Team LeGo MaNiAcS chose to work with Tri State Industries a company that. exclusively employs physically and mentally disabled persons Workers are assigned to a variety. of jobs including the process that we selected to improve the cutting of aluminum screen. circles The circles are used in a plastic cap to filter an industrial sealant The design intent is to. increase production reduce customer fatigue eliminate dexterity issues and incorporate workers. with more severe functionality problems, The development of our design started with evaluating the current process Tri State used. for cutting the screens Apparent problems included extremely low production poorly cut. circles sharp edges and the use of scissors without protection Some of the cut circles failed the. only quality check which is the insertion of the screen circle into a cap to ensure a snug fit. The final prototype design cuts 10 2 5 inch circles per cycle while reducing material. handling The device tackles a variety of technical challenges to improve the quality and. production rate of the screen circles, We believe that the design will open this task up to lower functioning workers because it. is a simple two step operation that requires only the use of scissors which they are already. proficient with This is a significant improvement over the multi step hand cuts that workers. were previously performing This would mean that lower functioning workers would not be. limited to only certain jobs at Tri State and this would be of great value to the company. Final Design,Table of Contents,1 0 Introduction 5,1 0 1 Project Purpose 5. 1 0 2 Project Purpose 6,1 0 3 Project Scope 6,1 1 Initial Needs Statement 6. 2 0 Customer Needs Assessment 7,2 1 Revised Needs Statement 7. 2 2 Evaluation Weighting of Customer Needs 8, 3 0 Benchmarking Standards and Target Specifications 8. 3 1 Benchmarking 8,3 2 Standards 12, 3 3 Target Specifications Constraints and Design Criteria 13. 3 3 1 Constraints 13,3 3 2 Design Criteria 14,3 3 3 Target Specifications 14. 4 0 Concept Generation 14,4 1 Problem Clarification 14. 4 2 Concept Generation 15,5 0 Concept Screening and Evaluation 20. 5 1 Concept Screening 20,5 1 1 Customer Feedback 20. 5 2 Data and Calculations for Feasibility and Effectiveness Analysis 20. 5 2 1 Feasibility 20, 5 2 3 Calculations Simulations Research and other Analysis 21. 5 2 3 1 Cutter Analysis 21,5 2 3 2 Lever Analysis 21. 5 3 Concept Development Scoring and Selection 23,5 3 1 Scoring 24. 6 0 Final Design Concept 25,7 0 Final Design 27,8 0 Final Design for Production 45. 8 1 Design Description and Operation 45, 8 2 Manufacturing Assembly and Cost of an Additional Unit 47. References 50,Appendix A Interview Questions and Notes 51. Appendix B AHP Customer Needs 53,Appendix C Design Analysis 54. Appendix D Cost 58,Appendix E Four Bar Analysis Matlab Code 62. User Manual for Punch Press 76,Drawing Package 92,1 0 Introduction. People enjoy contributing to society and fulfilling meaningful tasks What does this. mean for people that struggle to perform everyday task at the work place It means that. engineers can help to improve their working capability and help people with disabilities to. contribute to society just as normal functioning people Disability is a lack of ability relative to. a personal or group standard or normality Wikipedia The types of disability vary from. mental physical sensory and cognitive With the help of organizations as well as engineers. people with disabilities will be able to work and complete task as the everyday normal person. Ohio University has created teams to help advance the technology of people with. disabilities The goal of each team is to seek out an individuals or groups that have difficulty. completing or executing normal work tasks The Ohio University Senior Design Class of 2009. will test their ability to design the most efficient device to enhance one s ability. 1 0 1 Project Purpose, Employers Forum on Disability is an organization that provides framework for. employers dedicated to developing practice in the employment of disabled people. Organizations such as these allow lower functioning people to have opportunities just as other. people in society The company has a list of 10 action points or guidelines that help guide. employers in aiding individuals with disabilities Employers Forum list many facts that show. how important it is to understand people with disabilities and work There is a need for. improvement in helping people with the advancement of technology Employers Forum on. Disability,According to the Employers Forum on Disability. There are at least 650 million disabled people worldwide. In 2002 roughly 51 2 million or 18 of Americans stated they had some form of. disability, From these statistics it can be seen that a high number of individuals in the United States are. disabled In order to make the workplace more accessible to individuals with disabilities. assistive technologies must be developed to facilitate these individuals in the workplace. People without disabilities have a much greater rate of employment percentage The. percentage is 36 versus 74 percent of employment for those with and without a disability. 2006 American Community Survey The number of 36 shows that there is a need for help. 1 0 2 Project Purpose, The objective of this project is to develop an assistive technology device that will enable. individuals with severe disabilities to excel in the workplace This will be done by identifying. and understanding a process where a need for improvement exists and designing a device from. the ground up to satisfy this need The main focus will be improving productivity job. performance and access to employment for individuals with severe disabilities. 1 0 3 Project Scope, The scope of work is to locate a consumer develop ideas brainstorm design and fabricate a. device for a person with disabilities The design team will undergo several phases to complete. each part of the project The group will begin by researching several companies where there are. potential individuals who face challenges due to disabilities The team will narrow down the. prospects to a single customer and meet with them to identify one particular area where a need. for assistive technology exists The customer will then provide a list of needs and limitations for. the particular project or individual performing the process. During Phase 1 the team will then develop an initial needs statement from the customer. needs and a list of target specifications for the design Benchmarking will be completed to. research for existing designs or patents particular to the target specifications to ensure a unique. design The team will brainstorm a list of several different ideas and choose the idea that seems. the most feasible and effective to best satisfy the customer needs. In Phase 2 the design team will develop a big picture design of the project chosen and. break the project down to a component level This will allow the team to design model and. analyze components using computer aided design tools to understand their engineering. capability Next an assembly model will be developed using computer aided design tools and. refinement of the components will be completed as necessary to ensure the best assembly and. functionality, The fabrication of the prototype will be completed in Phase 3 along with the finalization. of the design During the fabrication phase the prototype will be produced in the machine shop. and the design will be refined and altered as needed To complete the project the prototype will. be tested both in house as well as in the workplace to identify and fix any issues previously. overlooked The project will then be delivered to the customer for permanent use in the. 1 1 Initial Needs Statement, There is a need for assistive technology devices that enables persons with severe. disabilities to overcome workplace obstacles enabling them to improve productivity overall job. performance and access to employment Devices are needed to address environmental. accommodation functional assistance and mobility issues for people with cognitive disabilities. developmental disabilities and physical impairments vision hearing and mobility NISH. 2 0 Customer Needs Assessment, Team LeGo MaNiAcS is working with Tri State Industries of Coal Grove Ohio The. customer s needs were assessed via a facility tour and interviews with the Workshop Director. Josh Tackett Notes from the tour and interviews are included in Appendix A Initially we. observed the entire production area the areas of interest included Sample Booking Making. Sample Roll Making Foam Sheet Counting Screen Cutting and Labeling of buckets and jugs. After considering the information obtained during the tour and interviews the team will be. focusing its efforts on resolving the problems associated with the screen cutting process A list of. the customer s needs was compiled based on these observation and is included in Table 2 0. 2 1 Revised Needs Statement, Tri State Industries Inc needs a device that will enable people with moderate to severe. mental disabilities to overcome the workplace obstacles involved in their screen and cap cutting. The customer needs state that a roll of aluminum screen be cut into 2 5 circular disks. accurately efficiently and with limited waste The stock material being cut is a 100 foot roll. that is 36 inches wide The employees performing the task are currently middle and low level. mentally and physically disabled persons capable of moderately complex tasks The primary. goal is to develop a device that will allow the low level functioning employees an opportunity to. work on screen cutting A multiple step mechanism is not an ideal design for consumers at Tri. State Industries Safety considerations included a fully enclosed mechanism with minimal gaps. at the screen insertion point If a partially automated design is to be used then the device may. include two levers or two buttons as previously mentioned The addition of an additional lever or. button will require the operator to use both hands to initiate the cutter this type of operation is. only slightly more complex and will reduce the risk of injury. When selecting this project the following items were considered the number of people. currently required to complete the process as well as their respective level of disability and the. required productivity rate A list of the customer s needs was compiled based on these. observation and is included in Table 2 1, Table 2 1 Customer Needs for Screen Cutting Process. Efficient Minimal maintenance Increase productivity. Improve cut quality Cost less than 1 000 Eliminates metal splinters. Safe Durable Fast cutting, Minimal debris Footprint Protection from cutting devices. Easy to operate Useable by Multiple consumers Easy maintenance. 2 2 Evaluation Weighting of Customer Needs, Each of the customer s needs was evaluated by the team and a weight factor was. calculated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process AHP which can be found in Appendix B. The Analytical Hierarchy Process is a structured technique for weighting a decision based on. multiple variables The individual needs can be seen below in Table 2 2 After all calculations. were completed ease of use was determined to be the most important item to consider during the. design process, Table 2 2 Hierarchal Customer Needs List with weight factor. 1 0 User friendly 0 41,1 1 Usable by multiple consumer. 1 2 Ease of operation,2 0 Safety 0 09,2 1 Protection from cutting device. 2 2 No metal splinters,2 3 Debris Accumulation,2 4 Reduce hand fatigue. 2 5 Minimal maintenance,3 0 Efficiency 0 05,3 1 Increase productivity. 3 2 Fast cutting,3 3 Accurate cuts,3 4 Waste material. 4 0 Space 0 32,4 1 Footprint,4 2 Power supply,5 0 Cost less than 1000 0 13. 3 0 Benchmarking Standards and Target Specifications. The sections that follow are tools that helped the team to construct the design project. Benchmarking is a crucial step in the design because it allows the designer to compare the cost. cycle time production or productivity and even the quality of process. http en wikipedia org wiki Benchmarking Standards also impact the design of a project. Standards consist of safety and quality to make a device suitable for the customer Within the. standards target specifications will challenge the design team to me that customer needs. 3 1 Benchmarking, The previous method of cutting at the Tri State facility incorporated groups of individuals. using scissors to cut 500 pieces per day Currently the process begins with a high functioning. consumer removing strips of screen from the supply roll Each of these strips is cut to. approximately 3 in width Then a single row of circles are traced onto the strip using a 2 5. circular stencil Finally the consumer uses standard household scissors to cut out the patterns. along the traced lines, Improving this method requires increasing the production rate while still allowing the. employees to take part in the process Considerations for cutting methods range from cutting. shears to a punch press Two different types of punches are shown in Figure 3 1 1 and Figure. This device is simple in operation and the lever activated cut is already known to most. users An operator needs one simple action to carry out the cut The one step action of a lever is. shown in Figure 3 1 1 where a force is applied to the lever which produces the desired effect of. cutting a sheet material with minimal user difficulty. Figure 3 1 1 Crank Roller Paper Cutting Device US Patent 7360482B2. The paper punching instrument shown in Figure 3 1 2 indicates that the size of the cutting. device can be relatively small An upright punch press could be very tall but a hand operated. punch could be as small as a traditional stapler Size is important but weighted lower than. safety complexity effectiveness,Figure 3 1 2 Paper Punch US Patent 6000139. The circular paper punch is used to punch craft paper or other similar thin sheets of. material Craft paper and foil may both be cut using a paper punch The following figure 3 1 3. reveals a more applicable circular paper punch found at arts and crafts stores. Figure 3 1 3 Marvy Uchida Clever Lever Craft Punch JoAnn 2008. To apply cutting devices to screen material requires assumptions that are tested in. prototype construction Screen material is considered sheet like and may be cut using paper. cutting devices A similar device capable of cutting multiple holes across the length of material. is the three hole punch The three hole punch is shown below in figure 3 1 4. Figure 3 1 4 Three Hole Punch Amazon 2008, The application of force is enhanced through use of leverage in the previously depicted. devices Another method to apply force to the cutting heads is through use of a multiple bar. linkage The force application mechanism of interest is the 5 bar linkage utilized in the die. cutting press shown below,Figure 3 1 5 Five bar linkage Die Press ABM 2008. The die press product retails for roughly 600 Although it only has one die cutter the. device reveals a price range for similar die cutters using complex linkages. 3 2 Standards, Currently the only standards to set forth by the customer are the OSHA or the. Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards for safety To determine which of the. OSHA guidelines applied to our project the team researched regulations for a devices similar to. those being consider namely punch presses OSHA has a number of standards that could apply. to such a device including regulations concerning electrical wiring and insulation machine. guards and light curtains, Mechanical Power Presses Standard Number 1910 217 and 1910 212. Danger from broken or falling machinery should be minimized to maximize operator. safety Safety hazards from mechanical energy release i e broken springs should also. be minimized by the addition of covers guards Friction brakes where required should. be sufficient to stop the machine motion at any point Hand lever operated power presses. shall be equipped with a spring latch on the operating lever to prevent premature or. accidental tripping Two handed lever operated presses can also be utilized to minimize. danger to operators Control system should incorporate an anti repeat feature. Machinery Guarding Standard Number 1910 217 App A, General requirements for machine guards Guards shall be affixed to the machine where. possible and secured elsewhere if for any reason attachment to the machine is not. possible The guard shall be such that it does not offer an accident hazard in itself The. point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee to injury shall be. guarded The guarding device shall be in conformity with any appropriate standards. therefor or in the absence of applicable specific standards shall be so designed and. constructed as to prevent the operator from having any part of his body in the danger. zone during the operating cycle,Tools Standard Number 1926 300. Belts gears shafts pulleys sprockets spindles drums fly wheels chains or other. reciprocating rotating or moving parts of equipment shall be guarded if such parts are. exposed to contact by employees or otherwise create a hazard. Electrical Standard Number 1910 303, Electric equipment shall be free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death. or serious physical harm to employees Insulation should be adequate to project. 3 3 Target Specifications Constraints and Design Criteria. The product target specifications have a range of acceptable values that are driven by the. customer needs Constraints from the customer and their facility also drive the target. specifications,3 3 1 Constraints, Tri State Industries has specific power limitations that must be considered for the design. solution Specifically the device cannot be actuated pneumatically because the facility currently. does not have an air compressor A hydraulically actuated device would require more. maintenance Due to the limited availability of technical support at Tri State a hydraulically. actuated device is undesirable, The team initially received a needs statement from the customer Tri State Industries. This statement called for the needs shown in Table 2 1 to be filled The importance of each need. was decided by the team in a conceptual design meeting The relative level of importance for. each of the needs along with the metric it is associated with is shown in Table 3 2 2 From the. needs shown in Table 2 1 the team determined which design criteria needed to be met along. with any potential delighters,Table 3 2 2 Needs Metric List. Importance,Metric Need Metric Units,5 high 1 low,1 6 8 OSHA 5. 2 5 8 10 Dimensions 4 in,3 2 7 9 10 Production Rate 5 Disc min. 4 3 6 7 9 11 12 Ease of Operation 3,5 4 11 Footprint 2 ft. 6 1 3 Durability 2 cycles,3 3 2 Design Criteria, The design criteria developed by the team for the screen cutter are listed below. Cut disks to minimize splinters,Maximize Number of Cuts per Cycle. Other Criteria,Reasonably comfortable for user,Aesthetically acceptable. Proper Safety Signage,Easily maintainable,3 3 3 Target Specifications. In order to determine the technical specifications the team first considered the revised. customer needs statement From this Needs Statement the team established several target. specifications which are listed below, OSHA regulations Design must meet or exceed safety levels required by OSHA. Disk dimensions Punch to cut 2 5 inch diameter circles The customer has provided us. with a go no go cap to check the tolerances of the cut discs. Production rate Minimal rate of four disks per minute a higher rate would be a. Ease of Operation Currently mid to high functioning level customers cut the screens. these consumers have moderate to mild physical and or mental disabilities Our targeted. operator is a low functioning consumer or one with severe mental disabilities. Footprint Smaller than 3 x5 to fit on a table, Weight The device and the combined applied force cannot exceed the maximum. allowable weight for the table of 300 pounds, Durability Design should require minimal maintenance for four hundred thousand cut. discs or a ten year production life The maintenance on the device should not require any. special tooling lubrication or expensive parts,4 0 Concept Generation. 4 1 Problem Clarification, The current screen cutting process at Tri State Industries requires the use of higher. functioning mentally disabled workers and has a lower than desired production rate Currently. Tri State is having quality and productivity issues with this process because the screens are cut. manually with scissors This requires them to assign 5 workers to cut the screen as well as 1. person to drill the caps and 1 person to assemble the finished product When production falls. behind due to poorly cut circles workers have to be pulled from other work areas in order to. complete the contract on time Our primary goal is to design a new screen cutting machine that. will be able to cut multiple circular screens simultaneously with clean edges which are 2 5 in. 4 2 Concept Generation, In order to generate the initial project concepts each team member was asked to generate. several unique ideas to solve the problems that Tri State has with its screen cutting process. These initial ideas were discussed and weighted to using two different decisions matrices in. order to determine a general direction for the team to focus on These matrices are shown in. Tables 4 2 1 and Table 4 2 2 The first decision matrix shown in Table 4 2 1 was used to. determine if the device being designed should utilize the entire 36 wide roll of screen or if an. intermediate step would be used to cut the roll of screen into individual squares and then cut. these squares into circles The second decision matrix show in Table 4 2 2 was used to evaluate. the four primary concepts generated by the team The most important ideas in this decision. matrix were ease of operation and design feasibility Concept feasibility was based on potential. technical hurdles that the team may face when building operating testing the concept. development time each concept would require and the tooling requirements and prototype cost. A potential delighter for the customer would be to design the machine in such a way that. it could cut the screen and cap at the same time This was discussed with Tri State to ensure that. we would not be eliminating anyone s job Tri State encouraged us to pursue this option but. stated that its primary concern was with the cutting of the screens. Table 4 2 1 shows the results for the evaluation of whether the screen cutting process. should be able to use the roll of screen as it is received or if an intermediate cutting step should. be used Based on the higher score of 82 compared to 63 the team has decided that the. intermediate step of cutting the screen into 2 75 squares should be avoided. For both of the decision matrices used Durability was based on the likelihood that a part. would fail within a 2yr span Simplicity was determined by relative complexity of the concept. machine with respect to the others Manpower was defined as the number of people required to. operate the machine and meet the production quota,.
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