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Int J Mech Eng Rob Res 2015 T D Jagannatha and G Harish 2015. studied None of the mechanical properties designs Folkes 1992 The effectiveness of. excluding the fracture energies show signs of reinforcement essentially depends on the. a positive hybrid effect Marom et al 1978 adhesion between matrix and fiber so this is. Manders and Bader 1981 reported hybrid a key factor in determining the final properties. effect and failure strain enhancement of up to of the composite material particularly its. 50 for the glass fiber carbon fiber epoxy mechanical properties Yosoyima et al 1984. composite The failure strain of the carbon Yosoyima et al 1990 and Pukzky et al. phase increased as the relative proportion of 1995 In the present work an attempt has. carbon fiber was decreases and as the carbon been made to study the influence of glass fiber. fibers were more finely dispersed Yerramalli and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer. and Waas 2003 have considered carbon matrix on the mechanical properties The. glass hybrid composite with an overall fiber hybrid composites were developed by varying. volume fraction of 30 Splitting and kinking the reinforcements from 15 30 45 and. failures were noted while loading the hybrid 60 of glass fiber and carbon fiber in 40. laminates under static and dynamic loading epoxy matrix under vacuum bag process The. rates Zhang et al 2012 studied the hardness and tensile properties were studied. mechanical behavior of hybrid composites as per the ASTM standards. made of carbon glass reinforcements and the, processing method used is wet lay up which EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS. is not a best practice for obtaining high quality Material Selection. laminates An addition of hard reinforcements The E glass fiber and Carbon fibers are. such as silicon carbide alumina and titanium selected as reinforcements and Epoxy as. carbide improves hardness strength and wear matrix material The epoxy resin and hardener. resistance of the composites Amar Patnaik Tri Ethylene Tetra Amine TETA were provided. et al 2009 and Chauhan et al 2009 The by Atul Ltd Polymers division Valsad Gujarat. introduction of a glass fiber into a polymer India The Glass Fiber of bi directional woven. matrix produces a composite material that mat with 200 gsm and the density of 2 5 gm. results in an attractive combination of physical cc The Carbon Fiber of bi directional woven. and mechanical properties which cannot be mat with 200 gsm and the density of 1 78 gm. obtained with monolithic alloys Schwartz, 1984 Among the various useful polymer Figure 1 The Glass Fiber and Carbon. matrices vinyl ester is typically characterized Fiber. by properties such as fluidity corrosion,resistance and high strength weight ratio. Suresha et al 2007 The advantages of,Fiber reinforced PMCs over traditional. materials include greater mechanical strength,lighter weight better dimensional stability.
higher dielectric strength and corrosion,resistance and flexibility to improve the. Int J Mech Eng Rob Res 2015 T D Jagannatha and G Harish 2015. cc were used The glass fiber and carbon fiber,Figure 2 Vacuum Bag Process. used in the fabrication of hybrid fiber reinforced. composites are shown in Figure 1,Fabrication of Composites. The Glass Carbon fiber Epoxy based hybrid,composites were developed using vacuum bag. process by varying both the reinforcements in,terms of weight percentage of 15 30 45.
and 60 of glass fiber and carbon fiber in 40,of Epoxy matrix The weight fraction of fibers. and epoxy matrix materials were determined,Specimen Preparation. by considering the density specific gravity and,The glass fiber and carbon fibers reinforced. mass Initially the fabrication of the composite,epoxy composite slabs were taken out from. was done at room temperature by hand lay up,the mold and then specimens of suitable.
technique The required ingredients of resin,dimensions were prepared from the composite. and hardener were mixed thoroughly in a basin,slabs for different mechanical tests according. and the mixture is subsequently stirred,to ASTM standards The test specimens were. constantly The required sizes of fiber mats,cut by slabs by using diamond tipped cutter. were prepared and the glass fiber was,and different tools in the work shop Tensile.
positioned manually in the open mold and the,test specimens were prepared according to. mold surface must be smooth enough to,ASTM D638 Test specimens having. prevent bonding to the laminate The mixture,dimension of length 60 mm width of 12 mm. so made is brushed uniformly over the glass,and thickness of 3 mm Micro hardness test. and carbon plies alternatively The entrapped,specimens were prepared according ASTM.
air is removed manually with squeezes or,standard Three identical test specimens were. rollers to complete the laminates structure,prepared for different test. Then the vacuum bagging is applied to the, mold with a vacuum pressure 0 1 m bar for Testing of FRP Composites. uniform distribution of resin and also to remove Mechanical properties of composites were. the entrapped air The composite is cured at evaluated by tensile and hardness. room temperature and the post curing was measurements The specimens were. done at 50 C for 30 min 65 C for 45 min and prepared from the developed composites and. 75 C for 1 hour The Fiber reinforced PMCs edges of the specimen are finished by using. is mainly used due to easy availability of glass file and emery paper for tensile testing Tensile. fibers and economic processing technique tests were examined according to ASTM. adopted for producing the Fiber reinforced D638 The specimen was loaded between two. PMCs The vacuum bagging process adopted manually adjustable grips of a 60 KN. for the development of hybrid composite is computerized Universal Testing Machine. shown in Figure 2 UTM with an electronic extensometer and the. Int J Mech Eng Rob Res 2015 T D Jagannatha and G Harish 2015. surrounding temperature is 35 C A tensile test composites shows 14 29 increase in the. specimen placing in the testing machine and micro hardness as compared to 60 glass. load was applied until it fractures Due to the fiber reinforced composites and 23 increase. application of load the elongation and in the micro hardness with that of 30 glass. maximum load of the specimen is recorded fiber and 30 carbon fiber reinforced hybrid. Test was repeated thrice and the average composite The increase in the hardness in. value was taken to calculate the tensile strength the composites is the indication of good. of the composites Micro hardness test was bonding between the matrix and the. conducted as per ASTM standard on the reinforcement materials. specimen using a Vickers micro hardness,Tensile Strength. tester The hardness was measured at three,Figure 4 shows the effect of reinforcement on.
different locations of the specimen and the,Ultimate Tensile Strength UTS of the fiber. average value was calculated,reinforced composites The ultimate tensile. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION strength of the carbon reinforced composite. was higher as compared to other type of,composites The 60 carbon fiber reinforced. Hardness is described as resistance to surface,composites shows 65 24 increase in the. indentation of the material The variations of,UTS as compared to 60 glass fiber.
micro hardness of the composite materials are,reinforced composites and 38 01 increase. shown in the Figure 3 This graph explains the,in the UTS with that of 30 glass fiber and. effect of glass fiber and carbon fiber,30 carbon reinforced hybrid composite The. reinforcements on the micro hardness of the,UTS of carbon fiber reinforced composite is. hybrid composites The carbon fiber reinforced,higher because the strength of carbon fiber is.
epoxy composite exhibits higher micro,higher and it behaves like elastic material. hardness as compared to other two,during tensile loading The inclusion of carbon. composites The 60 carbon fiber reinforced,fiber mat reinforced polymeric composite. Figure 3 Effect of Reinforcements on, Micro Hardness of the Fibers Reinforced Figure 4 Effect of Reinforcements on UTS. Composites of the Fibers Reinforced Composites, Int J Mech Eng Rob Res 2015 T D Jagannatha and G Harish 2015.
significantly enhanced the ultimate tensile,Figure 6 Effect of Reinforcements. strength of the composite on Peak Load of the Fibers Reinforced. Composites,Yield Strength,The yield strength of the glass fiber and carbon. fiber reinforced epoxy composites depends,upon the strength and modulus of the fibers. strength and chemical stability of the matrix,fiber matrix interaction and fiber length The. 60 carbon fiber reinforced composites,shows 61 31 increase in the yield strength.
as compared to 60 glass fiber reinforced,composites and 30 increase in the yield. strength with that of 30 glass fiber and 30, carbon reinforced hybrid composite Figure 5 peak load withstand capability as compared. shows the effect of reinforcements on yield to 60 glass fiber reinforced composites and. strength of the fibers reinforced composites 35 increase in the peak load withstand. Yield strength increases with increase in capability with that of 30 glass fiber and 30. addition of reinforcement to composites this carbon reinforced hybrid composite The. may be due to improved in interfacial bonding hybrid composite shows more peak load. strength between filler matrix and fiber withstand capability as the carbon fiber. reinforcement percentage increases in the, Figure 5 Effect of Reinforcements hybrid composite. on Yield Strength of the Fibers,Reinforced Composites Ductility. The variation of ductility of fiber reinforced,composites is shown in Figure 5 The ductility.
Figure 7 Effect of Reinforcements on,Ductility of the Fibers Reinforced. Composites,Figure 6 shows the effect of reinforcements. on peak load of the fibers reinforced hybrid,composites The 60 carbon fiber reinforced. composites shows 68 52 increase in the, Int J Mech Eng Rob Res 2015 T D Jagannatha and G Harish 2015. of 30 glass fiber and 30 carbon reinforced of GF Reinforced Vinyl Ester Resin. hybrid composite is lower as compared to Composites with Different Co. other two composites The 60 carbon fiber monomers J Reinf Plast Compos. reinforced composites shows 26 19 Vol 28 pp 2675 2684. increase in the ductility as compared to 60 3 Folkes M J 1992 Multi Component. glass fiber reinforced composites and 50 94 Polymer Systems in Miles I S and. increase in the ductility with that of 30 glass Rostami S Eds Longman Scientific. fiber and 30 carbon reinforced hybrid and Technical Essex Chapter 8 UK. 4 Gururaja M N and Hari Rao A N 2012,CONCLUSION A Review on Recent Applications and.
The carbon fiber and glass fiber reinforced Future Prospectus of Hybrid. hybrid composites have been fabricated by Composites International Journal of. vacuum bag method Experimental evaluation Soft Computing and Engineering. of mechanical properties like micro hardness IJSCE Vol 1 No 6 pp 352 355. tensile and flexural strength of hybrid 5 Manders P W and Bader M G 1981. composites as per ASTM standards has been The Strength of Hybrid Glass Carbon. successfully completed The micro hardness Fibre Composites Part 1 Failure Strain. of carbon fiber reinforced composite is higher Enhancement and Failure Mode. than the other composites The tensile Journal of Materials Science Vol 16. properties have been studied and the breaking pp 2233 2245. load has been measured The inclusion of,6 Marom G Fischer S Tuler F R and. carbon fiber mat reinforced polymeric,Wagner H D 1978 Hybrid Effects in. composite significantly enhanced the ultimate,Composites Conditions for Positive or. tensile strength yield strength and peak load,Negative Effects versus Rule of Mixtures. of the composite The ductility of carbon fiber,Behavior Journal of Materials Science.
reinforced composite is higher than the other,Vol 13 pp 1419 1426. composites,7 Prabhakaran R T D Madsen B,REFERENCES Toftegaard H and Markussen C M 2012. 1 Amar Patnaik and Mahapatra S S Flexural Properties of Hybrid Natural. 2009 Study on Mechanical and Composite Micromechanics and. Erosion W ear Behavior of Hybrid Experimental Assessment Proceedings. Composites Using Taguchi Experimental of 3rd Asian Conference on Mechanics of. Design J Materials and Design Functional Materials and Structures. Vol 30 pp 2791 2801 ACMFMS Vol 1 pp 469 472 Indian. 2 Chauhan S Kumar A Patnaik A Institute of Technology New Delhi. Satapathy A and Singh I 2009 8 Pukzky B Maurer Frans H J and Boode. Mechanical and Wear Characterization J W 1995 Impact Testing of. Int J Mech Eng Rob Res 2015 T D Jagannatha and G Harish 2015. Polypropylene Blends and Composites Dynamics and Materials Conference. Polym Eng Sci Vol 35 pp 1962 1971 Norfolk Virginia AIAA 2003 1509. 9 Schwartz M M 1984 Composite 12 Yosoyima R Morimoto K and Suzuki T. Materials Handbook McGraw Hill New 1984 The Reaction of Glass Fiber with. York USA Disocyanate and its Application J Appl, 10 Suresha B Chandramohan G Polym Sci Vol 29 pp 671 679. Siddaramaiah P Sampathkumaran and 13 Yosoyima R Morimoto K Susuki T. Seetharamu S 2007 Mechanical and Nakajima A and Ikada Y 1990. Three Body Abrasive Wear Behavior of Adhesion and Bonding in Composites. 3 D Glass Fabric Reinforced Vinyl Ester Marcel Dekker Inc New York USA. Composites J Mater Sci Eng A 14 Zhang J Chaisombat K He S and Wang. Vol 443 pp 285 291 C H 2012 Hybrid Composite, 11 Yerramalli C S and Waas A M 2003 Laminates Reinforced with Glass Carbon. Compressive Behavior of Hybrid Woven Fabrics for Light Weight Load. Composites Proceedings of 44th AIAA Bearing Structures Materials and. ASME ASCE AHS Structures Structural Design Vol 36 pp 75 80.

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