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Learning Unethical Practices,from a Co worker,The Peer Effect of Jose Canseco. Eric D Gould,Hebrew University Shalem Center,CEPR CREAM and IZA. Todd R Kaplan,Haifa University,and University of Exeter. Discussion Paper No 3328,January 2008,P O Box 7240. 53072 Bonn,Phone 49 228 3894 0,Fax 49 228 3894 180.
E mail iza iza org, Any opinions expressed here are those of the author s and not those of IZA Research published in. this series may include views on policy but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The Institute for the Study of Labor IZA in Bonn is a local and virtual international research center. and a place of communication between science politics and business IZA is an independent nonprofit. organization supported by Deutsche Post World Net The center is associated with the University of. Bonn and offers a stimulating research environment through its international network workshops and. conferences data service project support research visits and doctoral program IZA engages in i. original and internationally competitive research in all fields of labor economics ii development of. policy concepts and iii dissemination of research results and concepts to the interested public. IZA Discussion Papers often represent preliminary work and are circulated to encourage discussion. Citation of such a paper should account for its provisional character A revised version may be. available directly from the author,IZA Discussion Paper No 3328. January 2008,Learning Unethical Practices from a Co worker. The Peer Effect of Jose Canseco, This paper examines the issue of whether workers learn productive skills from their co. workers even if those skills are unethical Specifically we estimate whether Jose Canseco. one of the best baseball players in the last few decades affected the performance of his. teammates In his autobiography Canseco claims that he improved the productivity of his. teammates by introducing them to steroids Using panel data on baseball players we show. that a player s performance increases significantly after they played with Jose Canseco After. checking 30 comparable players from the same era we find that no other baseball player. produced a similar effect Clearly Jose Canseco had an unusual influence on the productivity. of his peers These results are consistent with Canseco s controversial claims and suggest. that workers not only learn productive skills from their co workers but sometimes those skills. may derive from unethical practices These findings may be relevant to many workplaces. where competitive pressures create incentives to adopt unethical means to boost productivity. and profits,JEL Classification J24, Keywords peer effects corruption crime externalities.
Corresponding author,Eric D Gould,Department of Economics. Hebrew University of Jerusalem,Mount Scopus,Jerusalem 91905. E mail eric gould huji ac il,We thank Guy Stecklov for helpful comments. 1 Introduction, There is a growing literature that stresses the importance of the environment in determining. the outcomes of individuals Most of this literature is concerned with examining how peers. and environmental factors a ect youth behavior regarding their educational achievements. health criminal involvement work status and other economic outcomes 1 This paper. examines the issue of how workers a ect the productivity of other workers If workers. learn valuable skills and work habits from their co workers then peer e ects between. workers should exist in many work environments A peer e ect across workers could also. result from behavioral considerations such as group norms peer pressure shame and guilt. Recent work suggests that peer e ects between workers are empirically signi cant 2. The existing literature however has not examined whether workers sometimes learn. unethical practices from their co workers in order to boost their productivity A high. payo to performance naturally creates incentives to adopt any means necessary to boost. productivity Given that there is heterogeneity in skill risk aversion and moral character. these incentives will sometimes be strong enough for at least some workers to adopt uneth. ical practices which enhance productivity Once one worker adopts questionable methods. which seem to be e ective competitive pressures may lead others to follow suit in order. to get ahead or perhaps just to stay even with other workers who are adopting similar. techniques, This mechanism is a plausible explanation for the apparent widespread use of performance.
enhancing drugs in baseball cycling and track and eld Outside the world of sports this. di usion process could show up through the adoption of dubious accounting methods. questionable ethics by lawyers political corruption noncompliance with public disclosure. laws cheating by students biased reporting by the media cheating in academic research. or other ways of skirting legal or ethical requirements The literature on crime has found. that criminal activity does respond to economic conditions see Gould Weinberg and. See Angrist and Lang 2004 Guryan 2004 Hoxby 2000 Sacerdote 2001 Zimmermann 2003. Katz Kling and Liebman 2001 Edin Fredriksson and Aslund 2003 Oreopoulos 2003 Jacob 2004. Weinberg Reagan and Yankow 2004 Gould Lavy and Paserman 2004a and 2004b. See Kandel and Lazear 1992 Ichino and Maggi 2000 Winter 2004 Mas and Moretti 2006 and. Gould and Winter 2007 forthcoming, Mustard 2002 Here we highlight the idea that in the absence of persistent monitoring. and rigid enforcement of ethical and legal practices competitive pressures may lead to a. rat race among workers to learn unethical behavior from co workers in order to boost. their productivity As such this paper makes a contribution to the recent literature that. has demonstrated that agents do respond to incentives to cheat or engage in corruption. Duggan and Levitt 2002 Jacob and Levitt 2003 Wolfers 2006 and Kuziemko and. Werker 2006, To examine the empirical relevance of this issue we estimate whether Jose Canseco. one of the best baseball players in the 1980 s and 1990 s a ected the productivity of his. fellow teammates Among his many accomplishments Jose Canseco was the rst player. in professional baseball to join the 40 40 Club 40 home runs and 40 stolen bases in a. season Canseco was not only one of the most productive players of his era he was highly. controversial both on and o the eld and remains even more so after his retirement in. 2001 During his playing career he was frequently in the tabloids for incidents such as. being arrested for bringing a loaded weapon onto a university campus crashing his own. car into his wife s car and dating Madonna While he was still playing rumors circulated. about his use of steroids but he denied them and even considered suing reporters for libel 3. However when he retired in 2001 Canseco admitted to using steroids and claimed that the. phenomenon was so widespread that there would be no baseball left if they drug tested. everyone today Bryant 2005, In 2005 Canseco wrote a highly controversial book Juiced in which he claims not. only to have taken steroids throughout his playing career but also that he gave them to his. fellow teammates The self proclaimed Godfather of Steroids claimed to be a pioneer of. steroid use and takes credit for igniting a contagion of drug use in professional baseball 4. He speci cally named six famous power hitters that he claims to have personally injected. with steroids and claimed that his in uence was much wider than that He writes in his. book page 134 My expertise on steroids could make other players around me a lot. Once the rumour went out that I was on steroids though no one presented smoking guns I was. persona non grata I wanted to sue Boswell but in the end it just didn t seem worth my time Juiced. Chapter 19 of Juiced is titled The Godfather of Steroids. better too Other writers have claimed that Canseco was known as the The Chemist. Bryant 2005 page 189 and the Typhoid Mary of Steroids Fainaru Wada and Williams. 2006 page xiii Indeed taking steroids is not simple According to Canseco steroids are. e ective only if they are used correctly in conjunction with human growth hormone lifting. weights a proper diet and abstinence from recreational drugs He claimed that he obtained. his knowledge from extensive reading talking to weightlifters a friend who used them and. experimenting on himself He writes page 135 I was the rst to educate others about. how to use them the rst to experiment and pass on what I d learned and the rst to get. contacts on where to get them I taught which steroid has which e ect on the body and. how to mix or stack certain steroids to get a desired e ect. Canseco claimed that he shared his knowledge not only with other players but. also with trainers who would transmit the knowledge throughout the league He writes. page 211 that As soon as the trainers I talked to started getting involved the steroid. oodgates burst The players started doing them right there in the locker room so openly. that absolutely everybody knew what was happening It was so open the trainers would. jokingly call the steroid injections B12 shots and soon the players had picked up on that. little code name too Two years after Canseco s book the Mitchell Report 2007 also. made accusations of widespread use of steroids and human growth hormone in professional. baseball The two main sources of information for the report came from two trainers Kirk. Radomski and Brian McNamee who provided evidence that they supplied 53 players with. steroids and human growth hormone McNamee is directly linked to Canseco since they. both worked for the Toronto Blue Jays in 1998 and McNamee admits in the report that. he consulted with Canseco on the use of steroids and considered him a knowledgeable. expert 5 McNamee later went on to inject many other players during his tenure with the. New York Yankees and thus Canseco has a direct link to the contagion outlined in the. Mitchell Report, The Mitchell Reports 2007 states on pages 169 170 During the 1998 season around the time of. the injections Clemens showed McNamee a white bottle of Anadrol 50 Clemens told McNamee he was. not using it but wanted to know more about it McNamee told Clemens not to use it McNamee said he. took the bottle and gave it to Canseco In footnote 387 on page 170 it states McNamee stated that he. showed the bottle to Canseco because he thought that Canseco was knowledgeable and he felt comfortable. approaching him According to McNamee Canseco volunteered to take the bottle. Interestingly the most notorious accusation in the Mitchell Report is also linked to. Canseco In the report McNamee claims that he supplied steroids to Roger Clemens who. is widely considered one of the greatest pitchers of all time 6 Clemens and Canseco were. teammates in 1998 in Toronto and McNamee testi es that Clemens asked McNamee for. help with steroids for the rst time shortly after he witnessed Clemens having a meeting. with Canseco 7 Canseco admits that he never saw Clemens take steroids but he told the. Mitchell Commission that he practically encouraged Clemens to use steroids by explaining. on numerous occasions the bene ts of Deca Durabolin and Winstrol and how to cycle. and stack steroids 8 In his book Canseco also talks about conversations with Clemens. about the need for pitchers like him to take steroids in response to the widespread use of. batters who were gaining the upper hand 9, However considering Canseco s tarnished reputation and his penchant for doing just.
about anything for money no one really knows whether his claims are true or whether they. were part of a publicity stunt to help promote his book His claims have been disputed and. even the Mitchell Report 2007 did not give much credence to his testimony despite the. fact that Canseco was one of the only current or former players who agreed to cooperate. with the investigation 10 Although many suspect that at least some of his claims are true. In response to the Mitchell Report Clemens denies all accusations of using steroids and human growth. hormone but admits to taking shots of B12 However two years prior to the Mitchell Report 2007. Canseco not only claimed that the term B12 shot was a nickname for steroids but he speci cally. mentioned that Clemens used that term as a euphemism for steroids in their conversations Canseco. writes on page 211 I ve never seen Roger Clemens do steroids and he never told me that he did But. we ve talked about what steroids could do for you in which combinations and I ve heard him use the. phrase B12 shot with respect to others, The Mitchell Report states on page 168 McNamee attended a lunch party that Canseco hosted at his. home in Miami McNamee stated that during this luncheon he observed Clemens Canseco and another. person he did not know meeting inside Canseco s house although McNamee did not personally attend. that meeting Toward the end of the road trip which included the Marlins series or shortly after. the Blue Jays returned home to Toronto Clemens approached McNamee and for the rst time brought. up the subject of using steroids Clemens said that he was not able to inject himself and he asked for. McNamee s help,Mitchell Report 2007 page 168, Canseco writes on page 211 A lot of pitchers did steroids to keep up with hitters If everyone else. was getting stronger and faster then you wanted to get stronger and faster too If you were a pitcher. and the hitters were all getting stronger that made your job that much more di cult Roger Clemens. used to talk about that a lot You hitters are so darn strong from steroids he d say Yeah but you. pitchers are taking it too You re just taking di erent types I d respond. Three of the seven players that Canseco claimed in his book that he personally injected with steroids. were not even mentioned in the report Ivan Rodriguez Wilson Alvarez and Dave Martinez Three. of the other players were cited by the report but not for evidence provided by Canseco Canseco also. the same people often suspect that many are exaggerated For example Bryant 2005. page 373 writes of Jose Canseco and his book He is the mysterious frustrating character. he was as a player gifted intelligent and provocative yet given to exaggeration spite. and contradiction In making his points he violates the tenet of clubhouse secrecy that. for years maintained the steroid era He violates the trust of the players with whom he. won and lost games with whom he caroused drank and laughed Canseco returns years. of ridicule with a withering indictment of the sport. This paper analyzes whether there is any empirical evidence to support the notion. that Jose Canseco a ected the performance of his teammates by turning them on to steroid. use The hypothesis is tested using panel data on the performance of baseball players from. 1970 to 2003 After controlling for the individual xed e ect of each player and a rich set. of other control variables experience year e ects home ballpark characteristics division. e ects and managerial quality the empirical analysis shows that a player s performance. signi cantly increases after playing on the same team with Jose Canseco This result is. especially true for measures of performance like power hitting which are typically a ected. by physical strength However the results are signi cant for simple batting performance. as well where baseball folklore maintains that physical strength is not a dominant factor. The results are smaller but still signi cant if the sample excludes the six players. that Jose Canseco claims to have personally injected with steroids This pattern is con. sistent with the idea that these players did indeed bene t from Canseco s human capital. in chemistry but they also might indicate that Canseco cherry picked six of the most. productive players that he played with even if they are completely innocent just for the. promotional value of creating a larger scandal Therefore our ndings that the results are. signi cant for both the entire sample which Canseco could not possibly cherry pick for. his book and the sample without the six players present strong evidence that Canseco. had a positive in uence on the productivity of his teammates We then check to see if. 30 other comparable players from the same era generated similar positive e ects on their. teammates This analysis reveals no evidence of similar e ects from any other player. named other players that he did not personally inject as users and these players were not mentioned in. the report either Bret Boone Tony Saunders and Brady Anderson. thus indicating that Jose Canseco had an unusual in uence on the productivity of his. It is important to note that the results are not driven by a common shock to all. players on the same team which is always a potential problem in the identi cation of peer. e ects There are several reasons for this First Canseco played on ten di erent teams. throughout his career In fact the seven players that Canseco claimed to have injected. played on three di erent teams with him 11 Second the positive e ect of Canseco on his. peers shows up after they no longer play with him and therefore are playing for various. teams in the league So the results could not come from a common shock to all players on. one team Third as stated above we found no evidence of peer e ects for six power hitters. who played with Canseco and shared the same coaches and team characteristics which. refutes the idea that the e ect is coming from the team rather than Canseco himself. A word of caution is appropriate regarding the interpretation of our ndings Al. though the results are consistent with Canseco s claims that he improved his teammates. by introducing them to steroids the results cannot identify exactly why his teammates. seemed to have bene ted from playing with him It is possible that they bene tted from. his workout habits batting technique work ethic etc However in the very least the. evidence provides considerable back up to his bravado I don t think there s any question. that when I arrived in Texas the other Rangers saw me as a useful resource Juiced. page 134 Given the multi million dollar incentives inherent in professional baseball we. now show you why his teammates felt that way,2 The Data and Background. The data was obtained from the Baseball Archive which is copyrighted by Sean Lahman. and is a freely available on the Internet for research purposes The data contains extensive. personal and yearly performance information on players coaches and teams for every. season of professional baseball The sample is restricted to the seasons between 1970 and. McGwire played with Canseco on the Oakland A s in the late 1980 s Palmeiro Gonzalez and Ro. driguez played with Canseco on the Texas Rangers in the early 1990 s Giambi played with Canseco on. the Oakland A s in 1997 and Alvarez and Martinez played with Canseco on the Tampa Bay Devil Rays. in the late 1990 s, 2003 Pitchers are included in the sample if they pitched at least 10 games in a season. while non pitchers are included if they batted at least 50 times in a season The unit of. observation is the person year so all variables are measured at the annual level. Table 1 presents summary statistics for the sample The upper portion of the ta. ble presents the means and standard deviations for standard measures of performance by. non pitchers homeruns strikeouts which typically are high if you are trying to hit home. runs RBI s runs batted in batting average number of hits per time at bat slugging. percentage which is similar to the batting average but takes into consideration the quality. of the hit intentional walks which are typically high if you are a dangerous batter base. on balls typically high if you are a dangerous batter steals typically related to speed. but Canseco claims that steroids helped him steal by making him faster errors in eld. ing number of times at bat and number of games played The sample of non pitchers. is divided into power hitters rst base out elders catchers and designated hitters. and position players second base third base and short stop The former category. emphasizes batting with power homeruns slugging percentage etc while the second one. emphasizes elding skills at the expense of hitting prowess This pattern is exhibited in. Table 1 which shows that power hitters hit 9 55 homeruns per year versus 6 38 for position. players The slugging percentage is also considerably higher for power hitters. Table 1 also shows the means for variables which concern the extent to which players. interacted with Canseco throughout his career The variable ever with Canseco is a. dummy variable for ever playing on the same team with Canseco while the variable called. currently with Canseco is a dummy variable for currently being on the same team as. Canseco in a given year Table 1 indicates the 12 percent of the players in the sample. played with Canseco at some point in their careers while 2 percent were currently playing. with him in a given year 12, The bottom panel of Table 1 presents summary statistics for pitchers The standard.
indicator of a pitcher s performance is called the ERA Earned Run Average 13 A higher. Only 2 percent of the players played with Canseco in a given year because there are 30 teams in. professional baseball as of 2000 and Canseco played in only half of the seasons in our sample. This measure takes the number of runs that a pitcher allows the opposing team to obtain and scales. it by the number of innings played so that it represents the average number of runs which would have. ERA re ects poorer performance The average ERA is 4 20 while 13 percent of the pitchers. played at some point with Canseco and 2 percent play concurrently on the same team with. Table 2 presents summary statistics for a list of individual players The list includes. Jose Canseco the six power hitters named by Jose Canseco as players that he personally. injected with steroids Rafael Palmeiro Jason Giambi Mark McGwire Juan Gonzalez. Ivan Rodriguez and Dave Martinez Ken Caminiti who admitted that he took steroids. but was not implicated by Canseco and never played with Canseco and three leading. power position players from the 1990 s that have never been implicated in any scandal and. never played with Jose Canseco Ken Gri ey Jr Ryne Sandberg and Cecil Fielder 14. Like Canseco most of these other players were voted most valuable player at some point. in their career Canseco in 1988 Sandberg in 1984 Caminiti in 1996 Gonzalez in 1996. and 1998 Gri ey in 1997 Rodriguez in 1999 and Giambi in 2000. Comparing these players to the overall average Table 2 reveals a pattern which is. very typical for excellent power hitters many homeruns very high slugging percentage a. little better than average batting average many RBI s and many strikeouts since going for. homeruns often results in strikes Also these players have higher than normal intentional. walks and base on balls since the opposing teams often pitch around dangerous hitters. to prevent them from getting a homerun, Overall Table 2 demonstrates that this list of players includes some of the best power. hitters of their generation although Dave Martinez is perhaps not quite at the same level. as the others The statistics for Jose Canseco certainly show that he belongs in this elite. group but he does not stand out among the group as being the absolute best In the. next section we examine whether Jose Canseco a ected the performance of his peers and. then we compare the results for Canseco to those obtained by estimating the peer e ect. been scored o the pitcher in a full game The ERA is calculated by number of earned runs innings. pitched 9 Runs due to defensive errors by other players are not counted hence the name earned run. In Canseco s book he also named pitcher Wilson Alvarez who is not included in the table because. he is not a hitter Ken Caminiti was the most valuable player in the National League 1996 but later. admitted that he took steroids throughout his career He ended his 15 year career in 2001 and died in. 2004 of a heart attack In an interview with Sports Illustrated in 2002 Caminiti estimated that half of. the players in baseball are on steroids See http espn go com classic obit s 2004 1010 1899091 html. of players who had similar careers and played during the same era the 10 players listed in. Table 2 plus 20 other players who are among the best homerun hitters of all time. 3 The Empirical Analysis, This section examines how the performance of individual players is a ected by coming. into contact with Jose Canseco Figure 1 presents a naive analysis by showing the mean. homeruns for three mutually exclusive categories of power hitting players those that never. played with Canseco those that were playing concurrently with Canseco and those that. played with Canseco in the past Figure 1 shows that players who played with Canseco in. the past have much higher homeruns than those who played with him concurrently and. both of these groups have much higher homerun production than those that never played. with him Figure 2 displays a similar pattern regarding the slugging percentage those. that played with him are much better sluggers than those that did not. This stark pattern could be due to the higher ability levels of players who happened. to play with Canseco in the present and past or it may be due to the causal e ect of. Canseco on his peers To control for the non random allocation of players who might. have played with Canseco over time all regressions will include individual xed e ects. Furthermore Figures 1 and 2 suggest that the e ect of Canseco on his peers may be. di erent between current and former teammates Therefore to allow for the possibility. that it may take a period of time for Canseco to a ect the performance of his teammates. the analysis examines whether there is evidence for an immediate e ect of Canseco on the. output of current teammates and whether there is a lingering e ect of Canseco on former. teammates The basic regression equation is the following. perf ormanceit 1 playing with canseco it,0 2 af ter canseco it. i 3 other controls it it, where the performance of player i in year t is a function of a dummy variable for whether. he plays on the same team as Jose Canseco in year t playing with canseco a dummy. variable for having played with Canseco in the past but not during year t af ter canseco. the xed ability of player i represented by i other observable control variables and the. unobserved component which varies over time it 15 Separate regressions are run for each. performance measure listed in Table 1 The other control variables include the batting. average in player i s division excluding his own team in year t which controls for the. quality of the pitching and batting in the team s division in the same year the team. manager s lifetime winning percentage which is an indicator for the quality of the team s. coaching the ballpark hitting factor which control for whether the team s ballpark is easy. or di cult for batters in year t the player s years of experience number seasons played. in the league year e ects and dummy variables for each division It is worth noting. that these control variables have no e ect on our results for the other coe cients The. unobserved ability of player i i is controlled for by including xed e ects for each player. The main parameters of interest are 1 and 2 which indicate whether Jose Canseco. a ected the performance of his current or former teammates respectively We model the. potential e ect of Canseco on his peers as an intercept e ect since the main factor is. likely to be whether the person takes steroids or not rather than learning how to inject. steroids over time Also the distinction between playing with Canseco and playing. after Canseco is important since even if a player did learn about steroids from Canseco. we do not know when he learned about it during his time with Canseco but we can be. sure that he already acquired the knowledge after playing with Canseco The inclusion. of a xed e ect for each player means that we are exploiting variation in performance. levels within the career of each player rather than exploiting variation in the types of. players that may have played with Canseco over time In this manner the empirical. strategy controls for the endogenous personnel decisions of team managers Therefore. identi cation of the parameters of interest comes from seeing whether variation within a. given player s performance over time deviates from the typical player s experience pro le. in a way that is correlated with being a current or former teammate of Jose Canseco. The basic xed e ect regressions for power hitters are presented in Table 3 Each. If a player played with Canseco in non consecutive years the variable for playing with Canseco is. equal to 1 for every year starting in the rst year that the player played with Canseco until the last year. that he played with Canseco The variable after Canseco is equal to one for every year after the last. year that the player played with Canseco, column represents a separate regression using the indicated performance measure as the.
dependent variable Column 1 shows that after controlling for all the other variables a. given power player has more homeruns on average during years that he plays with Canseco. the estimate for 1 is 1 13 with standard error 0 66 However homerun production seems. to pick up even more after playing with Canseco the estimate for 2 is 2 91 with standard. error 0 64 The same pattern exists for all of the performance measures strikeouts. RBI s slugging percentage batting average intentional walks and base on balls Each. of these performance measures increase in a statistically signi cant way after playing with. Jose Canseco but rarely are they statistically signi cant while playing with Canseco It is. worth noting that an increase in each of these measures is indicative of a higher performing. power hitter more homeruns more strikeouts a higher slugging percentage and more. attempts by the other team to pitch around a dangerous hitter expressed by more. intentional walks and base on balls, The reason why playing with Canseco has a much smaller e ect than playing after. Canseco may be due to the idea mentioned above that players who learn about steroids. from Canseco do not take steroids during the whole time they are playing with Canseco. but do use them during the entire time that they are former teammates with him Alter. natively it may take some time for Canseco s positive e ect to be realized or this pattern. may be due to the fact that players who play with him spend more of their time as former. teammates of Canseco than being current teammates of him For example power hitters. who played at least one season with Canseco in our sample spent 17 percent of their seasons. on a team with Canseco and 33 percent of their seasons being former teammates with him. Also the smaller e ect of playing with Canseco may be due to the idea that Canseco took. away scarce team resources such as playing time attention from coaches and trainers etc. If this were true then similar peer e ects should be found for other baseball stars As we. show later we do not nd similar e ects for other stars which casts doubt on the hypoth. esis that star players crowd out the performance of other players If however we do. not di erentiate between current and former players by using one variable which indicates. whether the player either plays currently or in the past with Canseco the coe cient for. homeruns is 2 05 and is still highly signi cant with a standard error of 0 549. The coe cients in Table 3 are signi cant statistically and also sizeable in magnitude. The estimated e ect of playing after Canseco on homeruns is 2 91 which is 30 5 of the. mean homerun production of power hitters 9 55 displayed in Table 1 After playing with. Jose Canseco a typical power hitter is also estimated to increase his RBI s by 22 percent. a coe cient of 9 174 compared to the mean RBI s of 41 78 Apparently the bene ts of. playing with Canseco were quite large, Table 4 presents additional results for power hitters using alternative measures of. performance The rst three columns show that Canseco had no discernible e ect on steals. elding percentage and elding errors Neither of these outcomes is considered particularly. important for power hitting nor are they typically thought of as being a ected by physical. strength So the lack of any e ect for these outcomes strengthens the interpretation of. the results in Table 3 that Canseco had a signi cantly positive e ect on the hitting power. of his former teammates by a ecting their physical strength. Columns 4 and 5 in Table 4 show that power hitters signi cantly increase their. playing time number of times at bat and number of games played in a season after playing. with Canseco 16 Contrary to the outcomes in the rst three columns playing time should. increase for a power hitter if his hitting prowess has improved 17 The e ect of Canseco. on playing time could be a reason why we see several power hitting performance measures. increase in Table 3 after playing with Canseco For example a power hitter will naturally. tend to hit more homeruns and RBI s if they have more chances at bat The nal column. of Table 4 re runs the regression for homeruns but controls for number of at bats In. comparison to the results in Table 3 which did not control for the number of at bats. the results are much smaller but still statistically signi cant That is a players homerun. production increases after playing with Canseco even if we condition on the number of. chances at bat Also it should be noted that two of the outcomes in Table 3 slugging. Since playing time is clearly an endogenous outcome which seems to be a ected by Canseco our. preferred speci cation does not include playing time as a control variable However as discussed later. the strong positive e ect of Canseco on his peers operates not only through increased playing time but. also on measures of performance that are normalized by playing time slugging percentage and batting. Also Canseco claimed that steroids help players recover from injuries faster which could also increase. playing time In his personal case he claimed that steroids extended his career by enabling him to play.


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