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Narrowband Internet of Things Whitepaper
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1 Introduction 3,2 Overview 5,3 Physical Layer 9,4 Cell Access 24. 5 Data Transfer 33,6 Summary and Outlook 39,7 References 40. 8 Additional Information 41,9 Rohde Schwarz 42,Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 2. Introduction,1 Introduction, One of the characteristics of Machine Type Communication MTC is the broad spec. trum of capabilities For example surveillance cameras have to deliver a huge amount. of UL data while being almost stationary whereas devices for fleet tracking have a. small amount of data while performing a lot of handovers. Yet another class of devices has neither of these capabilities Examples are devices. for meter reading like electricity gas or water consumption They are often stationary. thus need not an optimized handover Only a small amount of data is usually transfer. red which is even not delay sensitive However the number of these MTC devices. may become quite big even up to several orders of magnitude compared to the tradi. tional devices Using existing LTE technology would lead to a network overload. because despite of their small amount of user data the amount of signaling is about the. same The first specification of NB IoT focusses on this class of devices. These devices are often installed at places without power supply Consequently they. run completely on battery and it may be very expensive to change the battery because. they may only be accessed by trained staff Hence in some cases the battery lifetime. can even determine the lifetime of the whole device An optimized power consumption. is therefore essential for a proper operation In addition the coverage at these places. is often quite bad Therefore the indoor coverage has to be significantly improved up. to 23 dB are regarded as necessary, Due to their sheer amount of required devices they have to be in the low cost range.
As a goal each module shall be in the price range of less than 5 US. In order to evaluate possible solutions a study item was discussed in 3GPP in the. GERAN TSG 1 The main requirement in addition to the above ones was the coexis. tence with existing GSM UMTS and LTE systems and the hardware used for those. technologies, Figure 1 1 The three different solutions for specifying an optimized internet of things standard. Two solutions the NB IoT and the EC GSM have been identified from this study. where the latter is building upon the GSM standard In parallel also a pure LTE solu. Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 3,Introduction. tion LTE M was brought into 3GPP It continues the optimizations already done in. Release 12 with the introduction of a new device category cat M1. In this whitepaper the NB IoT is presented Although it is integrated in the LTE stan. dard it can be regarded as a new air interface Therefore it is not backward compati. ble with LTE The coexistence is realized by specifying the time and frequency resour. ces used from the existing standards or in the neighborhood thereof. The whitepaper is structured in the following way We first give an overview of the. more specific requirements and the network architecture and provide the details of the. physical layer After having described the access to the cell we show how the data. packets are transported over the air interface Finally an outlook to further develop. ments of this technology is given,Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 4. 2 Overview,2 1 Requirements, From the general MTC requirements mentioned in the previous chapter the following. standard specific requirements for NB IoT were derived. Minimize the signaling overhead especially over the radio interface. Appropriate security to the complete system including the core network. Improve battery life,Support delivery of IP and non IP data 2 3.
Support of SMS as a deployment option 4, In order to fulfill these requirements many advanced and even basic features of LTE. Release 8 9 are not supported 5 The most striking example is the lack of handover. for UEs in the connected state Only cell reselection in the idle state is supported. which is even restricted to be within the NB IoT technology As there is no interaction. with other radio technologies also the associated features are not supported Exam. ples are the lack of LTE WLAN interworking interference avoidance for in device coex. istence and measurements to monitor the channel quality. Most LTE Advanced features are also not supported This concerns e g Carrier Aggre. gation Dual Connectivity or device to device services In addition there is no QoS. concept because NB IoT is not used for delay sensitive data packets Consequently. all services requiring a guaranteed bit rate like real time IMS are not offered in NB IoT. With these requirements 3GPP uses a different approach than before Instead of cre. ating one air interface for all types of applications the air interface for small non delay. sensitive data packets is split off and optimized separately UEs which support to work. on NB IoT technology are tagged with the new UE category cat NB1. 2 2 Network,2 2 1 Core Network, In order to send data to an application two optimizations for the cellular internet of. things CIoT in the evolved packet system EPS were defined the User Plane CIoT. EPS optimisation and the Control Plane CIoT EPS optimisation see Figure 2 1 Both. optimisations may be used but are not limited to NB IoT devices. Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 5, Figure 2 1 Network for the NB IoT data transmission and reception In red the Control Plane CIoT. EPS optimisation is indicated in blue the User Plane CIoT EPS optimisation. On the Control Plane CIoT EPS optimisation UL data are transferred from the eNB. CIoT RAN to the MME From there they may either be transferred via the Serving. Gateway SGW to the Packet Data Network Gateway PGW or to the Service Capa. bility Exposure Function SCEF which however is only possible for non IP data pack. ets From these nodes they are finally forwarded to the application server CIoT Ser. vices DL data is transmitted over the same paths in the reverse direction In this solu. tion there is no data radio bearer set up data packets are sent on the signaling radio. bearer instead Consequently this solution is most appropriate for the transmission of. infrequent and small data packets, The SCEF is a new node designed especially for machine type data It is used for. delivery of non IP data over control plane and provides an abstract interface for the. network services authentication and authorization discovery and access nework. capabilities, With the User Plane CIoT EPS optimisation data is transferred in the same way as the.
conventional data traffic i e over radio bearers via the SGW and the PGW to the appli. cation server Thus it creates some overhead on building up the connection however it. facilitates a sequence of data packets to be sent This path supports both IP and non. IP data delivery,2 2 2 Access Network, On the overal access network architecture there is no difference to LTE 6. Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 6,Frequency Bands. Figure 2 2 Network architecture towards the air interface. The eNBs are connected to the MME and S GW using the S1 interface with the differ. ence of carrying the NB IoT messages and data packets Even though there is no. handover defined there is still an X2 interface between two eNBs which enables a fast. resume after the UE goes to the idle state see Chapter 4 5 1 RRC Connection Estab. lishment on page 28 for details even for the case that the resume process is to. another eNB,2 3 Frequency Bands, For the frequency bands the same frequency numbers as in LTE are used with a sub. set defined for NB IoT In Release 13 these are the following bands 7. Band Number Uplink frequency range MHz Downlink frequency range MHz. 1 1920 1980 2110 2170,2 1850 1910 1930 1990,3 1710 1785 1805 1880. 5 824 849 869 894,8 880 915 925 960,12 699 716 729 746.
13 777 787 746 756,17 704 716 734 746,18 815 830 860 875. 19 830 845 875 890,20 832 862 791 821,26 814 849 859 894. 28 703 748 758 803,66 1710 1780 2110 2200,Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 7. Frequency Bands, It is worth mentioning that most frequencies are in the lower range of existing LTE. bands This reflects that for machine type communications there are a lot of devices. expected in difficult radio conditions,Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 8.
Physical Layer,Operation Modes,3 Physical Layer,3 1 Operation Modes. NB IoT technology occupies a frequency band of 180 kHz bandwidth 8 which corre. sponds to one resource block in LTE transmission With this selection the following. operation modes are possible, Stand alone operation A possible scenario is the utilization of currently used GSM. frequencies With their bandwidth of 200 kHz there is still a guard interval of 10 kHz. remaining on both sides of the spectrum, Guard band operation utilizing the unused resource blocks within an LTE carrier s. guard band, In band operation utilizing resource blocks within an LTE carrier. These modes are visualized in the following figure. Figure 3 1 Operation modes for NB IoT, For the stand alone operation the GSM carriers in the right part of the figure are only.
shown as an example in order to indicate that this is a possible NB IoT deployment Of. course this operation mode also works without neighboring GSM carriers. In the in band operation the assignment of resources between LTE and NB IoT is not. fixed However not all frequencies i e resource blocks within the LTE carrier are. allowed to be used for cell connection They are restricted to the following values. Table 3 1 Allowed LTE PRB indices for cell connection in NB IoT in band operation. LTE system 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz, LTE PRB indices 2 12 2 7 17 4 9 14 19 2 7 12 17 22 4 9 14 19 24 29 34. for NB IoT syn 22 30 35 40 45 27 32 42 47 39 44 55 60 65 70 75. chronization 52 57 62 67 72 80 85 90 95, As indicated in this table there is no support for in band operation of an LTE band with. 1 4 MHz bandwidth A conflict between resources used by the LTE system like the cell. specific reference signals CRS or the downlink control channel at the start of each. subframe must be taken into account when resources are allocated for NB IoT This is. also reflected in Table 3 1 by not using the 6 inner resouce blocks as these are alloca. ted for the synchronization signals in LTE,Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 9. Physical Layer, For the guard band operation the UE only synchronizes to signals for which the bands. are completely in the guard band, In order to cope with different radio conditions there may be up to 3 coverage.
enhancement CE levels CE level 0 to CE level 2 CE level 0 corresponds to normal. coverage and CE level 2 to the worst case where the coverage may be assumed to. be very poor It is up to the network how many CE levels are defined A list of power. thresholds for the received reference signals is broadcasted in the cell for each CE. level The main impact of the different CE levels is that the messages have to be. repeated several times, For Release 13 FDD half duplex type B is chosen as the duplex mode This means. that UL and DL are separated in frequency and the UE either receives or transmits. however not simultaneously In addition between every switch from UL to DL or vice. versa there is at least one guard subframe SF in between where the UE has time to. switch its transmitter and receiver chain,3 2 Downlink. For the DL three physical channels,NPBCH the narrowband physical broadcast channel. NPDCCH the narrowband physical downlink control channel. NPDSCH the narrowband physical downlink shared channel. and two physical signals,NRS Narrowband Reference Signal. NPSS and NSSS Primary and Secondary Synchronization Signals. are defined These are less channels than for LTE the physical multicast channel. PMCH is not included because there is no MBMS service for NB IoT. The following figure illustrates the connection between the transport channels and the. physical channels, Figure 3 2 Mapping of the transport channels to the physical channels.
Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 10,Physical Layer. MIB information is always transmitted over the NPBCH the remaining signaling infor. mation and data over the NPDSCH The NPDCCH controls the data transfer between. UE and eNB, The physical DL channels are always QPSK modulated NB IoT supports the operation. with either one or two antenna ports AP0 and AP1 For the latter case Space Fre. quency Block Coding SFBC is applied Once selected the same transmission. scheme applies to NPBCH NPDCCH and NPDSCH, Like in LTE each cell has an assigned physical cell ID PCI the Narrowband physical. cell ID NCellID Totally 504 different values for NCellID are defined Its value is provi. ded by the secondary synchronization signal NSSS see Chapter 3 2 3 Synchroniza. tion Signals on page 13,3 2 1 Frame and Slot Structure. In the DL OFDM is applied using a 15 kHz subcarrier spacing with normal cyclic prefix. CP Each of the OFDM symbols consists of 12 subcarrier occupying this way the. bandwitdh of 180 kHz Seven OFDMA symbols are bundled into one slot so that the. slot has the following resource grid 9, Figure 3 3 Resource grid for one slot There are 12 subcarriers for the 180 kHz bandwidth.
This is the same resource grid as for LTE in normal CP length for one resource block. which is important for the in band operation mode A resource element is defined as. one subcarrier in one OFDMA symbol and is indicated in Figure 3 3 by one square. Each of these resource elements carries a complex value with values according to the. modulation scheme, These slots are summed up into subframes and radio frames in the same way as for. Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 11,Physical Layer. Figure 3 4 Frame structure for NB IoT for DL and UL with 15kHz subcarrier spacing. There are 1024 cyclically repeated radio frames each of 10ms duration A radio frame. is partitioned into 10 SFs each one composed of two slots. In addition to the system frames also the concept of hyper frames is defined which. counts the number of system frame periods i e it is incremented each time the system. frame number wraps It is a 10 bit counter so that the hyper frame period spans 1024. system frame periods corresponding to a time interval of almost 3 hours. 3 2 2 Narrowband Reference Signal, The narrowband reference signal NRS is transmitted in all SFs which may be used. for broadcast or dedicated DL transmission no matter if data is actually transmitted or. not see Chapter 3 2 5 Dedicated Channels on page 16 for more details. Depending on the transmission scheme NRS is either transmitted on one antenna port. or on two Its values are created like the CRS in LTE with the NCellID taken for the. PCI The mapping sequence is shown in the following figure. Figure 3 5 Basic mapping of reference signals to the resource elements In blue NRS transmitted on. antenna port 0 in magenta NRS transmitted on antenna port 1. The NRS mapping shown in Figure 3 5 is additionally cyclically shifted by NCellID mod. 6 in the frequency range When NRSs are transmitted on two APs then on every. resource element used for NRS on AP0 the same resource element on AP1 is set to. zero and vice versa,Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 12. Physical Layer, For the in band operation the LTE CRS are also transmitted in the NB IoT bands for.
the SFs which are not used for MBSFN With the structure of the NRS there is no over. lap between the LTE CRS and the NRS however the CRS have to be taken into. account for rate matching and resource element mapping All DL transmissions must. not use these resource elements and have to skip them. An important point on the in band operation concerns the NcellID It may be the same. as the PCI for the embedding LTE cell or not This is indicated by the opeartionMode. parameter in MIB NB see Chapter 3 2 4 Narrowband Physical Broadcast Channel. on page 14 which distinguishes between in band operation with same PCI as true or. false If this parameter is set to true then NCellID and PCI are the same and the UE. may assume that the number of antenna ports is the same as in the LTE cell The. channel may then be inferred from either reference signal set Therefore LTE CRS. port 0 is associated with NRS port 0 and CRS port 1 is associated with NRS port 1 If. same PCI is set to false the UE may not take any of these assumptions. 3 2 3 Synchronization Signals, For a first synchronization in frame and subframe and in order to determine the. NCellID the LTE concept of Primary Synchronization Signal PSS and Secondary. Synchronization Signal SSS is reused With these signals also timing and frequency. estimation may be refined in the UE receiver, In order to distinguish these signals from their LTE counterparts they are denoted as. NPSS and NSSS respectively Their structure is depicted in the following figure. Figure 3 6 Primary and secondary synchronization signals indicated in light blue and green respec. tively In violet LTE CRS locations are shown In this example we assume a 4 antenna. port CRS transmission NRS are not transmitted in the NPSS and NSSS subframes. The first 3 OFDM symbols are left out because they may carry the PDCCH in LTE. when NB IoT is operated in the in band mode Note that during the time when the UE. synchronizes to the NPSS and NSSS it may not know the operation mode conse. quently this guard time applies to all modes In addition both synchronization signals. are punctured by the LTE s CRS It is not specified which of the antenna ports is used. for the synchronization signals this may even change between any two SFs. Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 13,Physical Layer. A length 11 Zadoff Chu sequence in frequency domain is taken for the sequence gen. eration of the NPSS This sequence is fixed and therefore carries no information about. the cell It is transmitted in SF5 of each radio frame so that its reception allows the UE. to determine the frame boundary, The NSSS sequence is generated from a length 131 frequency domain Zadoff Chu. sequence binary scrambled and cyclically shifted depending on the radio frame num. ber NCellID is an additional input parameter so that it can be derived from the. sequence Like in LTE 504 PCI values are defined NSSS are transmitted in the last. SF of each even numbered radio frame, For the in band operation transmission of the NPSS and NSSS as well as the NPBCH.
described in the next section may only be done on PRBs as indicated in Table 3 1. The carrier selected for receiving this information is called anchor carrier. Using this construction the UE can not confuse the NB synhronization signals with. those transmitted by the LTE system Consequently there is no danger of a false. detection and UEs with either technology are automatically routed to the correct fre. quency range,3 2 4 Narrowband Physical Broadcast Channel. NPBCH carries the Narrowband Master Information Block MIB NB The MIB NB con. tains 34 bits and is transmitted over a time period of 640ms i e 64 radio frames The. following information is provided therein, 4 bits indicating the most significant bits MSBs of the System Frame Number. SFN the remaining least significant bits LSBs are implicitely derived from the. MIB NB start, 2 bits indicating the two LSBs of the hyper frame number. 4 bits for the SIB1 NB scheduling and size, 5 bits indicating the system information value tag. 1 bit indicating whether access class barring is applied. 7 bits indicating the operation mode with the mode specific values. 11 spare bits for future extensions, Figure 3 7 shows its mapping to physical resources.
Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 14,Physical Layer. Figure 3 7 NPBCH mapping to the subframes, After physical layer baseband processing the resulting MIB NB is split into 8 blocks. The first block is transmitted on the first subframe SF0 and repeated in SF0 of the. next 7 consecutive radio frames respectively In SF0 of the following radio frame the. same procedure is done for BL2 This process is continued until the whole MIB NB is. transmitted By using SF0 for all transmissions it is avoided that NPBCH collides with. a potential MBSFN transmission on LTE if NB IoT is deployed as in band operation. The SF structure of the NPBCH is shown in the following figure. Figure 3 8 Resource element occupation of the NPBCH indicated in yellow In magenta the NRS are. shown and in violet the CRS, Symbols are mapped around the NRS and the LTE CRS where it is always assumed. that two antenna ports are defined for NRS and 4 antenna ports for CRS This. assumption is necessary because the UE gets the actual antenna port information. only from reading the MIB NB The reference signal location in the frequency range is. given by the NCellID provided by the NSSS Although the NCellID may be different to. the PCI in the in band operation its range is restricted so that it points to the same fre. quency locations hence the CRS s cyclic shift in the frequency range is known to the. UE Again the first 3 OFDM symbols are left out in order to avoid a possible conflict. with the LTE s control channel,Whitepaper NarrowBand IoT 1MA266 0e 15.

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