. September 2007,starvation except September 2009,a All fat stores have been used up. b Pre senile,b Severe fat and muscle wasting,c Post adolescent. c Brain uses ketoacids as fuel,d Post senile,d Level of serum proteins less than 2 8 g dL.
175 Repolarization of a nerve is due to September 2009 183 Main content of bilayer cell membrane is. a Hydrogen ions March 2009,b Potassium ions a Glycerol. c Sodium ions b Cholesterol,d Calcium ions c Cholesterol ester. 176 Which interleukin is needed for differentiation of d Triacyl glycerol. eosinophils September 2009 184 Oily substance secreting gland is September 2009. PHYSIOLOGY,a IL1 a Sweat gland,b IL2 b Meibomian gland. c IL4 c Salivary gland,d IL5 d Lacrimal gland, 177 Bicarbonate exchange occurs in September 2009 185 Which of the following is true September 2010. a Kidney a ExtraCellular Fluid is rich in organic anion. b ECF is more than IntraCellular Fluid,c None of the above.
c High sodium to potassium ratio is seen in ECF,d Both of the above. d ECF is potassium ion rich, 178 Size of action potential is decreased as a result of. 186 Red reaction in triple response is due to March 2011. March 2010,a Local edema,a Lower extracellular sodium. b Capillary dilation,b Raised extracellular calcium. c Axon reflex,c Lower extracellular calcium, d Raised extracellular sodium d Decreased permeability of capillaries.
179 With glucose which of the following is transported 187 Which of the following may be the effect of positive. March 2010 and 2011 g acceleratory force on the body of aviator. a Hydrogen ions September 2011,b Potassium ions a Increased cardiac output. c Calcium ions b Initial rise and then fall of blood pressure. d Sodium ions c Thrombocytopenia, 180 During pregnancy deficiency of which vitamin in d Pooling of blood in lower body. women causes neural tube defect in the newborn 188 Fibrillation of skeletal muscle is associated with all. March 2010 except March 2011,a Thiamine a Long time after denervation. b Pyridoxine b Hypersensitivity to acetylcholine, c Folic acid c Lot of receptors over entire muscle cell membrane. d Cyanocobalamin d Strong stimulus,ANSWERS WITH EXPLANATIONS.
HAEMATOLOGY,1 Normal pH is 7 35 7 45, There are a series of buffers which help the plasma resist any change in pH Some of them include the hemoglobin in. the red blood cells other plasma proteins the bicarbonate buffer and the phosphate buffer. Ans D 7 40,Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 4, 2 Monocytes enter the circulation from the bone marrow and remains in circulation for about 72 hours. They then enter the tissues and become tissue macrophages The tissue macrophages include Kupffer cells of liver. pulmonary alveolar macrophages and microglia in the brain. Ans A 1 3 days,Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 65. 3 In the embryo Gower 1 2 2 Gower 2 2 2,In the fetus hemoglobin F 2 2. In the adults, Hemoglobin A 2 2 The most common with a normal amount over 95.
Hemoglobin A 2 2 2 chain synthesis begins late in the third trimester and in adults it has a normal range of. Hemoglobin A1c is increased in the patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 523 526,4 CO2 is carried in blood in three different ways. 1 Most of it about 70 80 is converted to bicarbonate ions by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the red blood. 2 5 10 is dissolved in the plasma, 3 5 10 is bound to hemoglobin as carbamino compounds. Ans D All of the above,Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 613. 5 Iron is absorbed in ferrous Fe 2 form in the duodenum. Ferritin is the storage form of iron,Transferrin is iron transporter protein. 70 of iron in the body is hemoglobin, Ferritin which is not combined with iron is called apoferritin.
Under steady conditions the serum ferritin level correlates with total body iron stores thus the serum ferritin level is. the most convenient laboratory test to estimate iron stores. The ferritin levels measured have a direct correlation with the total amount of iron stored in the body. Self Assessment Review of FMGE MCI Screening Examination. If ferritin is high there is iron in excess If ferritin is low there is a risk for lack in iron. Serum ferritin is the most sensitive lab test for iron deficiency anemia. Ferritin is also used as a marker for iron overload disoreders such as hemochromatosis and porphyria in which the. ferritin level may be abnormally raised,Ans A Ferritin. Ref Guyton s Physiology 11th ed Page 425,6 Ans C VIII. Ref Guyton s Physiology 11th ed Page 862, 7 Sickle haemoglobin HbS is a structural variant of haemoglobin in which glutamic acid an amino acid at position. No 6 of beta globin chain of haemoglobin is replaced by valine. This happens due to change of a nucleotide adenine to thymine GAGgGTG of codon 6 of beta globin gene This. substitution of amino acid changes the net charge of haemoglobin oxygen affinity and three dimensional structure. thus rendering it as unstable haemoglobin, Sickle haemoglobin gets polymerized at low oxygen tension and deforms the red blood cell from discoid shape to. sickle like crescent form,PHYSIOLOGY, Ans B Glutamtic acid at position No 6 of beta globin chain of haemoglobin is replaced by valine.
Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 527, 8 When fully saturated each gram of normal hemoglobin contains 1 39 mL of oxygen. But blood normally contains small amount of inactive hemoglobin derivatives and hence the measured value. becomes 1 34 mL of oxygen,Ans B 1 33 ml O2,Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 610. 9 Serum has essentially the same composition as that of plasma except that its fibrinogen and clotting factors II V and. VIII has been removed and it has a higher seroton in content. Ans C Factor VII,Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 530. 10 Hemophilia B is also known as Christmas disease. Hemophilia A is deficiency of factor VIII classical hemophilia It has sex linked inheritance. Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 535, 11 As AB blood group doesn t have any circulating agglutinins and can receive any type of blood group without. developing a transfusion reaction due to ABO in compatibility they are known as universal recipient. Type O individuals are known as universal donor because they lack A and b antigens. Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 528,Physiology.
12 Factor X can be activated by reactions in either of two systems an intrinsic and an extrinsic system. The extrinsic system is triggered by the release of tissue thromboplastin a protein phospholipid mixture that. activates factor VII The tissue thromboplastin and factor VII activate factors IX and X In the presence of PL Ca 2 and. factor V activated factor X catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. The extrinsic pathway is inhibited by a tissue factor pathway inhibitor that forms a quaternary structure with TPL. factor VIIa and factor Xa,Ans B Thromboplastin,Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 533. 13 Hageman factor is factor XII also known as glass factor. The initial reaction in the intrinsic system is conversion of inactive factor XII to active factor XII XIIa This. activation which is catalyzed by high molecular weight kininogen and kallikrein can be brought about in vitro. by exposing the blood to electronegatively charged wettable surfaces such as glass and collagen fibers. Activation in vivo occurs when blood is exposed to the collagen fibers u nderlying the endothelium in the blood. vessels Active factor XII then activates factor XI and active factor XI activates factor IX Activated factor. IX forms a complex with active factor VIII which is activated when it is separated from von Willebrand factor. The complex of IXa and VIIIa activate factor X Phospholipids from aggregated platelets PL and Ca 2 are necessary. PHYSIOLOGY,for full activation of factor X,Ans B Intrinsic pathway. Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 532, 14 In adults about 85 of the erythropoietin comes from the kidneys and 15 from the liver Both these organs contain. the mRNA for erythropoietin Erythropoietin can also be extracted from the spleen and salivary glands but these. tissues do not contain the mRNA and consequently do not appear to manufacture the hormone. When renal mass is reduced in adults by renal disease or nephrectomy the liver cannot compensate and anemia. Erythropoietin is produced by interstitial cells in the peritubular capillary bed of the kidneys and by perivenous. hepatocytes in the liver It is also produced in the brain where it exerts a protective effect against excitotoxic damage. triggered by hypoxia and in the uterus and oviducts where it is induced by estrogen and appears to mediate. estrogen dependent angiogenesis,Ans A Interstitial cells of kidney. Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 677, 15 The fluid portion of the blood the plasma contains ions inorganic molecules and organic molecules.
The normal plasma volume is about 5 of body weight. Plasma clots on standing remaining fluid only if an anticoagulant is added If whole blood is allowed to clot and the. clot is removed the remaining fluid is called serum. Serum has essentially the same composition as plasma except that its fibrinogen and clotting factors II V and VIII. have been removed and it has a higher serotonin content because of the breakdown of platelets during clotting. Ans D 5 of Body Weight,Ref Ganong s Physiology 23rd ed Page 530.


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