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Multiculturalism Policy Index Immigrant Minority Policies
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2011 School of Policy Studies Queen s University at Kingston Canada. Publications Unit,Robert Sutherland Hall,138 Union Street. Kingston ON Canada,www queensu ca sps, All rights reserved This pdf file can be freely downloaded but if it is cited or circulated proper credit. should be given to the Multiculturalism Policy Index project School of Policy Studies. Multiculturalism Policy Index for Immigrant Minorities by Country 1980 2010 3. Decision Rules for Ranking Multiculturalism Policies for Immigrant Minorities 5. Australia 9,Austria 14,Belgium 18,Denmark 28,Finland 33. Germany 43,Ireland 54,Netherlands 69,New Zealand 74. Portugal 81, iv Multiculturalism Policy Index Immigrant Minority Policies.
Switzerland 96,United Kingdom 100,United States 105. References 111,Legislation Consulted 126,Relevant Country Reports and Overviews 128. Multiculturalism Policy Index for Immigrant Minorities by Country 1980 2010. Affirmation School Curriculum Media Exemptions Dual Citizenship Funding Ethnic Bilingual Education Affirmative Action TOTAL SCORE. 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010. Australia 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 5 1 1 0 1 1 5 8 8. Austria 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 5. Belgium 0 1 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 5 1 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 1 1 3 5 5. Canada 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 1 1 5 7 5 7 5. Denmark 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0. Finland 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 5 6. France 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2. Germany 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 2 2 5. Greece 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 2 5. Ireland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 1 1 1 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 1 5 3. Italy 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 1. Japan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. Netherlands 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 5 5 5 2. New Zealand 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 1 1 0 1 1 0 5 0 5 0 5 1 1 1 0 1 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 5 5 5 5. Norway 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 3 5. Portugal 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 5. Spain 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 1 0 0 0 5 0 1 3 5. Sweden 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 5 7. Switzerland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1. United Kingdom 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 5 1 2 5 5 5 5 5. United States 0 0 0 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 0 5 0 5 1 1 1 3 3 3. Note For explanation of how these policies are defined and measured see section 2 of this report. Decision Rules for Ranking,Multiculturalism Policies. for Immigrant Minorities, In evaluating multiculturalism policies related to immigrant minorities this paper uses eight indicators. These are described briefly below For each indicator policy documents program guidelines legislation. government news releases and secondary sources were examined to assess the extent to which a country has. met or exceeded the standard outlined in the indicator For each indicator a quantitative score is provided. see Table 1 along with a qualitative assessment and relevant evidence see pages 7 109 Note that the. following decision rules guided the evaluation of each indicator. 1 Constitutional legislative or parliamentary affirmation of. multiculturalism at the central and or regional and municipal. levels and the existence of a government ministry secretariat. or advisory board to implement this policy in consultation with. ethnic communities, Yes Country has affirmed multiculturalism and has an implementing body.
Limited Country has not affirmed multiculturalism explicitly but has a relevant body multicultural. ism may also have been affirmed in some municipalities but not nationally. No Country has not affirmed multiculturalism and does not have an implementing body. 2 The adoption of multiculturalism in school curriculum. Yes Country has included multiculturalism in its curriculum. Partially Country has not formally or extensively adopted multiculturalism in its curriculum but has. engaged in rhetoric that supports such inclusion implemented it in some districts or developed inter. cultural or anti racism education initiatives, No Multiculturalism is not included in school curriculum. 3 The inclusion of ethnic representation sensitivity in. the mandate of public media or media licensing, Yes Ethnic representation inclusion sensitivity or diversity is included in the mandate of public. broadcaster or media licensing, No Ethnic representation not mentioned in mandate of public broadcaster or media licensing. 6 Multiculturalism Policy Index Immigrant Minority Policies. 4 Exemptions from dress codes,either by statute or court cases. Yes Country has granted exemptions or accommodations on religious grounds. Partially Some exemptions have been granted but others have been explicitly denied. No Country does not grant exemptions or accommodations on religious grounds. Note In an earlier version of the Index the presence or absence of Sunday closing legislation was. evaluated as part of this indictor Although a number of countries were found to have provisions that. allow shops to open and close on days of their choosing it was often not clear whether such policies. were a response to multiculturalism or other often economic considerations As such this measure. has been excluded from this version of the Index,5 Allows dual citizenship.
Yes Dual citizenship is permitted foreign nationals may retain their original citizenship even after. acquiring the citizenship of the host country Note that some countries citizenship policies distinguish. between the citizenship rights of foreign nationals and those of native born migr s. Partially Dual citizenship is officially prohibited but tolerated in practice. No Dual citizenship is not permitted foreign nationals must renounce or relinquish their original citi. zenship before acquiring the citizenship of the host country. 6 The funding of ethnic group organizations or activities. Yes Ethnic groups are provided state funding in the form of core or project based support. Partially Limited Some ethnic groups receive state funding but the practice is not widespread and. the funding may be restricted to supporting the delivery of integration and settlement programs. No Ethnic groups do not receive state support,7 The funding of bilingual education or. mother tongue instruction, Yes Country funds bilingual education or mother tongue instruction either for children or adults. Partially Limited Available in some provinces states or areas but not offered as a general rule. No Country does not fund bilingual education or mother tongue instruction refers also to cases where. bilingual education is provided but only as a means of facilitating the learning of the country s official. 8 Affirmative action for disadvantaged immigrant groups. Yes Country has an affirmative action policy that targets immigrant minorities this may be in the. public or private sector or both Initiatives will extend beyond human rights policies and include tar. geted action aimed at removing barriers or more positive action measures such as quotas or preferential. No Country has no affirmative action policy for immigrant minorities. Affirmation School Curriculum Media Exemptions Dual Citizenship Funding Ethnic Bilingual Education Affirmative Action TOTAL SCORE. 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010 1980 2000 2010. Australia 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 5 1 1 0 1 1 5 8 8. 1 Constitutional legislative or parliamentary affirmation of. multiculturalism at the central and or regional and municipal. levels and the existence of a government ministry secretariat. or advisory board to implement this policy in consultation with. ethnic communities, In a 1977 report entitled Australia as a Multicultural Society a government appointed body recom. mended that Australia adopt a policy of multiculturalism the first such policies were implemented in. 1978 Although the policy framework has evolved over time it has been affirmed in successive reports. most recently in 2003 when the government released Multicultural Australia United in Diversity which. set the strategic direction for the coming three years This policy statement continues to guide Australian. multiculturalism Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2007b. In recent years the policy discourse has shifted somewhat from the language of multiculturalism with. that term removed from the name of the Department responsible for the program to the language of di. versity social cohesion and harmony with security concerns sometimes linked to the agenda Department. of Immigration and Citizenship 2009d, Nonetheless there remains a commitment to the principles of multiculturalism with the Department of. Immigration and Citizenship responsible for implementation Between 2000 and 2006 the Department. was advised by the Council for Multicultural Australia Commonwealth of Australia 2003 In 2008 the. Minister of Immigration and Citizenship appointed members to the Australian Multicultural Advisory. Council which is tasked with advising the government on social cohesion immigrants social and. civic participation overcoming racism and communicating the benefits of diversity Department of. Immigration and Citizenship 2009b, At the sub national level all states have agencies or ministries responsible for multiculturalism.
Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2007a In some cases multiculturalism is implemented. through a policy document or framework e g Northern Territories Building on the Territory s Diversity. while other states have affirmed multiculturalism through legislation e g New South Wales Community. Relations Commission and Principles of Multiculturalism Act Victoria s Multicultural Victoria Act or. a charter e g Western Australia s Multicultural Charter. Arrangements at the local level vary although generally principles of multiculturalism are integrated. into municipalities mandates Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2007a For example the. 10 Multiculturalism Policy Index Immigrant Minority Policies. state of New South Wales requires that local governments within their jurisdiction develop access and. equity initiatives that target minority communities They recommend the use of the state s Multicultural. Planning Framework Community Relations Commission 2009 Meanwhile the Government of Western. Australia s Office of Multicultural Interests has been housed since 2009 within the Ministry of Local. Government making clear the institutional link between municipalities and multiculturalism Office of. Multicultural Interests 2009, 2 The adoption of multiculturalism in school curriculum. Education is a responsibility of the Australian states although multiculturalism policy at the national. level has extended into areas of sub national jurisdiction In addition to emphasizing cross cultural. understanding and language acquisition anti racism education is an explicit element in Australia s. multicultural school curriculum Leeman and Reid 2006. This has been the case largely since the 1978 Galbally report which recommended that the Australian. government implement multiculturalism into a broad swath of policy areas Multiculturalism perspec. tives were integrated into school curriculum as were anti racism prejudice and stereotyping programs. Extra and Yagmur 2002 There was some erosion in this policy area in the mid 1980s when the federal. government cut funding for the Multicultural Education Program but the funding was reinstated the. following year largely as a result of public outcry Castles 1992. At present there are a number of examples of multiculturalism being integrated into school curriculum. at the state level For example in Victoria the Multicultural Victoria Act requires that school curriculum. promote and affirm multiculturalism while in New South Wales a Multicultural Education framework. includes a Cultural Relations and Community Education Policy anti racism initiatives and refugee. support programs New South Wales Department of Education and Training 2009 The Government. of New South Wales in partnership with the Victoria and Queensland governments has also created an. online portal Making Multicultural Australia which includes multicultural education resources Board. of Studies New South Wales 2009 In 2000 the Government of South Australia created the Multicultural. Education Committee which advises the Minister of Education on language and multicultural education. programs Government of South Australia 2009, 3 The inclusion of ethnic representation sensitivity in. the mandate of public media or media licensing, The Australia Broadcasting Corporation ABC is governed by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Act 1983 Section 6 of the act stipulates that the broadcasting system provide programs that contribute to. a sense of national identity and inform and entertain and reflect the cultural diversity of the Australian. community It provides further that the ABC shall take account of Australia s multicultural character. in its provision of broadcasting services Section 33 of the act stipulates that the ABC will ensure non. discrimination in its hiring practices,Evidence 11. In addition the government funds the Special Broadcasting Service SBS which is the country s. multicultural and multilingual broadcaster it has television radio and online components SBS began. in 1975 with two radio stations its radio network purportedly the most linguistically diverse in the. world now broadcasts in 68 languages The SBS added two television stations in 1980 and gradually. expanded to include broadcasts in more than 60 languages The SBS s online component streams audio. in more than 68 languages Eighty percent of the SBS s funding comes from government sources Special. Broadcasting Service 2009, Although the government announced its intention in 1986 to merge the Special Broadcasting System.
with the Australian Broadcasting system these plans were abandoned following the mobilization of. ethnic communities who opposed these measures Castles 1992 This policy area has thus remained. relatively unchanged since the 1980s,4 Exemptions from dress codes. either by statute or court cases,Yes although uneven. Exemptions have emerged gradually over the past two decades largely in response to demands from. affected communities, Australia s multicultural framework has engendered some sensitivity toward dress code accommodations. and there are a number of examples of exemptions at the state level For example in 2004 the uniform. of the Victorian Police Service was amended to allow officers to wear the hijab Edwards 2004 This. is also the case in West Australia which in 2006 instituted a blanket exemption to its uniform policy to. accommodate religious beliefs Daily Telegraph 2006 Still there continue to be some tensions includ. ing the refusal of a Brisbane school to admit a Sikh boy unless he removed his turban and cut his hair in. compliance with the school s uniform policy McKenna 2008 Moreover while exemptions to helmet. laws have been granted in some states others have ceased such exceptions and do require Sikhs to wear. helmets while on motorcycles Sikh Association of Western Australia 2009. 5 Allows dual citizenship, Prior to 4 April 2002 Australian nationals who acquired the citizenship of another country automatic. ally lost their Australian citizenship However the country now allows dual citizenship for all citizens. Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2009c, 6 The funding of ethnic group organizations or activities.
In the late 1960s and 1970s a grant in aid program provided funding to ethnic groups but this was. solely to support the delivery of welfare programs to immigrants and refugees.


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