INTRODUCTORY NOTE,FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN MARTYR, a d 1 10 165 Justin was a Gentile but born in Samaria near Jacob s well He must have. been well educated he had travelled extensively and he seems to have been a person enjoying at. least a competence After trying all other systems his elevated tastes and refined perceptions made. him a disciple of Socrates and Plato So he climbed towards Christ As he himself narrates the. story of his conversion it What Plato was, need not be anticipated here feeling after he found in. Jesus of Nazareth The conversion of such a man marks a new era in the gospel history The sub. apostolic age begins with the first Christian author the founder of theological literature It. introduced to mankind as the mother of true philosophy the despised teaching of those Galileans. to whom their Master had said Ye are the light of the world. And this is upon the attention of contemplative minds. the epoch which forced this great truth, It was more than a hundred years since the angels had sung Good will to men and that song. had now been heard for successive generations breaking forth from the lips of sufferers on the. cross among lions and amid blazing faggots Here was a nobler Stoicism that needed interpreta. tion Not only choice spirits despising the herd and boasting of a loftier intellectual sphere. were its professors but thousands of men women and children withdrawing themselves not. at all from the ordinary and humble lot of the people were inspired by it to live and die heroi. cally and subhmely, exhibiting a superiority to revenge and hate entirely unaccountable praying. for their enemies and seeking to glorify their God by love to their fellow men. And in spite of Gallios and Neros alike the gospel was dispelling the gross darkness Of. this Pliny s letter to Trajan is decisive evidence Even in Seneca we detect reflections of the day. break Plutarch writes as never a Gentile could have written until now Plato is practically sur. passed by him in his thoughts upon the delays of the Divine Justice Hadrian s address to. his soul in his dying moments is a tribute to the new ideas which had been sown in the popular. mind And now the Antonines impelled by something in the age came forward to reign as. philosophers At this moment Jusdn Martyr confronts them like a Daniel The htde stone. smites the imperial image in the face not yet in the toes He tells the professional philoso. phers on a throne how false and hollow is all wisdom that is not meant for all humanity and that. is not capable of leavening the masses He exposes the impotency of even Socratic philosophy. he shows in contrast the force that works in the words of Jesus he points out their regenerating. power It is the mission of Justin to be a star in the West leading its Wise Men to the cradle. of Bethlehem, See Amyot s Irnnslalion and a more modern one by De Maistre Eii7 res vol ii Paris 1833 An edition of TAe Delays the. original with notes by Professor Hacketi has appeared in America Andover circ 1842 and is praised by Tayler Lewis. i6o INTRODUCTORY NOTE, The writings of Justin are deficient in charms of style and for us there is something the reverse. of attractive in the forms of thought which he had learned from the philosophers If Plato had. left Renan would doubtless have reproached him as of feeble in. us nothing but the Timteus a, tellectual power criticise the movements of an athlete or the writhings. So a dancing master might, of St Sebastian shot with arrows The practical wisdom of Justin using the rhetoric of his times. and discomfiting false philosophy with its own weapons is not appreciated by the fastidious. Parisian But the manly and heroic pleadings of the man for a despised people with whom he. had boldly identified himself the intrepidity with which he defends them before despots whose mere. caprice might punish him with death above all the undaunted spirit with which he exposes the. shame and absurdity of their inveterate superstition and reproaches the memory of Hadrian whom. Antoninus had deified as he had deified Antinous of loathsome history these are characteristics. which every instinct of the unvitiated soul delights to honour Justin cannot be refuted by a. He wore his philosopher s gown after his conversion as a token that he had attained the only. true philosophy And seeing that after the conflicts and tests of ages it is the only philosophy. that lasts and lives and triumphs its discoverer deserves the homage of mankind Of the philo. sophic gown we shall hear again when we come to TertuUian. The residue of Justin s history may be found in The Martyrdom and other pages soon to. follow as well as in the following Introductory Note of the able translators Messrs Dods and. Justin Martyr was born in Flavia Neapolis a city of Samaria the modern Nablous The. date of his birth is uncertain but may be fixed about a d 114 His father and grandfather were. probably of Roman origin Before his conversion to Christianity he studied in the schools of. the philosophers searching after some knowledge which should satisfy the cravings of his soul. At last he became acquainted with Christianity being at once impressed with the extraordinary. fearlessness which the Christians displayed in the presence of death and with the grandeur. stability and truth of the teachings of the Old Testament From this time he acted as an. evangelist taking every opportunity to proclaim the gospel as the only safe and certain philo. sophy the only way to salvation It is probable that he travelled much We know that he was. some time in Ephesus and he must have lived for a considerable period in Rome Probably he. settled in Rome as a Christian teacher While he was there the philosophers especially the. Cynics plotted against him and he sealed his testimony to the truth by martyrdom. The principal facts of Justin s life are gathered from his own writings There is little clue to. dates It is agreed on all hands that he lived in the reign of Antoninus Pius and the testimony. of Eusebius and most credible historians renders it nearly certain that he suffered martyrdom in. the reign of Marcus Aurelius The Chronicon Paschale gives as the date 165 a d. The writings of Justin Martyr are among the most important that have come down to us from. the second century He was not the first that wrote an Apology in behalf of the Christians but. his Apologies are the earliest extant They are characterized by intense Christian fervour and. they give us an insight into the relations existing between heathens and Christians in those days. His other principal writing the Dialogue with Trypho is the first elaborate exposition of the. reasons for regarding Christ as the Messiah of the Old Testament and the first systematic attempt. to exhibit the false position of the Jews in regard to Christianity. Many of Justin s writings have perished Those works which have come to us bearing his. name have been divided into three classes, 1 He quotes Plato s reference e g to the X but the Orientals delighted in such conceits Compare the Hebrew critics on the H in. Gen i 4 on which see Nordheimer Gram vol i p 7 New York 1838. 2 It survives in the pulpits of Christendom Greek Latin Anglican Lutheran etc to this day in slightly different forms. INTRODUCTORY NOTE i6i, The first class embraces those which are unquestionably genuine viz the two Apologies and. the Dialogue with Trypho Some critics have urged objections against Justin s authorship of the. Dialogue but the objections are regarded now as possessing no weight. The second class consists of those works which are regarded by some critics as Justin s and. by others as not his They are i An Address to the Greeks 2 A Hortatory Address to the. Greeks 3 On the Sole Government of God 4 An EpisUe to Diognetus 5 Fragments from. a work on the Resurrection 6 And other Fragments Whatever difficulty there may be in. settling the authorship of these treatises there is but one opinion as to their earliness The latest. of them in all probability was not written later than the third century. The third class consists of those that are unquestionably not the works of Justin These are. I An Exposition of the True Faith 2 Replies to the Orthodox 3 Christian Questions to. Gentiles 4 Gentile Questions to Christians 5 Epistle to Zenas and Serenus and 6 A Refu. tation of certain Doctrines of Aristotle There is no clue to the date of the two last There can. be no doubt that the others were written after the Council of Nicsea though immediately after. the Reformation Calvin and others appealed to the first as a genuine writing of Justin s. There is a curious question connected with the Apologies of Justin which have come down to. us Eusebius mentions two Apologies one written in the reign of Antoninus Pius the other. in the reign of Marcus Aurelius Critics have disputed much whether we have these two Apolo. gies in those now extant Some have maintained that what is now called the Second Apology. was the preface of the first and that the second is lost Others have tried to show that the so. calledSecond Apology is the continuation of the first and that the second is lost Others have. supposed that the two Apologies which we have are Justin s two Apologies but that Eusebius was. wrong in affirming that the second was addressed to Marcus Aurelius and others maintain that. we have in our two Apologies the two Apologies mentioned by Eusebius and that our first is his. first and our second his second,THE FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN. CHAP I ADDRESS gated and that if these be substantiated they. To the Emperor Titus lius Adrianus Anto be punished as they deserve or rather indeed. ninus Pius Augustus Caesar and to his son,we ourselves will punish them But if no one. Verissimus the Philosopher and to Lucius the can convict us of anything true reason forbids. Philosopher the natural son of Caesar and the you for the sake of a wicked rumour to wrong. adopted son of Pius a lover of learning and to blameless men and indeed rather yourselves. the sacred Senate with the whole People of the who think fit to direct affairs not by judgment. Romans I Justin the son of Priscus and grand but by passion And every sober minded per. son of Bacchius natives of Flavia Neapolis in son will declare this to be the only fair and. Palestine present this address and petition in be,equitable adjustment namely that the subjects. half of those of all nations who are unjustly hated render an unexceptional account of their own. and wantonly abused myself being one of them life and doctrine and that on the other hand. the rulers should give their decision in obe, CHAP n JUSTICE DEMANDED dience not to violence and tyranny but to piety. Reason directs those who are truly pious and and philosophy For thus would both rulers. philosophical to honour and love only what is and ruled reap benefit For even one of the. ancients somewhere said Unless both rulers,true declining to follow tradidonal opinions if. these be worthless For not only does sound and ruled philosophize it is impossible to make. reason direct us to refuse the guidance of those states blessed It is our task therefore to. afford to all an opportunity of inspecting our hfe. who did or taught anything wrong but it is in, cumbent on the lover of truth by all means and and teachings lest on account of those who are. if death be threatened even before his own life,accustomed to be ignorant of our affairs we. to choose to do and say what is right Do you should incur the penalty due to them for mental. then since ye are called pious and philosophers blindness and it is your business when you. guardians of justice and lovers of learning give hear us to be found as reason demands good. good heed and hearken to my address and if judges For if when ye have learned the truth. ye are indeed such it will be manifested For you do not what is just you will be before God. we have come not to flatter you by this writing without excuse. nor please you by our address but to beg that,CHAP IV CHRISTIANS UNJUSTLY CONDEMNED. you pass judgment after an accurate and search,FOR THEIR MERE NAME. ing investigation not flattered by prejudice or, by a desire of pleasing superstitious men nor By the mere application of a name nothing is. induced by irrational impulse or evil rumours decided either good or evil apart from the ac. which have long been prevalent to give a decis tions implied in the name and indeed so far. ion which will prove to be against yourselves at least as one may judge from the name we are. For as for us we reckon that no evil can be accused of we are most excellent people 5 But. done us unless we be convicted as evil doers, 2 Thirlby regarded the clause in brackets as an interpolation. or be proved to be wicked men and you There is considerable variety of opinion as to the exact meaning of. you can kill but not hurt us the words amongst those who regard them as genuine. J Plat V 1 8, Thit is to say if the Christians refused or neglected to make. CHAP in CLAIM OF JUDICIAL INVESTIGATION their real opinions and practices known they would share the guilt of. those whom they thus kept in darkness,But any one think that this is an unrea. lest 5 Justin avails himself here of the similarity in sound of the words. XptCTTo Christ and xPIO to good worthy excellent The pl iy. sonable and reckless utterance we demand that, upon these words is kept up throughout this paragraph and cannot. the charges against the Christians be investi be always represented to the English reader liut Justin was merely. quoting and using ad hotnitiein the popular blunder of which Sueto. nius Life of Claudius cap 25 gives us an example impulsoro. Liter illy the opinions of the ancients Chresto It will be observed again in others of these Fathers J. 64 THE FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN, as we do not thinkit just to beg to be acquitted on were struck with terror and being carried away. account of the name if we be convicted as evil by fear and not knowing that these were de. doers so on the other hand if we be found to mons they called them gods and gave to each. have committed no offence either in tlie matter the name which each of the demons chose for. of thus naming ourselves or of our conduct as himself And when Socrates endeavoured by. citizens it is your part very earnestly to guard true reason and examination to bring these. against incurring just punishment by unjustly and deliver men from the de. things to light, unishing those who are not convicted For mons then the demons themselves by means of. from a name neither praise nor punishment men who rejoiced in iniquity comi assed his. could reasonably spring unless something excel death as an atheist and a profane person on the. lent or base in action be proved And those charge that he was introducing new divinities. among yourselves who are accused you do not and in our case they display a similar activity. punish before they are convicted but in our For not only among the Jreeks did reason. case you receive the name as proof against us Logos prevail to condemn these things through. and this although so far as the name goes you Socrates but also among the Barbarians were. ought rather to punish our accusers For we are they condemned by Reason or the Word the. accused of being Christians and to hate what Logos Himself who took shape and became. is excellent Chrestian is unjust Again if any man and was called Jesus Christ and in obe. of the accused deny the name and say that he dience to Him we not only deny that they who. i not a Christian you acquit him as having no did such things as these are gods but assert. evidence against him as a wrong doer but if,that they are wicked and impious demons whose. any one acknowledge that he is a Christian you actions will not bear comparison with those even. punish him on account of this acknowledgment of men desirous of virtue. Justice requires that you inquire into the life, both of him who confesses and of him who de CHAP VI CHARGE OF AniEISM REFLTTED. nies that by his may be apparent what,deeds it Hence are we called atheists Anci we con. kind of man each For as some who have,is fess that we. are atheists so far as gods of this, been taught by the Master Christ not to deny sort are concerned but not with respect to the. Him give encouragement to others when they most true God the Father of righteousness and. are put to the question so in all probability do temperance and the other virtues who is free. those who lead wicked lives give occasion to from all impurity But both Him and the Son. those who without consideration take upon who came forth from Him and taught us these. them to accuse all the Christians of impiety and things and the host of the other good angels. wickedness And this also is not right For of who follow and are made like to Him and the. philosophy too some assume the name and the prophetic Spirit we worship and adore knowing. garb who do nothing worthy of their profession,them in reason and truth and declaring without. and you are well aware that those of the an grudging to every one who wishes to learn as we. cients whose opinions and teachings were quite have been taught. diverse are yet all called by the one name of, philosophers And of these some taught athe CHAP VII. EACH CHRISTIAN MU ST BE TRIED BY,HIS OWN UFE,ism and the poets who have flourished among. you raise a laugh out of the uncleanness of Jupi But some one will say Some have ere now. ter with his own children And those who now been arrested and convicted as evil doers For. adopt such instruction are not restrained by you, but on the contrary you bestow prizes and hon t Cor X 20 Milton s admirable economy in working this. truth into his great poem i 378 affords a sublime exposition of the. ours upon those who euphoniously insult the gods mind of the Fathers on the origin of mythologies. 2 The word Sainoiv means in Greek a god but the Christians. CHAP V CHRISTIANS CHARGED WITH ATHEISM u sed theword to signify an evil spirit Justin uses the same word. here for god and demon The connection which Justin and other. Christian writers supposed to exist between evil spirits and the. Why then should this be In our case who gods of the heathens will be apparent from Justin s own statements. pledge ourselves to do no wickedness nor to The word Sta oAo devil is not applied to these demons There is. devil but many demons, hold these atheistic opinions you do not ex but 3oneThis is the literal and obvious translation of Justin s words. amine the charges made against us but yielding, But from c 13 i6 and 61 it is evident that he did not desire to incul. cate the worship of angels We are therefore driven to adopt another. to unreasoning passion and to the instigation translation of this passage even though be somewhat harsh Two. of evil demons you punish us without con such translations have been proposed the first connecting us and. the host of the other good angels as the common object of the verb. sideration or judgment For the truth shall be taught the second connecting these things with the host of. demons effecting etc and making these two together the subject taught In the first. spoken since of old these evil, case the translation would stand taught these things to us and to. apparitions of themselves both defiled women the host etc in the second ca sc the translation would be. us about these things and abfnit the host of the others who follow. and corrupted boys and showed such fearful Him viz the good angels I have ventured to in scrt parenthetic. sights to men that those who did not use their marics in the text an obvious and simple resource to suggest the. manifest intent of the author Grabe s note in loc giv s another and. reason in judging of the actions that were done very ingenious exegesis but the simplest is best. THE FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN 165, you condemn many many a time after inquiring have formed and set in shrines and called gods. into the life of each of the accused severally since we see that these are soulless and dead. but not on account of those of whom we have and have not the form of God for we do not. been speaking And this we acknowledge that consider that God has such a form as some say. as among the Greeks those who teach such theo that they imitate to His honour but have the. ries as please themselves are all called by the names and forms of those wicked demons which. one name Philosopher though their doctrines have appeared For why need we tell you who. be diverse so also among the Barbarians this already know into what forms the craftsmen 5. name on which accusations are accumulated is carving and cutting casting and hammering. the common property of those who are and fashion the materials And often out of vessels. those who seem wise P or all are called Chris of dislionour by merely changing the form and. tians Wherefore we demand that the deeds of making an image of the requisite shape they. all those who are accused to you be judged in make what they call a god which we consider. order that each one who is convicted may be not only senseless but to be even insulting to. punished as an evil doer and not as a Christian,God who having ineffable glory and form thus. and if it is clear that any one is blameless that gets His name attached to things that are cor. he may be acquitted since by the mere fact of ruptible and require constant service And that. his being a Christian he does no wrong For we the artificers of these are both intemperate and. will not require that you punish our accusers not to enter into particulars are practised in. they being sufficiently punished by their present every vice you very well know even their own. wickedness and ignorance of what is right girls who work along with them they corrupt. What infatuation that dissolute men should be,CHAP VIII CHRISTIANS CONFESS THEIR FAITH IN. said to fashion and make gods for your worship, GOD and that you should appoint such men the guard. And reckon ye that it is for your sakes we ians of the temples where they are enshrined. have been saying these things for it is in our not recognising that it is unlawful even to think. power when we are examined to deny that we or say that men are the guardians of gods. are Christians but we would not live by telling, a lie For impelled by the desire of the eternal CHAP X HOW GOD IS TO BE SERVED. and pure life we seek the abode that is with But we have received by tradition that God. God the Father and Creator of all and hasten does not need the material offerings which men. to confess our faith persuaded and convinced can give seeing indeed that He Himself is the. as we are that they who have proved to God provider of all things And we have been. by their works that they followed Him and taught and are convinced and do believe that. loved to abide with Him where there is no sin He accepts those only who imitate the excel. to cause disturbance can obtain these things lences which reside in Him temperance and. This then to speak shortly is what we expect justice and philanthropy and as many virtues. and have learned from Christ and teach And as are peculiar to a God who is called by no. Plato in like manner used to say that Rhada proper name And we have been taught that. manthus and Minos would punish the wicked He in the beginning did of His goodness for. who came before them and we say that the man s sake create all things out of unformed. same thing will be done but at the hand of matter and if men by their works show them. Christ and upon the wicked in the same bodies selves worthy of this His design they are deemed. united again to their spirits which are now to worthy and so we have received. of reigning, undergo everlasting punishment and not only in com any with Him being delivered from. as Plato said for a period of a thousand years corruption and suffering For as in the begin. And if any one say that this is incredible or ning He created us when we were not so do we. impossible this error of ours is one which con consider that in like manner those who choose. cerns ourselves only and no other person so what is pleasing to Him are on account of their. long as you cannot convict us of doing any choice deemed worthy of incorruption and of. harm fellowship with Him For the coming into be, CHAP IX FOLLY OF IDOL WORSHIP ing at first was not in our own power and in. order that we may follow those things which,And neither do we honour with many sacri. please Him choosing them by means of the,fices and garlands of flowers such deities as men. rational faculties He has Himself endowed us, i e according to Otto not on account of the sincere Chris. with He both persuades us and leads us to faith, tians of whom wc have been speaking According to Trollopc And we think it for the advantage of all men. not on account of or at the instigation oO the demons before men. tioned that they are not restrained from learning these. Or as a Christian who has done no wrong, 3 Compare the Rescript of Adrian appended to this Apology. Literally persuaded God S Isa xliv 9 20 Jer x 3,1 66 THE FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN. things but are even urged thereto For the able But if you also like the foolish prefer. restraint which human laws could not effect custom to truth do what you have power to do. the Word inasmuch as He is divine would have But just so much power have rulers who esteem. effected had not the wicked demons taking as opinion more than truth as robbers have in a. their ally the lust of wickedness which is in desert And that you will not succeed is de. every man and which draws variously to all clared by the Word than whom after God who. manner of vice scattered many false and pro begat Him we know there is no ruler more. fane accusations none of which attach to us kingly and just For as all shrink from succeed. CHAP XI WHAT KINGDOM CHRISTIANS LOOK FOR ing to the poverty or sufferings or obscurity of. their fathers so whatever the Word forbids us to, And when you hear that we look for a king choose the sensible man will not choose That. dom you suppose without making any inquiry all these things should come to pass I say our. that we speak of a human kingdom whereas Teacher foretold He who is both Son and Apos. we speak of that which is with God as appears tle of God the Father of all and the Ruler Jesus. also from the confession of their faith made by Christ from whom also we have the name of. those who are charged with being Christians Christians Whence we become more assured. though they know that death is the punishment of the things He taught us since whatever. awarded to him who so confesses For if we He beforehand foretold should come to pass is. looked for a human kingdom we should also seen in fact coming to pass and this is the. deny our Christ that we might not be slain and work of jod to tell of a thing before it hap. we should strive to escape detection that we as it was foretold so to show it happen. might obtain what we expect But since our were possible to pause here and add no. thoughts are not fixed on the present we are more reckoning that we demand what is just. not concerned when men cut us off since also and true but because we are well aware that it. death is a debt which must at all events be paid is not easy suddenly to change a mind possessed. by ignorance we intend add a few,CHAP XII CHRISTIANS LIVE AS UNDER GOD S EYE to. the sake of persuading those who love the truth,things for. And more than all other men are we your knowing that it is not impossible to put ignorance. helpers and allies in promoting peace seeing to flight by presenting the truth. that we hold this view that if is alike impossible. for the wicked the covetous the conspirator,CHRISTIANS SERVE GOD RATIONALLY. and for the virtuous to escape the notice of God What sober minded man then will not ac. and that each man goes to everlasting punish knowledge that we are not atheists worshipping. ment or salvation according to the value of his as we do the Maker of this universe and declar. actions For if all men knew this no one ing as we have been taught that He has no need. would choose wickedness even for a little know of streams of blood and libations and incense. ing that he goes to the everlasting punishment whom we praise to the utmost of our power by. of fire but would by all means restrain himself the exercise of prayer and thanksgiving for all. and adorn himself with virtue that he might ob things wherewith we are supplied as we have. tain the good gifts of God and escape the pun been taught that the only honour that is worthy. ishments For those who on account of the of Him is not to consume by fire what He has. laws and punishments you impose endeavour to brought into being for our sustenance but to use. escape detection when they,offend and they it and those who need and with. for ourselves, offend too under the impression that it is quite gratitude to Him to offer thanks by invocations. possible to escape your detection since you are and hymns for our creation and for all the means. but men those persons if they learned and of health and for the various qualities of the. were convinced that nothing whether actually different kinds of things and for the changes of. done or only intended can escape the knowledge the seasons and to present before Him peti. of God would by all means live decently on ac tions for our existing again in incorruption. count of the penalties threatened as even you through faith in Him Our teacher of these. yourselves will admit But you seem to fear lest things is Jesus Christ who also was born for this. all men become righteous and you no longer purpose and was crucified under Pontius Pilate. have any to punish Such would be the concern procurator of Judoea in the times of Tiberius. of public executioners but not of good princes CcTesar and that we reasonably worship Him. But as we before said we are persuaded that having learned that He is the Son of the true. these things are prompted by evil spirits who,demand sacrifices and service even from those I. TTOMTa Kol vfjivov Grabe and it should seem correctly un. who live unreasonably but as for you we pre, derstands TTOiotTra to be solemn firayers He also remarlcs. sume that you who aim at a reputation for that the ufiTOi were either psalms of David or some of those psalms. and songs made by the primitive Christians wliich are mentioned in. piety and philosophy will do nothing unreason Eusebius H v 28 Trollope. THE FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN 167, God Himself and holding Him in the second to be cast into everlasting fire And Who. place and the prophetic Spirit in the third we soever shall marry her that is divorced from. will prove For they proclaim our madness to another husband committeth adultery And. consist in this that we give to a crucified man a,There are some who have been made eunuchs. place second to the unchangeable and eternal of men and some who were born eunuchs and. God the Creator of all for they do not discern some who have made themselves eunuchs for the. the mystery that is herein to which as we make kingdom of heaven s sake but all cannot re. it plain to you we pray you to give heed ceive this saying s So that all who by human. law are twice married are in the eye of our,CHAP XIV THE DEMONS MISREPRESENT CHRIS. Master sinners and those who look upon a, TIAN DOCl RINE woman to lust after her For not only he who. For we forewarn you be on your guard lest,to in act commits adultery is rejected by Him but. those demons whom we have been accusing also he who desires to commit adultery since. should deceive you and quite divert you from not only our works but also our thoughts are. reading and understanding what we say For open before God And many both men and. they strive to hold you their slaves and servants,women who have been Christ s disciples from. and sometimes by appearances in dreams and childhood remain pure at the age of sixty or. sometimes by magical impositions they subdue seventy years and I boast that I could produce. all who make no strong opposing effort for their such from every race of men For what shall I. own salvation And thus do we also since our say too of the countless multitude of those who. persuasion by the Word stand aloof from them have reformed intemperate habits and learned. i e the demons and follow the only unbegot these things For Christ called not the just nor. ten God through His Son, we who formerly de the chaste to repentance but the ungodly and. lighted in fornication but now embrace chastity the licentious and the unjust His words being. alone we who formerly used magical arts dedi I came not to call the righteous but sinners to. cate ourselves to the good and unbegotten God,repentance 7 For the heavenly Father desires. we who valued above all things the acquisition of rather the repentance than the punishment of. wealth and possessions now bring what we have the sinner And of our love to all He taught. into a common stock and communicate to every thus If ye love them that love you what new. one in need we who hated and destroyed one,thing do ye for even fornicators do this But. another and on account of their different man I say unto you Pray for your enemies and love. ners would not live with men of a different,them that hate you and bless them that curse. tribe now since the coming of Christ live famil you and pray for them that despitefully use. iarly with them and pray for our enemies and you And that we should communicate to the. endeavour to persuade those who hate us unjustly needy and do nothing for glory He said Give. to live comformably to the good precepts of to him and from him that would. that asketh, Christ to the end that they may become par borrow turn not away for if ye lend to them ot. takers with us of the same joyful hope of a re whom ye hope to receive what new thing do ye. ward from God the ruler of all But lest we even the publicans do this Lay not up for. should seem to be reasoning sophistically we yourselves treasure upon earth where moth and. consider it right before giving you the prom rust doth corrupt and where robbers break. ised explanation to cite a few precepts given through but lay up for yourselves treasure in. by Christ Himself And be it yours as powerful heaven where neither moth nor rust doth cor. rulers to inquire whether we have been taught rupt For what is a man profited if he shall. and do teach these things truly Brief and con gain the whole world and lose his own soul. cise utterances fell from Him for He was no or what shall a man give in exchange for it. sophist but His word was the power of God Lay up treasure therefore in heaven where. neither moth nor rust doth corrupt,CHAP XV WHAT CHRIST HIMSELF TAUGHT. Be ye kind and merciful as your Father also is, Concerning chastity He uttered such senti kind and merciful and maketh His sun to rise. ments as these Whosoever looketh upon a,on sinners and the righteous and the wicked. woman to lust after her hath committed adul, tery with her already in his heart before God Matt V 28 29 32. And If thy right eye offend thee cut it out s Matt XIX 12. b Siya iiia 77oioii iiei oi lit contracting a double marriage Of. for it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom double marriages there are three kinds the first marriage with a. of heaven with one eye than having two eyes second wife while the first is still alive and recognised as a lawful. wife or bigamy the second marn iye with a second wife after di. vorce from the first and third marriage with a second wife after the. Literally would not use the same hearth or fire death of the first It is thought tli it Justin here refers to the second. Sec thecntl of c h n xii ca se, 3 The reader will notice that Justin quotes from memory so that 7 Matt ix 13. there are some sliyht discrepancies between the words of Jesus as 8 Matt V 46 44 Luke vi 28. here cited and the same sayings as recorded in our Gospels 9 Luke vi 30 34 Matt vi 19 xvi 26 vi 20. 1 68 THE FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN, Take no thought what ye shall eat or what ye Christ for not those who make profession but. shall i ut on are ye not better than the birds and those who do the works shall be saved accord. the beasts And iod feedeth them Take no ing to His word Not every one who saith to. thought therefore what ye shall eat or what ye Me Lord Lord shall enter into the kingdom of. shall put on for your heavenly Father knoweth heaven but he that doeth the will of My Father. that ye have need of these things But seek ye which is in heaven For whosoever heareth Me. the kingdom of heaven and all these things and doeth My sayings heareth Him that sent. shall be added unto you For where his treasure Me And many will say unto Me Lord Lord. is there also is the mind of a man And,have we not eaten and drunk in Thy name and. Do not these things to be seen of men other done wonders And then will I say unto them. wise ye have no reward from your Father which Depart from Me ye workers of iniquity Then. is in heaven shall there be wailing and gnashing of teeth. CHAP XVI CONCERNING,PATIENCE AND SWEAR the wicked are. the righteous shall shine as the sun,sent into everlasting fire For. many shall come in My name clothed outwardly, And concerning our being patient of injuries in sheep s clothing but inwardly being ravening. and ready to serve all and free from anger this wolves By their works ye shall know them. is what He said To him that smiteth thee on And every tree that bringeth not forth good. the one cheek offer also the other and him that fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire. taketh away thy cloak or coat forbid not And And as to those who are not living pursuant to. whosoever shall be angry is in danger of the these His teachings and are Christians only in. fire And every one that compelleth thee to go name we demand that all such be punished by. with him a mile follow him two And let your you,good works shine before men that they seeing. CHAP XVII CHRIST TAUGHT CIVIL OBEDIENCE,them may your Father which is in. heaven For we ought not to strive neither And everywhere we more readily than all. has He desired us to be imitators of wicked men endeavour to pay to those appointed by. men but He has exhorted us to lead all men you the taxes both ordinary and extraordinary. by patience and gentleness from shame and the as we have been taught by Him for at that. love of evil And this indeed is proved in the time some came to Him and asked Him if one. case of many who once were of your way of ought to pay tribute to Caesar and He an. thinking but have changed their violent and swered Tell Me whose image does the coin. tyrannical disposition being overcome either by bear And they said Caesar s And again. the constancy which they have witnessed in their He answered them Render therefore to Caesar. neighbours lives or by the extraordinary forbear the things that are Caesar s and to God the. ance they have observed in their fellow travellers things that are God s Whence to God alone. when defrauded or by the honesty of those with we render worship but in other things we gladly. whom they have transacted business you acknowledging you as kings and. And with regard to our not swearing at all and rulers of men and praying that with your kingly. always speaking the truth He enjoined as fol power you be found to possess also sound judg. lows Swear not at all,but let your yea be,ment But if you pay no regard to our prayers. yea and your nay nay for whatsoever is more and frank explanations we shall suffer no loss. than these cometh of evil And that we ought since we believe or rather indeed are per. to worship God alone He thus persuaded us suaded that every man will suffer punishment in. The greatest commandment is Thou shalt wor eternal fire according to the merit of his deed. ship the Lord thy God and Him only shalt thou and will render account according to the power. serve with all thy heart and with all thy strength he has received from God as Christ intimated. the Lord God that made thee And when a when He said To whom God has given more. certain man came to Him and said Good of him shall more be required. Master He answered and said There is none,good but God only who made all things CHAP XVIII. PROOF OF IMMORTALITY AND THE,RESURRECTION,And let those who are not found living as He. taught be understood to be no Christians even For reflect upon the end of each of the pre. though they profess with the lip the precepts of ceding kings how they died the death common. to all which if it issued in insensibility would,Luke vi 36 Matt v 45 vi 25 26 33 21. 2 Matt vi I 8 Matt vii 21 etc Luke xiii 26 Matt xiii 42 vii 15 16 19. 3 Luke vi 29 Matt vi 22 41 16 9 opou Ka eicr opas The former the annual tribute the. i e Christian neighbours latter any occasional assessment See Otto s Note and Thucyd iii. 5 Matt V 34 27,6 Mark xii 30 Matt xxu 17 19 20 21,1 Matt xix 6 17 Luke xii 48. THE FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN 169,be a godsend to all the wicked. But since will dare to deny that such a statement would. sensation remains to all who have ever lived surpass belief In the same way then you are. and eternal punishment is laid up i e for the now incredulous because you have never seen a. wicked see that ye neglect not to be convinced dead man rise again But as at first you would. and to hold as your belief that these things arenot have believed it possible that such persons. true could be produced from the small drop and yet. P or let even necromancy and the divina, tions you practise by immaculate children and now you see them thus produced so also judge. the evoking of departed human souls and those ye that it is not impossible that the bodies of. who are called among the magi Dream senders men after they have been dissolved and like. and Assistant spirits Familiars and all that seeds resolved into earth should in God s ap. is done by those who are skilled in such matters pointed time rise again and put on incorruption. let these persuade you that even after death For what power worthy of God those imagine. souls are in a state of sensation and those who,who say that each thing returns to that from. are seized and cast about by the spirits of the which it was produced and that beyond this not. dead whom all call doemoniacs or madmen 5 even God Himself can do anything we are un. and what you repute as oracles both of Amphil able to conceive but this we see clearly that. ochus Dodana Pytho and as many other such they would not have believed it possible that. as exist and the opinions of your authors,they could have become such and produced from. Empedocles and Pythagoras Plato and Socrates such materials as they now see both themselves. and the pit of Horner and the descent of and the whole world to be And that it is better. Ulysses to inspect these things and all that hasto believe even what is impossible to our own. been uttered of a like kind Such favour as nature and to men than to be unbelieving like. you grant to these grant also to us who not less,the rest of the world we have learned for we. but more firmly than they believe in God since know that our Master Jesus Christ said that. we expect to receive again our own bodies what is impossible with men is possible with. though they be dead and cast into the earth for God and Fear not them that kill you and. we maintain that with God nothing is impossible after that can do no more but fear Him who. after dcatli is able to cast both soul and body, CHAP XIX THE RESURRECTION POSSIBLE into hell And hell is a place where those. And to any thoughtful person would anything are to be punished who have lived wickedly and. appear more incredible than if we were not in who do not believe that those things which God. the body and some one were to say that it was has taught us by Christ will come to pass. possible that from a small drop of human seed, bones and sinews and flesh be formed into a CHAP XX HEATHEN ANALOGIES TO CHRISTLAN. shape such as we see For let this now be said DOCTRINE. hypothetically if you yourselves were not such,And the Sibyl and Hystaspes said that there. as you now are and born of such parents and should be a dissolution by God of things corrupt. causes and one were to show you human seed ible And the philosophers called Stoics teach. and a picture of a man and were to say with that even God Himself shall be resolved into. confidence that from such a substance such a fire and they say that the world is to be formed. being could be produced would you believe be anew by this revolution but we understand that. fore you saw the actual production No one God the Creator of all things is superior to the. things that are to be changed If therefore on, epixaiov a piece of unlooked for luck Hermes being the re. puted giver of such gifts tiU Liddell and Scott s Lex see also the. some points we teach the same things as the, Scholiast quoted by Stallbaum in Plato s Phaed p 107 on a passage poets and philosophers whom you honour and. singularly analogous to this, 2 Hoys and girls or even children prematurely taken from the on other points are fuller and more divine in our. womb were slaughtered and their entrails inspected in the belief teaching and if we alone afford proof of what we. that the souls of the victims being still conscious as Justin is argu. ing would reveal things hidden and future Instances are abun assert why are we unjustly hated more than all. dantly cited by Otto and Trollope, 3 This form of spirit rapping was familiar to the ancients and. others For while we say that all things have, Justin again Dial c Trypk c los uses the invocation of Samuel been produced and arranged into a world by. by the witch of Endor as a proof of the immortality of the soul. Valesius on Euseb H E iv 7 states that the magi had two God we shall seem to utter the doctrine of. kinds of familiars the first who were sent to inspire men with. dreams which might give them intimations of things future and the. second who were sent to watch over men and protect them from 7 Matt xix 26. diseases and misfortunes The first he says they called as here 8 Matt X 28. oi etpoTTOuTTOu antl the second 7rape6pou9 9 The Sibylline Oracles are now generally regarded as heathen. 5 Justin is not the only author in ancient or recent times who has fragments largely interpolated by unscrupulous men during the early. classed dxmoniacs and maniacs together neither does he standalone ages of the Chtirch For an interesting account of these somewhat. among the ancients in the opinion that dxmoniacs were possessed by perplexing documents see Burton s Lectures on the Ecclesiastical. the spirits of departed men References will be found in Trollope s History of the First Three Centuries Lect xvii The prophecies. note See this matter more fully illustrated in Kaye s Justin Mar of Hystaspes were also commonly appealed to as genuine by the early. O IJP 105 111 Christians See on the Sibyls and Justin M Casaubon Exerci. See the Odyssey book xi line 25 where Ulysses is described tntiones pp 65 and 80 This work is a most learned and diversified. as digging a pit or trench with his sword and pouung libations in thesaurus in the form of strictures on Card Barooius Geneva. order to collect around him the souls of the dead 1663. I O THE FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN, Plato and while we say there will be a that and those many women whom he had violated. burning up of all we, seem to utter the shall and that his sons did like actions But as we. doctrine of the Stoics and while we affirm that,said above wicked devils i crpetratcd these. the souls of the wicked being endowed with things And we have learned that those only. sensation even after death are punished and are deified who have lived near to God in holi. that those of the good being delivered from ness and virtue and we believe that those who. l unishtuent spend a blessed existence we shall live wickedly and do not repent are punished in. seem to say the same things as the poets and everlasting fire. philosophers and while we maintain that men,ANALOGIES TO THE SONSHIP OF. ought not to worship the works of their hands CHAP XXII. we say the very things which have been said by, the comic poet Menander and other similar Moreover the Son of God called Jesus even. writers for they have declared that the workman if only a man by ordinary generation yet on. is greater than the work account of His wisdom is worthy to be called. the Son of God for all writers call God the,CHAP XXI ANALOGIES TO THE. OF Father of men and gods And if we assert,the Word of God was born of God in a peculiar. And when we say also that the Word who is manner different from ordinary generation let. the first birth of God was produced without this as said above be no extraordinary thing to. sexual union and that He Jesus Christ our you who say that Mercury is the angelic word. Teacher was crucified and died and rose again of God But if any one objects that He was. and ascended into heaven we propound nothing crucified in this also He is on a par with those. different from what you believe regarding those reputed sons of Jupiter of yours who suffered as. whom you esteem sons of Jupiter For you we have now enumerated For their sufferings. know how many sons your esteemed writers at death are recorded to have been not all alike. ascribed to Jupiter Mercury the interpreting but diverse so that not even by the peculiarity. word and teacher of all sculapius who though of His sufferings does He seem to be inferior to. he was a great physician was struck by a thunder them but on the contrary as we promised in. bolt and so ascended to heaven and Bacchus the preceding part of this discourse we will now. too after he had been torn limb from limb and prove Him superior or rather have already. Hercules when he had committed himself to the proved Him to be so for the superior is re. flames to escape his toils and the sons of Leda vealed by His actions And if we even affirm. and Dioscuri and Perseus son of Danae and that He was born of a virgin accept this in com. Bellerophon who though sprung from mortals mon with what you accept of Perseus And in. rose to heaven on the horse Pegasus For what that we say that He made whole the lame the. shall I say of Ariadne and those who like her paralytic and those born blind we seem to say. have been declared to be set among the stars what is very similar to the deeds said to have. And what of the emperors who die among your been done by Esculapius. selves whom you deem worthy of deification, and in whose behalf you produce some one who CHAP XXIII THE ARGUMENT. swears he has seen the burning Caesar rise to And that this may now become evident to. heaven from the funeral pyre And what kind you,firstly that whatever we assert in con. of deeds are recorded of each of these reputed formity with what has been taught us by Christ. sons of Jupiter it is needless to tell to those who and by the prophets who preceded Him are. already know This only shall be said that they alone true and are older than all the writers. are written for the advantage and encouragement who have existed that we claim to be acknowl. of youthful scholars for all reckon, it an honour edged not because we say the same things as. able thing to imitate the gods But far be such these writers said but because we say true. a thought concerning the gods from every well things and secondly that Jesus Christ is the. conditioned soul as to believe that Jupiter him only proper Son who has been begotten by God. self the governor and creator of all things was being His Word and first begotten and power. both a parricide and the son of a parricide and and becoming man according to His will He. that being overcome by the love of base and, shameful pleasures he came in to Ganymede 3 The Benedictine editor Maranus Otto and Trollope here note. that Justin in this chapter promises to make good three distinct posi. tions ist That Christian doctrines alone are true and are to be re. ceived not on account of their resemblance to the sentiments of poets. i e first born or philosophers but on their own account 2d that Jesus Christ is. 2 ia t opai cai TrpoTpOTriji The irony here is so obvious as to the incarnate Son of God and our teacher 3d that before His incar. make the proposed reading Siaifrflopai xal TraparpoTriji corruption nation the demons having some knowledge of what He would ac. and depravation unnecessary Otto prefers the reading adopted complish enabled the heathen poets and priests in some points to. above I rollope on the other hand inclines to the latter reading anticipate though in a distorted form the facts of the incarnation. mainly on the score of the former expressions being unusual See his The first he establishes in chap xxiv xxix the second in chap. very sensible note in loc xxx liii and the third in chap liv et sq. THE FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN 171, taught us these things for tlie conversion and this account 3 that her son Achilles should de. restoration of the human race and thirdly stroy many of the Greeks because of his concu. that before He became a man among men bine Briseis Those who believe these things. some influenced by the demons before men we pity and those who invented them we know. tioned related beforehand through the instru to be devils. mentahty of the poets those circumstances as,CHAP XXVI MAGICIANS NOT TRUSTED BY CHRIS. having really happened which having fictitiously,devised they narrated in the same manner as. they have caused to be fabricated the scandal And thirdly because after Christ s ascension. ous reports against us of infamous and impious into heaven the devils put forward certain men. actions of which there is neither witness nor who said that they themselves were gods and. we shall bring forward the following they were not only not persecuted Ijy you but. proof even deemed worthy of honours There was a,Samaritan Simon a native of the village called. CHAP XXIV VARIETIES OF HEATHEN WORSHIP Gitto who in the reign of Claudius Caesar and. In the first place we furnish proof because in your royal city of Rome did mighty acts of. though we say things similar to what the Greeks magic by virtue of the art of the devils operat. say we only are hated on account of the name ing in him He was considered a god and as. of Christ and though we do no wrong are put a god was honoured by you with a statue which. to death as sinners other men in other places statue was erected on the river Tiber between. worshipping trees and rivers and mice and cats the two bridges and bore this inscription in the. and crocodiles and many irrational animals language of Rome. Nor same animals esteemed by all but,are the Simoni Deo Sancto. in one place one is worshipped and another in To Simon the holy God. another so that all are profane in the judgment,And almost all the Samaritans and a few even. of one another on account of their not worship,of other nations worship him and acknowledge. ping the same objects And this is the sole ac him as the first god and a woman Helena who. cusation you bring against us that we do not,went about with him at that time and had for. reverence the same gods as you do nor offer to merly been a prostitute they say is the first idea. the dead libations and the savour of fat and,generated by him And a man Meander also. crowns for their statues and sacrifices For a Samaritan of the town Capparetaea a disciple. you very well know that the same animals are of Simon and inspired by devils we know to. with some esteemed gods with others wild,have deceived many while he was in Antioch by. beasts and with others sacrificial victims,his magical art He persuaded those who ad. CHAP XXV FALSE GODS ABANDONED BY CHRIS hered to him that they should never die and. TIANS even now there are some living who hold this. And there is Marcion a man of,And secondly because we who out of opinion of his. Pontus who is even at this day alive and teach,every race of men used to worship Bacchus the. ing his disciples to believe in some other god,son of Semele and Apollo the son of Latona. greater than the Oeator And he by the aid, who in their loves with men did such things as of the devils has caused many of every nation. it is shameful even to mention and Proserpine,to speak blasphemies and to deny that God is. and Venus who were maddened with love of,the maker of this universe and to assert that. Adonis and whose mysteries also you cele,some other being greater than He has done. brate or sculapius or some one or other of,All who take their opinions from. those who are called gods,have now through,greater works. these men are as we before said 5 called Chris,Jesus Christ learned to despise these though. tians just as also those who do not agree with,we be threatened with death for it and have. dedicated ourselves to the unbegotten and im, 3 i e on account of the assistance gained for him by Thetis and. passible God of whom we are persuaded that,in return for it. It is very generally supposed that Justin was mistaken in under. never was he goaded by lust of Antiope or such, standing this to have been a statue erected to Simon Magus This. other women or of Ganymede nor was rescued supposition rests on the fact that in the year 1574 there was dug up. in the island of the Tiber a fragment of marble with the inscription. by that hvmdred handcd giant whose aid was Setnoni Sanco Deo etc being probably the base of a statue. obtained through Thetis nor was anxious on erected to the Sabine deity Semo Sancus This inscription Justin is. supposed to have mistaken for the one he gives above This has. always seemed to us very slight evidence on which to reject so pre. cise a statement as Justm here makes a statement which he would. We h ive here followed the rendin and rendering of Trollope scarcely have hazarded in an apology addressed to Rome where. Kilt see reading of Langus and Grabe s note in the edition already every person had the means of ascertaining its accuracy If as is. cited I 46 supposed he made a mistake it must have been at once exposed and. ev yi a l ai TTe j avov The only conjectnrc which seems at other writers would not have so frequently repeated the storj as they. all probable is that of the Benedictine editor followed here Grabe have done See Burton s Baiiiptoii Lectures p 374 See Note. alter Salmasius reads i pa ais and quotes Martial SuOYii afiie ur in Grabe i 51 and also mine at end. rosa criniius Translate patch work garlands S See chap vii. 172 THE FIRST APOLOGY OF JUSTIN, the philosophers in their doctrines have yet in is His regard for the human race For He fore. common with them the name of philosophers knows that some are to be saved by repentance. given to them And whether they perpetrate some even that are perhaps not yet born t. those fabulous and shameful deeds the up the beginning He made the human race with the. setting of the lamp and promiscuous intercourse power of thought and of choosing the truth and. and eating human flesh, we know not but we doing right so that all men are without excuse. do know that they are neither jjersecuted nor before God. have been born rational, put to death by you at least on account of their and contemplative And. if any one disbelieves, opinions But I have a treatise against all the that God cares for these things 5 he will thereby. heresies that have existed already composed either insinuate that iod does not exist or he. which if you wish to read it I will give you will assert that though He exists He delights in. CHAP XXVII,GUILT OF EXPOSING CHILDREN,vice or exists like a stone and that neither. virtue nor vice are anything but only in the, But as for us we have been taught that to ex opinion of men these things are reckoned good. pose newly born children is the part of wicked or evil And this is the greatest profanity and. men and this we have been taught lest we wickedness. should do any one an injury and lest we should,sin against God first because we see that almost. CHAP XXIX CONTINENCE OF CHRISTIANS, all so exposed not only the girls but also the And again we fear to expose children lest. males are brought up to prostitution And as some of them be not icked up but die and we. the ancients are said to have reared herds of become murderers But whether we marry it is. oxen or goats or sheep or grazing horses so now only that we may bring up children or whether. we see you rear children only for this shameful we decline marriage we live continently And. use and for this pollution a multitude of females that you may understand that promiscuous inter. and hermaphrodites and those who commit un course is not one of our mysteries one of our. mentionable inicjuities are found in every nation number a short time ago presented to Felix the. And you receive the hire of these and duty and governor in Alexandria a petition craving that. taxes from them whom you ought to extermi permission might be given to a surgeon to make. nate from our realm And any one who uses him an eunuch For the surgeons there said that. such persons besides the godless and infamous they were forbidden to do this without the permis. and impure intercourse may possibly be having sion of the governor And when Felix absolutely. intercourse with his own child or relative or refused to sign such a permission the youth re. brother And there are some who prostitute mained single and was satisfied with his own. even their own children and wives and some are approving conscience and the approval of those. openly mutilated for the pm pose of sodomy who thought as he did And it is not out of. and they refer these mysteries to the mother of place we think to mention here Antinous who. the gods and along with each of those whom was alive but lately and whom all were prompt. you esteem gods there is painted a serpent a through fear to worship as a god though they. great symbol and mystery Indeed the things knew both who he wa s and what was his origin. which you do openly and with applause as if,the divine light were overturned and extin. CHAP XXX WAS CHRIST NOT A JNIAGICIAN, guished these you lay to our charge which in But lest any one should meet us with the ques. truth does no harm to us who shrink from doing tion What should prevent that He whom we call. any such things but only to those who do them Christ being a man born of men performed. and bear false witness against us what we call His mighty works by magical art. and by this appeared to be the Son of God we,CHAP XXVIII god s care FOR MEN. will now offer proof not trusting mere assertions, For among us the prince of the wicked spirits but being of necessity persuaded by those who. is called the serpent and Satan and the devil as prophesied of Him before these things came. you can learn by looking into our writings And to pass for with our own eyes we behold things. that he would be sent into the fire with his host that have happened and are happening just as. and the men who follow him and would be pun, Literally For He foreknows some about to be saved by repent. ished for an endless duration Christ foretold ance and some not yet perhaps born. 5 Those things which concern the salvation of man so Trollope. For the reason why God has delayed to do this,and the other interpreters except Otto who reads. TovToir mascu, line and understands it of the men first spoken of See Plato V. Which were commonly charged against the Christians. Legibits opp ix p 98 Bipont 1786 and the valuable edition of. Thirlby remarks that the serpent was the symbol specially of. Hook X by Professor Tayler Lewis p 52 etc New Vork 1845. eternity of power and of wisdom and that there was scarcely any For a sufficient account of the infamous history here alluded to. divine attribute to which the heathen did not find some likeness in and the extravagant grief of Hadrian and the servility of the people. this animal See also Hardwick s Christ and other Masters vol see Smith s Dictionary of liiography Antinous Note all. ji 146 2d ed were prompt throng fear etc Thus we may measure the defiant. Note how he retaliates upon the calumny cap xxvi of the intrepidity of this stinging sarcasm addressed to the philosophers. upsetting of the lamp with whose sounding titles this Apology begins.
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4 114 Preface 115 116 This edition of Services for the Ordering of Ministry in The United Methodist 117 Church marks a significant evolution in the development of our ordinal. 118 119 For some years, there have been requests to provide an alternative version of the 120 ordination service.
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In crochet, you can make many items easily and with extraordinary results. Crochet has four basic stitches: Chain st Single crochet Slip st Double crochet Combining these stitches you can work simple or more difficult patterns with surprising effects. Many different combinations can be made in crochet using fine thread to bulky yarns.
Stage 2: Collecting and Synthesizing the Information Overview Key participants in Stage 2 include: Team leaders and the team members they have recruited to serve on the various Self-Assessment teams. In this stage: Team members engage in the collection of information and data to assess if the program is meeting the Head Start Performance ...
o Detector signal must be amplified to allow further processing and readout o Optimal interface to detector o Minimize noise o Minimal coupling to neighboring channels - crosstalk o Sufficient gain and linearity o Sufficiently fast according to the particle rate in a given experiment (pile-up, spill-over) o Drive next stages of analog processing