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F Dons et al LWT Food Science and Technology 44 2011 1908e1914 1909. been widely used as wall materials of microparticles in the 2 2 Preparation of nanoemulsions. protection of essential oils both in aqueous phase such as chitosan. Pedro Cabral Albuquerque Ferreira Sarmento 2009 Ca algi The sun ower oil or essential oil in water nanoemulsions were. nate Wang Gong Huang Yu Xue 2009 as well as modi ed prepared using a High Pressure Homogenization HPH technique. starch for agrochemical applications of pest control Glenn et al Primary emulsions were obtained by High Shear Homogenization. 2010 Varona Martin Cocero 2009 or in spray dried powders HSH using an Ultra Turrax T25 IKA Labortechnik Germany at. such as milk proteins Baranauskiene Venskutonis Dewettinck 24000 rpm for 5 min The primary emulsions were then subjected. Verhe 2006 and different polysaccharides Adamiec Kalemba to HPH in a Nano DeBEE Electric Bench top Laboratory homoge. 2006 Krishnan Bhosale Singhal 2005 nizer BEE International USA ten times at 350 MPa When palm oil. While microcapsules may guarantee excellent protection of was used as a lipid phase the antimicrobial agents were dissolved. essential oils against degradation or evaporation they in general do in the melted lipid and the temperature during processing was. not affect antimicrobial activity In contrast nanometric size always kept about 5e10 C above the lipid melting point Crystal. delivery systems due to the subcellular size may increase the lization of the lipid droplets was attained by rapid cooling of the hot. passive cellular absorption mechanisms thus reducing mass nanoemulsions in an ice bath at the end of the HPH processing. transfer resistances and increasing antimicrobial activity. Proof of this concept was given by the improvement of the 2 3 Droplet size measurements. antimicrobial activity of essential oils when encapsulated into. liposomal delivery systems Gortzi Lalas Tsaknis Chinou 2007 Droplet size distribution was determined by photon correlation. Liolios Gortzi Lalas Tsaknis Chinou 2009 spectroscopy PCS at 25 C HPPS Malvern Instruments UK From. The encapsulation of eugenol and carvacrol into nanometric the PCS data the average droplet diameter z average and the. surfactant micelles also resulted in enhanced antimicrobial activity polydispersity index PDI were determined Prior to any. Gaysinsky Davidson Bruce Weiss 2005 although the addition measurements being taken the samples were diluted with bidis. of micelle encapsulated eugenol to milk resulted to be less or as tilled water to a suitable concentration Each measurement was. inhibitory as unencapsulated eugenol Gaysinsky Taylor Davidson replicated twice with the means and the standard deviations being. Bruce Weiss 2007 calculated, Among the nanometric encapsulation systems currently being. used for the delivery of bioactive compounds nanoemulsions are 2 4 Determination of MIC and MBC. particularly suitable for food applications McClements 1999. owing to the possibility of formulation with natural ingredients and Experiments were carried out on three different microbial. the easy industrial scalability of the production process by high strains grown to the stationary phase in an aerated incubator. pressure homogenization Nevertheless up to now very little Haeraeus Instruments Saccharomyces cerevisiae Escherichia coli. systematic research has been conducted to evaluate their use in Lactobacillus delbrueckii S cerevisiae yeast was grown in MRS broth. encapsulating antimicrobial essential oils Weiss et al 2009 Oxoid UK at 32 C for 48 h E coli in Tryptone Soya broth Oxoid. Moreover very often it was reported that encapsulation in nano UK at 30 C for 18e24 h L delbrueckii in MRS broth at 32 C for 48 h. emulsions reduced the antimicrobial activity in comparison with The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC on the three. unencapsulated active compounds as shown for chitosan an microbial strains was evaluated for the concentration of antimi. antimicrobial polysaccharide Jumaa Furkert Muller 2002 and crobial agents in culture media ranging from 25 g l to 0 1 g l The. for eugenol an essential oil component Weiss et al 2009 samples were inoculated with 100 ml of a microbial suspension. This work is based on the need for more detailed research on the 107 CFU ml and incubated for 24 h at 32 C for S cerevisiae and. formulation design and application of nanoemulsions as antimi L delbrueckii and at 30 C for E coli The MIC value was determined. crobial delivery systems It focuses on the encapsulation in nano as the lowest concentration of the antimicrobial agent that. emulsion based delivery systems of two antimicrobial compounds inhibited the visible growth of the test microorganism evaluating. a terpenes mixture extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia and the absorbance of the sample with a spectrophotometer Jasco. D limonene dealing with the issues of formulation and fabrication V 650 in the range of 590e600 nm. in order to retain and possibly enhance the antimicrobial activity of The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration MBC was deter. the encapsulated compounds The most promising formulations mined following MIC determination A sample of 1 ml was collected. are tested in fruit juices in order to evaluate the juice preservation from each tested sample and inoculated on sterile Plate count agar. from inoculated spoilage microorganisms and the possible shelf Oxoid UK for E coli and MRS agar Oxoid UK for S cerevisiae and. life extension against the alteration of the quality parameters of the L delbrueckii The plates were incubated at 37 C for 24 h The. juices highest dilution that yielded a decrease in microbial concentration. in comparison to the control sample was considered as MBC. Each measurement was replicated three times,2 Materials and methods. 2 5 Kinetics of inactivation,2 1 Materials, The inactivation kinetics of the three microorganisms in the. The tested antimicrobial compounds are D Limonene Sigma presence of an encapsulated terpenes mixture were determined in. eAldrich Germany and a mixture of terpenes extracted from comparison to a control where terpenes were replaced by. Melaleuca alternifolia provided by Istituto Superiore della Sanit sun ower oil. Italy In the emulsion fabrication sun ower oil Sagra Italy and The microorganisms centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 min at 4 C. palm oil SigmaeAldrich Germany were used as organic phases were resuspended in 100 ml of sterile distilled water in test tubes. while soy lecithin Solec Ip a generous gift from Solae Italia s r l with nanoemulsions being added to the desired nal antimicrobial. Italy Tween 20 and glycerol monooleate SigmaeAldrich concentrations 1 0 g l and 2 5 g l The test tubes were then. Germany and CLEARGUM CO 01 a generous gift from Roquette incubated at 32 C for S cerevisiae and L delbrueckii and at 30 C for. Italy were used as emulsifying agents E coli After 30 min for the antimicrobial concentration of 2 5 g l. 1910 F Dons et al LWT Food Science and Technology 44 2011 1908e1914. and after 90 min and 24 h for the antimicrobial concentration of Table 1. 1 0 g l the surviving cells were evaluated by a standard plate count Composition dimension and production method of the tested nanoemulsions. method In brief 1 ml of each sample was used to prepare decimal Sample Composition Process z average. dilutions which were plated in duplicate with Plate Count agar for nm. E coli and MRS agar for S cerevisiae and L delbrueckii The plates T SL HPH 50 g kg terpenes 10 HPH passes 74 4 2 6. were incubated at 30 C for 24 h for E coli and at 32 C for 48 h for 10 g kg soy lecithin at 300 MPa 3 C. 940 g kg water,S cerevisiae and L delbrueckii,T SL HSH 50 g kg terpenes HSH at 24000 174 8 5 7. Kinetics experiments were carried out in duplicate From the 10 g kg soy lecithin rpm for 5 min. linear regression of the common logarithm of the survival fraction 940 g kg water. vs the exposure time to the antimicrobials the decimal reduction L CG 50 g kg D limonene 10 HPH passes at 365 7 7 5. time D de ned according to Eq 1 was calculated 100 g kg clear gum 300 MPa 3 C. 850 g kg water, N L PO SL 50 g kg D limonene 10 HPH passes at 235 9 9 6.
log 0 50 g kg palm oil 300 MPa 30 C,D 1 20 g kg soy lecithin. t t0 880 g kg water, L SO T20 GMO 50 g kg D limonene 10 HPH passes at 130 9 1 3. 50 g kg sun ower oil 300 MPa 3 C,2 6 GCeMS analysis 15 g kg Tween 20 15 g kg. glycerol monooleate, The composition of the terpenes mixture after homogenization 870 g kg water. either HSH or HPH was evaluated through a gas chromatography L T20 GMO 50 g kg D limonene 10 HPH passes at 154 6 1 4. 7 5 g kg Tween 20 300 MPa 3 C, mass spectrometry method GCeMS The terpenes mixture was.
7 5 g kg glycerol, extracted by adding 4 ml of dichloromethane to 500 ml of nano monooleate. emulsion followed by three vortex agitations of 10 s each The 935 g kg water. organic phase was recovered with a Pasteur pipette and anhydrous. sodium sulphate was added to remove residual water The extract. was micro ltered and placed for 15 min under a nitrogen ow in. order to completely evaporate the solvent 2 ml of the resulting The concentration of microorganisms in each sample expressed. terpenes were added to 2 ml of n pentane and analyzed by Focus in CFU ml was evaluated over time by standard plate count method. GC DSQ Thermo Finnigan GCeMS equipped with a capillary as previously described Moreover the evolution of color pH and. Brix of the fruit juices over storage time was also evaluated by. column Rtx 5Sil MS 30 m ID 0 25 mm lm thickness 0 25 mm. Restek using helium as a carrier gas 1 ml min The column Chroma Meter CR 200b Minolta pH meter Basic 20 Crison. temperature was kept at 40 C for 3 min and then increased by 3 C and Abbe Refractometer Atago respectively. min to 280 C The mass selective detector was used in the electron The color was measured registering the following parameters. ionisation mode with the mass range between 35 and 500 being L brightness a red green component and b yellow blue. scanned The mass spectra were compared to both the NIST Mass component The global color difference DE was calculated with. Spectral Library as well as an in house library for peak identi cation the following equation. 2 7 Fluorescence microscopy DE DL 2 Da 2 Db 2 2, Fluorescence microscopy observations were carried out with an The values provided were the average of three replicates. Eclipse TE2000S inverted microscope Nikon equipped with a B 2A. lter Excitation Filter Wavelengths 450e490 nm Dichromatic. Mirror Cut on Wavelength 500 nm Barrier Filter Wavelengths 3 Results. 515 nm cut on tted with a high pressure mercury burner as a light. source The images were acquired with a digital camera DS 5M 3 1 Formulation and fabrication of stable nanoemulsions. Digital Sight Camera System Nikon through a 20x lens Nikon. Nile red SigmaeAldrich Germany was used as a uorescent Different formulations and fabrication methods were used to. lipophilic stain It excites at 485 nm and emits at 525 nm The Nile produce stable nanoemulsions encapsulating the antimicrobial. Red was dissolved in ethanol at a concentration of 1 mg ml compounds In general the nanoemulsions contained 50 g kg of the. a sample of 100 ml of this solution were added to 1 ml of nano active compounds a terpenes mixture or D limonene eventually. emulsion to stain the oil droplets 100 ml of nanoemulsion with Nile mixed in the organic phase palm oil or sun ower oil Soy lecithin. Red were subsequently added to 1 ml of culture medium containing modi ed starch CLEARGUM or a mixture 50 50 of Tween 20 and. 108 CFU ml of yeast cells in a stationary phase to a nal antimicro glycerol monooleate were used as emulsi ers. bial concentration of 5 0 g l At xed times a drop of the sample was Table 1 reports all those nanoemulsions which resulted physi. mounted onto a glass slide enclosed with a cover slit and observed cally stable over 4 weeks with neither visible creaming nor. signi cant variation of the mean droplet diameter, 2 8 Shelf life of fruit juices Only the lecithin based nanoemulsions whose mean droplet. diameter ranged from 75 nm HPH processing to 175 nm HSH. The effect of the addition of the encapsulated antimicrobial on processing represented a stable delivery system for the terpenes. the microbiological stability of two fruit juices orange juice Tro mixture without any additional organic phase In contrast the. picana Pure Premium PepsiCo France and pear juice Yoga Italy production of stable lecithin based nanoemulsions 240 nm. was evaluated over time The juices were inoculated with 103 CFU required the blending of D limonene with palm oil 1 1. ml of Lactobacillus delbrueckii Different concentrations from 10 g l A stable nanoemulsion 365 nm was obtained with pure. to 1 0 g l of terpenes nanoemulsions were tested under accelerated D limonene as the organic phase only when modi ed starch was. shelf life conditions at 32 C used as an emulsi er. F Dons et al LWT Food Science and Technology 44 2011 1908e1914 1911. Table 2 The effect of the encapsulation system on the antimicrobial. MIC and MBC measurements of pure and encapsulated essential oils on different activity of the terpenes mixture depended on the target microor. microbial strains, ganism For S cerevisiae the MIC and MBC values were reduced from. E coli L delbrueckii S cerevisiae 10 g l to 1 0 g l and 5 0 g l respectively when the terpenes mixture. MIC MBC MIC MBC MIC MBC was encapsulated in both nanoemulsion T SL HPH and T SL HSH. g l g l g l g l g l g l For L delbrueckii the nanoencapsulation caused a reduction of only. Terpenes mixture 5 0 5 0 5 0 25 10 10 the MBC values for both T SL HPH and T SL HSH from 25 g l to 10 g. pure l while the MIC values remained unchanged at 5 0 g l for nano. T SL HPH 1 0 5 0 10 10 1 0 5 0, emulsion T SL HSH and increased to 10 g l for nanoemulsion T SL.
T SL HSH 5 0 5 0 5 0 10 1 0 5 0,D Limonene pure 25 25 25 25 25 25. HPH Interestingly encapsulation of the terpenes mixture did not. L CG 10 25 10 25 10 25 signi cantly reduce the MIC and MBC values for E coli. L PO SL 10 25 10 25 10 25 The antimicrobial activity of D limonene is signi cantly lower. L SO T20 GMO 5 0 25 5 0 25 5 0 25 than that of the terpenes mixture with the MIC and MBC values. L T20 GMO 5 0 25 25 25 25 25, being always higher than 25 g l Experimental measurements were. intentionally limited to 25 g l due to higher concentrations being. considered unsuitable for food applications, In contrast with what was observed with the terpenes mixture. D limonene was also encapsulated alone or blended with the encapsulation of D limonene never reduced the MBC values but. sun ower oil 1 1 into stable delivery systems made of Tween 20 affected only the MIC values. glycerol monooleateebased nanoemulsions with a very ne mean For L CG and L PO SL nanoemulsions the MIC values were. droplet diameter from 130 to 155 nm reduced from 25 g l to 10 g l for all the microorganisms For. nanoemulsion L SO T20 GMO the MIC reached the smallest value. 3 2 MIC and MBC 5 0 g l for all the microorganisms which is probably due to the. ne droplet diameter of the delivery system Whereas nano. The MIC and MBC values of a nanoencapsulated terpenes emulsion L T20 GMO induced a reduction of the MIC value to 5 0 g l. mixture as well as nanoencapsulated D limonene in comparison to for E Coli and only to 25 g l for the other microorganisms. pure compounds reported in Table 2 give a measurement of the The results reported in Table 2 show that the effect of encap. activity of an antimicrobial agent sulation on the different delivery systems tested depends on the. The MIC and MBC values of the antimicrobial agents encapsulated active compounds The encapsulation of the terpenes mixture. in nanoemulsions resulted always lower or equal to pure compounds enhances both the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity MIC. therefore suggesting the enhancement of transport mechanisms values are close to MBC values only for S Cerevisiae and E coli. through the cell membrane of the target microorganisms whereas a less signi cant effect was observed for L delbrueckii. Fig 1 Bright eld a and c and uorescence micrographs b and d of S cerevisiae cells exposed to nanoemulsion L CG captured by uorescence microscopy after 5 min a and b. and 24 h c and d, 1912 F Dons et al LWT Food Science and Technology 44 2011 1908e1914. probably due to its thicker cell wall structure characteristic of membrane as well as the intracellular space the yeast cells became. gram positive bacteria In contrast the encapsulation of D limo uorescent and can be observed Figs 1 and 2 show that both. nene enhanced only its bacteriostatic activity MIC values MBC nanoemulsions can readily permeate the cell membrane after. values on all the tested microorganisms 5 min the yeast cells became uorescent suggesting that the anti. In particular the antimicrobial activity of cyclic hydrocarbons is microbial agents have reached the action sites After 24 h there was. limited by their solubility being available for interaction with cells a signi cant difference between the nanoemulsion T SL HPH and. only those molecules which are dissolved in the aqueous phase L CG The yeast cells exposed to the terpenes mixture exhibited. Sikkema Debont Poolman 1995 Therefore essential oil a shrunk cell membrane which suggests their death probably due to. components such as carvacrol need to be dissolved in concentra the loss of intracellular material Fig 2 On the other hand the yeast. tions approaching or exceeding their maximum solubility in order cells exposed to nanoencapsulated D limonene did not show any. to exhibit bactericidal activity Gill Holley 2006 In contrast apparent change in shape and size therefore suggesting a merely. limonene characterized by a solubility signi cantly lower than bacteriostatic effect of this compound leaving the cells alive Fig 1. carvacrol exhibits only a bacteriostatic activity unless its concen. tration in the aqueous phase is increased for example by favorable 3 3 Kinetics of inactivation. partitioning between the aqueous and a selected lipid phase or by. solubilization within appropriate surfactant micelles Our results The inactivation kinetics of the three target microorganisms. showed that the use of a solid lipid emulsion palm oil did not exposed to nanoemulsions T SL HPH and T SL HSH encapsulating. affect the limonene activity despite the possibility that limonene the terpenes mixture were determined in water at two different. may be expelled from the emulsion droplets by solid fat crystalli antimicrobial concentrations 1 0 g l and 2 5 g l. zation In contrast the use of Tween 20 glycerol monooleate Table 3 reports the decimal reduction time of inactivation. resulted in a slight increase of the bacteriostatic activity of limo D de ned as the time required to reduce by an order of magnitude. nene probably due to increased micelle solubilization the number of surviving microorganisms for E coli L delbrueckii. The bactericidal activity of the terpenes mixture as well as the and S cerevisiae. bacteriostatic activity of D limonene were visualized by uores While the control systems nanoemulsions where the terpenes. cence microscopy observations Images of the S cerevisiae cells mixture was substituted by sun ower oil did not cause any. exposed to the nanoemulsion T SL HPH as well as the nano measurable microbial inactivation over 24 h data not reported the. emulsion L CG both loaded with uorescent dye were recorded terpeneseloaded nanoemulsions inactivated the three microorgan. after 5 min and 24 h Figs 1 and 2 isms with characteristic times D in Table 3 of the order of minutes at. Under a uorescent light the nanoemulsion droplets cannot be 2 5 g l and of hours at 1 0 g l Interestingly the nanoemulsion T SL. distinguished when they are dispersed in an aqueous system due to HSH caused a faster inactivation than nanoemulsion T SL HPH. their nanometric size with only a uorescent halo being observed despite the larger mean droplet diameter D of nanoemulsion T SL. In contrast when the nanoemulsion droplets accumulate in the cell HSH is always shorter than for nanoemulsion T SL HPH for. Fig 2 Bright eld a and c and uorescence micrographs b and d of S cerevisiae cells exposed to nanoemulsion T SL HPH captured by uorescence microscopy after 5 min. a and b and 24 h c and d, F Dons et al LWT Food Science and Technology 44 2011 1908e1914 1913.
Table 3 thujol carvacrol Interestingly when increasing the process inten. The decimal reduction time of inactivation of target microorganisms exposed to the sity from HSH to HPH only carvacrol which is a compound with. terpenes mixture encapsulated in nanoemulsions T SL HPH and T SL HSH. a well known antimicrobial activity Ben Arfa Combes Preziosi. Decimal reduction time D min Belloy Gontard Chalier 2006 was signi cantly reduced. E coli L delbrueckii S cerevisiae Therefore the theoretical higher delivery ef ciency of nano. 2 5 g l T SL HPH 7 57 0 36 10 2 2 8 312 72 emulsion T SL HPH associated with its smaller mean droplet. R2 0 977 R2 0 655 R2 0 587 diameter is likely counter balanced by the partial degradation of. 1 0 g l T SL HPH 556 542 714 12 N some active compounds and in particular carvacrol. R2 0 215 R2 0 995,2 5 g l T SL HSH 7 68 0 14 6 69 0 38 30 7 2 2. R2 0 966 R2 0 834 R2 0 924 3 5 Addition of encapsulated antimicrobial agents to fruit juices. 1 0 g l T SL HSH 909 23 588 19 N,R2 0 992 R2 0 975. Nanoemulsion T SL HPH was added at different concentrations. to two fruit juices orange juice and pear juice inoculated with. L delbrueckii and S cerevisiae while no signi cant difference can be L delbrueckii in order to test the microbiological stability as well as. observed for E coli The reasons for these unexpected results can be the alteration of the chemical and physical characteristics of the. found in the degradation of the active compounds during nano juices stored at 32 C. emulsion production as discussed in the following section The results of the accelerated shelf life studies are reported in. Figs 3 and 4 Fig 3 shows that for both fruit juices after 2 days the. total inactivation of the initial microbial load of 103 CFU ml was. 3 4 GCeMS analysis, already reached for the terpenes concentrations of 5 0 g l and 10 g l. At a terpenes concentration of 1 0 g l microorganism growth is. The reported inactivation data suggest that in contrast to what. delayed by 5 days in orange juice and 2 days in pear juice in. was expected a straightforward correlation between the ef ciency. comparison to the control, of the antimicrobial delivery system and its mean droplet diameter Bx and pH were not signi cantly altered by the addition of the. is not possible The comparison of performance of the nano. nanoemulsion This was also observed during the storage period. emulsions T SL HPH and T SL HSH which share the same compo. unless signi cant microbial growth occurred data not reported. sition showed that the larger droplet diameter system T SL HSH. induced lower MIC and MBC values for L delbrueckii Table 2 and. a shorter D for all the microorganisms Table 3 suggesting the. occurrence of the degradation of some active compounds during. HPH processing Table 4 reports the GCeMS analysis of the pure. terpenes mixture which was not subjected to any uid dynamic. stresses and the analysis of the terpenes mixture as extracted from 1e 5. nanoemulsions prepared by HPH T SL HPH and HSH T SL HSH. subjected respectively to high intensity and mild intensity stresses. during processing, GCeMS analysis revealed that uid dynamic stresses during 1e 2.
HSH and HPH processing caused the degradation of some active. compounds such as a fellandrene terpinolene p cymene thujene. d terpinene 2 carene isoterpinolene trans 2 caren 4 ol carveol 1e 0. Table 4 1e 2, Composition of the pure terpenes mixture and the terpenes extracted from nano 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18. emulsions T SL HPH and T SL HSH, Component Retention Component fraction in the essential oil. index mixture pure and encapsulated g kg 1e 7 b,Terpenes Nanoemulsion Nanoemulsion 1e 6. mixture T SL HSH T SL HPH,a fellandrene 14 10 1 50 0 20 0 36. terpinolene 14 63 10 03 0 70 1 21 1e 4,p cymene 15 06 13 94 2 01 3 82.
thujene 15 28 3 01 0 60 0 90 1e 3,d terpinene 16 7 6 82 0 60 1 00. 2 carene isoterpinolene 17 99 2 81 0 20 0 40,trans 2 caren 4 ol 18 33 1 40 0 20 0 30 1e 1. cis a terpineol 19 09 0 40 0 60 0 70,cyclohexanol 20 12 1 50 3 01 3 62 1e 0. 4 isopropil 1 methyl,cis cis sabinene hydrate,carveol 20 39 0 80 0 20 0 20 1e 2. 1 terpineol 20 7 0 60 0 40 0 60 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18. cyclohexanol 4 isopropil 21 0 40 1 00 1 41,1 methyl trans Time days.
terpinen 4 ol 22 8 948 95 986 45 982 05, 5 coranol 23 95 0 50 0 60 0 90 Fig 3 Inactivation curve of L delbrueckii suspended in a orange juice and b pear. thujol 27 84 3 01 2 01 2 01 juice treated with terpenes nanoemulsion T SL HPH at 32 C Experimental data. carvacrol 29 21 4 31 1 20 0 50 control juice juice added with T SL HPH to a concentration of the terpenes. mixture of 1 0 g l 5 0 g l and 10 g l, 1914 F Dons et al LWT Food Science and Technology 44 2011 1908e1914. 20 values without any signi cant variation of the MBC values in. a comparison to the unencapsulated D limonene, The terpenes nanocapsules were tested in real systems such as. orange and pear juices inoculated with L delbrueckii The addition. 15 of low concentrations of the nanoencapsulated terpenes was able. to delay the microbial growth 1 0 g l terpenes or completely. inactivate the microorganisms 5 0 g l terpenes while minimally. altering the organoleptic properties of the fruit juices. Acknowledgements, The authors wish to thank Mariangela Falcone Marina Fruilo. and Mariarosaria Vincensi for the assistance with the chemical. analysis The Montana prize for Food Research 3rd edition is. acknowledged for nancial support,0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16.
b References, Adamiec J Kalemba D 2006 Analysis of microencapsulation ability of. 15 essential oils during spray drying Drying Technology 24 9 1127e1132. Baranauskiene R Venskutonis P R Dewettinck K Verhe R 2006 Properties. of oregano Origanum vulgare L citronella Cymbopogon nardus G and. marjoram Majorana hortensis L avors encapsulated into milk protein based. matrices Food Research International 39 4 413e425, 10 Ben Arfa A Combes S Preziosi Belloy L Gontard N Chalier P 2006 Anti. microbial activity of carvacrol related to its chemical structure Letters in Applied. Microbiology 43 2 149e154, Davidson P M Sofos J N Branen A L 2005 Antimicrobials in food Boca Raton. FL CRC Press, Gavini E Sanna V Sharma R Juliano C Usai M Marchetti M et al 2005. Solid lipid microparticles SLM containing juniper oil as anti acne topical. carriers Preliminary studies Pharmaceutical Development and Technology 10 4. 0 Gaysinsky S Davidson P M Bruce B D Weiss J 2005 Growth inhibition of. Escherichia coli O157 H7 and Listeria monocytogenes by carvacrol and eugenol. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 encapsulated in surfactant micelles Journal of Food Protection 68 12. Gaysinsky S Taylor T M Davidson P M Bruce B D Weiss J 2007 Anti. microbial ef cacy of eugenol microemulsions in milk against Listeria mono. Fig 4 Variation over time of the global color difference of a orange juice and b pear cytogenes and Escherichia coli O157 H7 Journal of Food Protection 70 11. juice with different concentrations of terpenes nanoemulsion T SL HPH at 32 C 2631e2637. Experimental data control juice juice added with T SL HPH to a concentration of Gill A O Holley R A 2006 Disruption of Escherichia coli Listeria mono. the terpenes mixture of 1 0 g l 5 0 g l and 10 g l cytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei cellular membranes by plant oil aromatics. International Journal of Food Microbiology 108 1e9. Glenn G M Klamczynski A P Woods D F Chiou B Orts W J Imam S H. 2010 Encapsulation of plant oils in porous starch microspheres Journal of. In contrast major color deviations were observed when 10 g l Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58 7 4180e4184. nanoencapsulated terpenes were added to the juices while the Gortzi O Lalas S Tsaknis J Chinou I 2007 Enhanced bioactivity of Citrus. limon Lemon Greek cultivar extracts essential oil and isolated compounds. addition of the terpenes mixture at lower concentrations 5 0 g l. before and after encapsulation in liposomes Planta Medica 73 9 184. and 1 0 g l can be considered acceptable with it inducing much Jumaa M Furkert F H Muller B W 2002 A new lipid emulsion formulation. smaller color deviations Fig 4 The color remained stable over the with high antimicrobial ef cacy using chitosan European Journal of Pharma. storage time for all those systems where no signi cant microbial ceutics and Biopharmaceutics 53 1 115e123. Krishnan S Bhosale R Singhal R S 2005 Microencapsulation of cardamom. growth occurred oleoresin evaluation of blends of gum arabic maltodextrin and a modi ed. starch as wall materials Carbohydrate Polymers 61 1 95e102. 4 Conclusions Liolios C C Gortzi O Lalas S Tsaknis J Chinou I 2009 Liposomal incor. poration of carvacrol and thymol isolated from the essential oil of Origanum. dictamnus L and in vitro antimicrobial activity Food Chemistry 112 1 77e83. The encapsulation into nanoemulsion based delivery systems of McClements D J 1999 Food emulsions Principles practices and techniques 2nd. two essential oils a terpenes mixture extracted from Melaleuca ed Boca Raton Florida CRC Press. Pedro A S Cabral Albuquerque E Ferreira D Sarmento B 2009 Chitosan an. alternifolia and D limonene was investigated as a method to option for development of essential oil delivery systems for oral cavity care. improve the safety and quality of foods through the addition of Carbohydrate Polymers 76 4 501e508. natural preservatives Sikkema J Debont J A M Poolman B 1995 Mechanisms of membrane. toxicity of hydrocarbons Microbiological Reviews 59 201e222. Lecithin based nanoemulsion resulted as being a highly ef cient. Varona S Martin A Cocero M J 2009 Formulation of a natural biocide based. carrier system for the terpenes mixture while D limonene was on lavandin essential oil by emulsi cation using modi ed starches Chemical. successfully nanoencapsulated pure or in a blend with palm oil Engineering and Processing 48 6 1121e1128. Wang Q Gong J Huang X Yu H Xue F 2009 In vitro evaluation of the. using as emulsi er modi ed starch and soy lecithin respectively. activity of microencapsulated carvacrol against Escherichia coli with K88 p li. The MIC and MBC values of the nanoencapsulated terpenes Journal of Applied Microbiology 107 6 1781e1788. tested on three different microorganisms E coli L delbrueckii and Weiss J Gaysinksy S Davidson M McClements J 2009 Nanostructured. S cerevisiae resulted always lower than or equal to the values of encapsulation systems food antimicrobials In G V Barbosa C novas. A Mortimer D Lineback W Spiess K Buckle Eds IUFoST world congress. the unencapsulated mixture On the other hand the nano book Global issues in food science and technology pp 425e479 Amsterdam. encapsulation of D limonene was able to reduce only the MIC Elsevier Inc.

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Waste to Wealth- Value Recovery from Agro-food Processing Wastes Using Biotechnology: A Review Tobias I. Ndubuisi Ezejiofor1*, Uchechi E. Enebaku1 and Chika Ogueke2 1Department of Biotechnology, School of Science, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Nigeria 2Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Engineering and ...



with producers in the diverse fields of agriculture for over 150 years. The Thompson School of Applied Science has been a part of that history for 125 years, by providing applied 2-year degrees within agricultural, and more recently in food, forestry, companion animal, and civil technology sectors in the state of New Hampshire and beyond. The ...

2019 | 8th Edition

2019 8th Edition

1. Personal Finance 2. Consumer Rights & Responsibilities (to include Family, Career & Community Studies) 3. Technology (to include Fashion & Housing Design) 4. Health & Safety (to include Food Science & Nutrition and Early Childhood & Human Development) 5. Environment (to include Hospitality, Tourism & Recreation)

Megatrends affecting science, technology and innovation

Megatrends affecting science technology and innovation

water issues by 2050 +60% food to feed 9.7 billion people by 20504. 2050 2015 Areas Growing tensions on water-food-land resources +55% water demand by 20505. 0 2 000 1 000 4 000 3 000 OECD BRIICS World 6 000 5 000 km3 Manufacturing Domestic use Agriculture Electricity generation 2000 2050 2000 2050 2000 2050 52% of agricultural land is already ...



RE-DESIGN WAREHOUSE PLANT LAYOUT FOR A FOOD COMPANY by Rolando Jose Vetencourt Stull A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master in Science Degree in Management Technology Approved for Completion of 3 Semester Credits 735-177 Field Project by Dr. Thomas Lacksonen The Graduate College University of Wisconsin - Stout April 2004 . ii The Graduate School ...