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subjectively as listlessness moroseness and depression One no longer has any wish or. courage to face the tasks of the day One feels like lead because no part of one s body. seems willing to move and this is due to the fact that one no longer has any disposable. energy The listlessness and paralysis of will can go so far that the whole personality. falls apart so to speak and consciousness loses its unity. Abaissement du niveau mental can be the result of physical and mental fatigue bodily. illness violent emotions and shock of which the last has a particularly deleterious effect. on one s self assurance The abaissement always has a restrictive influence on the. personality as a whole It reduces one s self confidence and the spirit of enterprise and. as a result of increasing egocentricity narrows the mental horizon Concerning Rebirth CW. 9i pars 213f, Abreaction A method of becoming conscious of repressed emotional reactions through. the retelling and reliving of a traumatic experience See also cathartic method. After some initial interest in trauma theory Jung abandoned abreaction together with. suggestion as an effective tool in the therapy of neurosis. I soon discovered that though traumata of clearly aetiological significance were. occasionally present the majority of them appeared very improbable Many traumata. were so unimportant even so normal that they could be regarded at most as a pretext for. the neurosis But what especially aroused my criticism was the fact that not a few. traumata were simply inventions of fantasy and had never happened at all I could no. longer imagine that repeated experiences of a fantastically exaggerated or entirely. fictitious trauma had a different therapeutic value from a suggestion procedure Some. Crucial Points in Psychoanalysis CW 4 par 582, The belief the self confidence perhaps also the devotion with which the analyst does his. work are far more important to the patient imponderabilia though they may be than the. rehearsing of old traumata Ibid par 584, Abstraction A form of mental activity by which a conscious content is freed from its. association with irrelevant elements similar to the process of differentiation Compare. Abstraction is an activity pertaining to the psychological functions in general There is an. abstract thinking just as there is abstract feeling sensation and intuition Abstract. thinking singles out the rational logical qualities of a given content from its intellectually. irrelevant components Abstract feeling does the same with a content characterized by its. feeling values Abstract sensation would be aesthetic as opposed to sensuous. sensation and abstract intuition would be symbolic as opposed to fantastic. intuition Definitions CW 6 par 678, Jung related abstraction to introversion analogous to empathy and extraversion. I visualize the process of abstraction as a withdrawal of libido from the object as a. backflow of value from the object into a subjective abstract content For me therefore. abstraction amounts to an energic devaluation of the object In other words abstraction is. an introverting movement of libido Ibid par 679, To the extent that its purpose is to break the object s hold on the subject abstraction is an.
attempt to rise above the primitive state of participation mystique. Active imagination A method of assimilating unconscious contents dreams fantasies. etc through some form of self expression See also transcendent function. The object of active imagination is to give a voice to sides of the personality particularly. the anima animus and the shadow that are normally not heard thereby establishing a line. of communication between consciousness and the unconscious Even when the end. products drawing painting writing sculpture dance music etc are not interpreted. something goes on between creator and creation that contributes to a transformation of. consciousness, The first stage of active imagination is like dreaming with open eyes It can take place. spontaneously or be artificially induced, In the latter case you choose a dream or some other fantasy image and concentrate on it. by simply catching hold of it and looking at it You can also use a bad mood as a starting. point and then try to find out what sort of fantasy image it will produce or what image. expresses this mood You then fix this image in the mind by concentrating your attention. Usually it will alter as the mere fact of contemplating it animates it The alterations must. be carefully noted down all the time for they reflect the psychic processes in the. unconscious background which appear in the form of images consisting of conscious. memory material In this way conscious and unconscious are united just as a waterfall. connects above and below The Conjunction CW 14 par 706. The second stage beyond simply observing the images involves a conscious. participation in them the honest evaluation of what they mean about oneself and a. morally and intellectually binding commitment to act on the insights This is a transition. from a merely perceptive or aesthetic attitude to one of judgment. Although to a certain extent he looks on from outside impartially he is also an acting. and suffering figure in the drama of the psyche This recognition is absolutely necessary. and marks an important advance So long as he simply looks at the pictures he is like the. foolish Parsifal who forgot to ask the vital question because he was not aware of his own. participation in the action An allusion to the medieval Grail legend The question. Parsifal failed to ask was Whom does the Grail serve But if you recognize your. own involvement you yourself must enter into the process with your personal reactions. just as if you were one of the fantasy figures or rather as if the drama being enacted. before your eyes were real The Conjunction CW 14 par 753. The judging attitude implies a voluntary involvement in those fantasy processes which. compensate the individual and in particular the collective situation of consciousness The. avowed purpose of this involvement is to integrate the statements of the unconscious to. assimilate their compensatory content and thereby produce a whole meaning which alone. makes life worth living and for not a few people possible at all Ibid par 756. Adaptation The process of coming to terms with the external world on the one hand. and with one s own unique psychological characteristics on the other See also. Before individuation can be taken as a goal the educational aim of adaptation to the. necessary minimum of collective norms must first be attained If a plant is to unfold its. specific nature to the full it must first be able to grow in the soil in which it is. planted Definitions CW 6 par 761, The constant flow of life again and again demands fresh adaptation Adaptation is never. achieved once and for all The Transcendent Function CW 8 par 143. Man is not a machine in the sense that he can consistently maintain the same output of. work He can meet the demands of outer necessity in an ideal way only if he is also. adapted to his own inner world that is if he is in harmony with himself Conversely he. can only adapt to his inner world and achieve harmony with himself when he is adapted. to the environmental conditions On Psychic Energy ibid par 75. The transition from child to adult initially entails an increasing adaptation to the outer. world When the libido meets an obstacle to progression there is an accumulation of. energy that normally gives rise to increased efforts to overcome the obstacle But if the. obstacle proves insurmountable the stored up energy regresses to an earlier mode of. adaptation This in turn activates infantile fantasies and wishes and necessitates the need. to adapt to the inner world, The best examples of such regressions are found in hysterical cases where a in 4love or. marriage has precipitated a neurosis There we find those well known digestive disorders. loss of appetite dyspeptic symptoms of all sorts etc typically accompanied by a. regressive revival of reminiscences from the distant past We then find a reactivation of. the parental imagos of the Oedipus complex Here the events of early infancy never. before important suddenly become so They have been regressively reactivated Remove. the obstacle from the path of life and this whole system of infantile fantasies at once. breaks down and becomes as inactive and ineffective as before Psychoanalysis and. Neurosis CW4 par 569, In his model of typology Jung described two substantially different modes of adaptation.
introversion and extraversion He also linked failures in adaptation to the outbreak of. The psychological trouble in neurosis and the neurosis itself can be formulated as an act. of adaptation that has failed Ibid par 574 italics in original. Affect Emotional reactions marked by physical symptoms and disturbances in thinking. See also complex and feeling, Affect is invariably a sign that a complex has been activated. Affects occur usually where adaptation is weakest and at the same time they reveal the. reason for its weakness namely a certain degree of inferiority and the existence of a. lower level of personality On this lower level with its uncontrolled or scarcely controlled. emotions one is singularly incapable of moral judgment The Shadow Aion CW 9ii. Ambivalence A state of mind where every attitude or anticipated course of action is. counterbalanced by its opposite See also conflict and opposites. Ambivalence is associated in general with the influence of unconscious complexes and. in particular with the psychological functions when they have not been differentiated. Amplification A method of association based on the comparative study of mythology. religion and fairy tales used in the interpretation of images in dreams and drawings. Analysis Jungian A form of therapy specializing in neurosis aimed at bringing. unconscious contents to consciousness also called analytic therapy based on the school. of thought developed by C G Jung called analytical or complex psychology. Analysis is only a means for removing the stones from the path of development and not. a method of putting things into the patient that were not there before It is better to. renounce any attempt to give direction and simply try to throw into relief everything that. the analysis brings to light so that the patient can see it clearly and be able to draw. suitable conclusions Anything he has not acquired himself he will not believe in the long. run and what he takes over from authority merely keeps him infantile He should rather. be put in a position to take his own life in hand The art of analysis lies in following the. patient on all his erring ways and so gathering his strayed sheep together Some Crucial. Points in Psychoanalysis CW 4 par 643, There is a widespread prejudice that analysis is something like a cure to which one. submits for a time and is then discharged healed That is a layman s error left over from. the early days of psychoanalysis Analytical treatment could be described as a. readjustment of psychological attitude achieved with the help of the doctor But. there is no change that is unconditionally valid over a long period of time The Transcendent. Function CW 8 par 142, Jung initially made a distinction between analysis of the unconscious Jung deliberately. used this expression instead of psychoanalysis I wish to leave that term entirely to the. Freudians What they understand by psychoanalysis is no mere technique but a method. which is dogmatically bound up with and based upon Freud s sexual theory When Freud. publicly declared that psychoanalysis and his sexual theory were indissolubly wedded I. was obliged to strike out on a different path Analytical Psychology and Education CW 17. par 180 and anamnestic analysis, The latter is concerned primarily with contents of consciousness already available or. easily brought to mind and with supporting or strengthening the ego The unconscious is. a factor only indirectly It consists in a careful anamnesis or reconstruction of the. historical development of the neurosis The material elicited in this way is a more or less. coherent sequence of facts told to the doctor by the patient so far as he can remember. them He naturally omits many details which either seem unimportant to him or which he. has forgotten The experienced analyst who knows the usual course of neurotic. development will put questions which help the patient to fill in some of the gaps Very. often this procedure by itself is of great therapeutic value as it enables the patient to. understand the chief factors of his neurosis and may eventually bring him to a decisive. change of attitude Analytical Psychology and Education ibid par 177. In addition to the favourable effect produced by the realization of previously unconscious. connections it is usual for the doctor to give some good advice or encouragement or. even a reproof Ibid par 178, Analysis of the unconscious begins when conscious material has been exhausted and.
there is still no satisfactory resolution of the neurosis it requires an ego strong enough to. deal directly with unconscious material particularly dreams Jung believed that analysis. in this sense was particularly suited to psychological problems in the second half of life. but even then he expressed caution, Consistent support of the conscious attitude has in itself a high therapeutic value and not. infrequently serves to bring about satisfactory results It would be a dangerous prejudice. to imagine that analysis of the unconscious is the one and only panacea which should. therefore be employed in every case It is rather like a surgical operation and we should. only resort to the knife when other methods have failed So long as it does not obtrude. itself the unconscious is best left alone The Psychology of the Transference CW 16 par 381. In his analytic work Jung shunned diagnosis and prognosis He used no systematic. technique or method His aim was to approach each case with a minimum of prior. assumptions although he acknowledged that the personality and psychological. disposition of the analyst made complete objectivity impossible. The ideal would naturally be to have no assumptions at all But this is impossible even if. one exercises the most rigorous self criticism for one is oneself the biggest of all one s. assumptions and the one with the gravest consequences Try as we may to have no. assumptions and to use no ready made methods the assumption that I myself am will. determine my method as I am so will I proceed Appendix ibid par 543. Jung also insisted that those training to be analysts must have a thorough personal. We have learned to place in the foreground the personality of the doctor himself as a. curative or harmful factor what is now demanded is his own transformation the self. education of the educator The doctor can no longer evade his own difficulty by. treating the difficulties of others the man who suffers from a running abscess is not fit to. perform a surgical operation Problems of Modern Psychotherapy ibid par 172. Anima The inner feminine side of a man See also animus Eros Logos and soul. The anima is both a personal complex and an archetypal image of woman in the male. psyche It is an unconscious factor incarnated anew in every male child and is. responsible for the mechanism of projection Initially identified with the personal mother. the anima is later experienced not only in other women but as a pervasive influence in a. man s life, The anima is the archetype of life itself Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious CW 9i par. There is in man an imago not only of the mother but of the daughter the sister the. beloved the heavenly goddess and the chthonic Baubo Every mother and every beloved. is forced to become the carrier and embodiment of this omnipresent and ageless image. which corresponds to the deepest reality in a man It belongs to him this perilous image. of Woman she stands for the loyalty which in the interests of life he must sometimes. forego she is the much needed compensation for the risks struggles sacrifices that all. end in disappointment she is the solace for all the bitterness of life And at the same. time she is the great illusionist the seductress who draws him into life with her Maya. and not only into life s reasonable and useful aspects but into its frightful paradoxes and. ambivalences where good and evil success and ruin hope and despair counterbalance. one another Because she is his greatest danger she demands from a man his greatest and. if he has it in him she will receive it The Syzygy Anima and Animus CW 9ii par 24. The anima is personified in dreams by images of women ranging from seductress to. spiritual guide It is associated with the eros principle hence a man s anima development. is reflected in how he relates to women Within his own psyche the anima functions as. his soul influencing his ideas attitudes and emotions. The anima is not the soul in the dogmatic sense not an anima rationalis which is a. philosophical conception but a natural archetype that satisfactorily sums up all the. statements of the unconscious of the primitive mind of the history of language and. religion It is always the a priori element in a man s moods reactions impulses and. whatever else is spontaneous in psychic life Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious CW 9i. The anima intensifies exaggerates falsifies and mythologizes all emotional. relations with his work and with other people of both sexes The resultant fantasies and. entanglements are all her doing When the anima is strongly constellated she softens the. man s character and makes him touchy irritable moody jealous vain and. unadjusted Concerning the Archetypes and the Anima Concept ibid par 144. As an inner personality the anima is complementary to the persona and stands in a. compensatory relationship to it, The persona the ideal picture of a man as he should be is inwardly compensated by. feminine weakness and as the individual outwardly plays the strong man so he becomes. inwardly a woman i e the anima for it is the anima that reacts to the persona But. because the inner world is dark and invisible and because a man is all the less capable. of conceiving his weaknesses the more he is identified with the persona the persona s. counterpart the anima remains completely in the dark and is at once projected so that. our hero comes under the heel of his wife s slipper Anima and Animus CW 7 par 309. Hence the character of the anima can generally be deduced from that of the persona all. those qualities absent from the outer attitude will be found in the inner. The tyrant tormented by bad dreams gloomy forebodings and inner fears is a typical. figure Outwardly ruthless harsh and unapproachable he jumps inwardly at every. shadow is at the mercy of every mood as though he were the feeblest and most. impressionable of men Thus his anima contains all those fallible human qualities his. persona lacks If the persona is intellectual the anima will certainly be. sentimental Definitions CW 6 par 804, Similarly where a man identifies with the persona he is in effect possessed by the anima. with attendant symptoms, Identity with the persona automatically leads to an unconscious identity with the anima.
because when the ego is not differentiated from the persona it can have no conscious. relation to the unconscious processes Consequently it is these processes it is identical. with them Anyone who is himself his outward role will infallibly succumb to the inner. processes he will either frustrate his outward role by absolute inner necessity or else. reduce it to absurdity by a process of enantiodromia He can no longer keep to his. individual way and his life runs into one deadlock after another Moreover the anima is. inevitably projected upon a real object with which he gets into a relation of almost total. dependence Ibid par 807, Jung distinguished four broad stages of the anima analogous to levels of the Eros cult. described in the late classical period He personified them as Eve Helen Mary and. Sophia The Psychology of the Transference CW 16 par 361. In the first stage Eve the anima is indistinguishable from the personal mother The man. cannot function well without a close tie to a woman In the second stage personified in. the historical figure of Helen of Troy the anima is a collective and ideal sexual image. All is dross that is not Helen Marlowe The third stage Mary manifests in religious. feelings and a capacity for lasting relationships In the fourth stage as Sophia called. Wisdom in the Bible a man s anima functions as a guide to the inner life mediating to. consciousness the contents of the unconscious She cooperates in the search for meaning. and is the creative muse in an artist s life, Ideally a man s anima proceeds naturally through these stages as he grows older In fact. as an archetypal life force the anima manifests in whatever shape or form is necessary to. compensate the dominant conscious attitude, So long as the anima is unconscious everything she stands for is projected Most. commonly because of the initially close tie between the anima and the protective mother. imago this projection falls on the partner with predictable results. A man s ideal of marriage is so arranged that his wife has to take over the magical role. of the mother Under the cloak of the ideally exclusive marriage he is really seeking his. mother s protection and thus he plays into the hands of his wife s possessive instincts. His fear of the dark incalculable power of the unconscious gives his wife an illegitimate. authority over him and forges such a dangerously close union that the marriage is. permanently on the brink of explosion from internal tension Anima and Animus CW 7 par. No matter where a man is in terms of psychological development he is always prone to. see aspects of his anima his soul in an actual woman The same is true of the animus. Their personal aspects may be integrated and their significance understood but their. essential nature cannot be exhausted, Though the effects of anima and animus can be made conscious they themselves are. factors transcending consciousness and beyond the reach of perception and volition. Hence they remain autonomous despite the integration of their contents and for this. reason they should be borne constantly in mind The Syzygy Anima and Animus CW 9ii par. The psychological priority in the first half of life is for a man to free himself from the. anima fascination of the mother In later life the lack of a conscious relationship with the. anima is attended by symptoms characteristic of loss of soul. Younger people can bear even the total loss of the anima without injury The. important thing at this stage is for a man to be a man After the middle of life. however permanent loss of the anima means a diminution of vitality of flexibility and. of human kindness The result as a rule is premature rigidity crustiness stereotypy. fanatical one sidedness obstinacy pedantry or else resignation weariness sloppiness. irresponsibility and finally a childish ramollissement petulance with a tendency to. alcohol Concerning the Archetypes and the Anima Concept CW 9i par 146f. One way for a man to become familiar with the nature of his anima is through the method. of active imagination This is done by personifying her as an autonomous personality. asking her questions and attending to the response. I mean this as an actual technique The art of it consists only in allowing our invisible. partner to make herself heard in putting the mechanism of expression momentarily at her. disposal without being overcome by the distaste one naturally feels at playing such an. apparently ludicrous game with oneself or by doubts as to the genuineness of the voice. of one s interlocutor Anima and Animus CW 7 pars 323f. Jung suggested that if the encounter with the shadow is the apprentice piece in a man s. development then coming to terms with the anima is the master piece Archetypes of the. Collective Unconscious CW 9i par 61 The goal is her transformation from a troublesome. adversary into a function of relationship between consciousness and the unconscious. Jung called this the conquest of the anima as an autonomous complex. With the attainment of this goal it becomes possible to disengage the ego from all its. entanglements with collectivity and the collective unconscious Through this process the. anima forfeits the daemonic power of an autonomous complex she can no longer. exercise the power of possession since she is depotentiated She is no longer the guardian. of treasures unknown no longer Kundry daemonic Messenger of the Grail half divine. and half animal no longer is the soul to be called Mistress but a psychological. function of an intuitive nature akin to what the primitives mean when they say He has. gone into the forest to talk with the spirits or My snake spoke with me or in the. mythological language of infancy A little bird told me The Mana Personality CW 7 par. Animus The inner masculine side of a woman See also anima Eros Logos and soul. Like the anima in a man the animus is both a personal complex and an archetypal image. Woman is compensated by a masculine element and therefore her unconscious has so to. speak a masculine imprint This results in a considerable psychological difference. between men and women and accordingly I have called the projection making factor in. women the animus which means mind or spirit The animus corresponds to the paternal. Logos just as the anima corresponds to the maternal Eros The Syzygy Anima and Animus. CW 9ii pars 28f, The animus is the deposit as it were of all woman s ancestral experiences of man and.
not only that he is also a creative and procreative being not in the sense of masculine. creativity but in the sense that he brings forth something we might call the spermatic. word Anima and Animus CW 7 par 336, Whereas the anima in a man functions as his soul a woman s animus is more like an. unconscious mind At times Jung also referred to the animus as a woman s soul See soul. and soul image It manifests negatively in fixed ideas collective opinions and. unconscious a priori assumptions that lay claim to absolute truth In a woman who is. identified with the animus called animus possession Eros generally takes second place. A woman possessed by the animus is always in danger of losing her femininity Anima and. Animus CW 7 par 337, No matter how friendly and obliging a woman s Eros may be no logic on earth can shake. her if she is ridden by the animus A man is unaware that this highly dramatic. situation would instantly come to a banal and unexciting end if he were to quit the field. and let a second woman carry on the battle his wife for instance if she herself is not the. fiery war horse This sound idea seldom or never occurs to him because no man can. converse with an animus for five minutes without becoming the victim of his own. anima The Syzygy Anima and Animus CW 9ii par 29, The animus becomes a helpful psychological factor when a woman can tell the difference. between the ideas generated by this autonomous complex and what she herself really. Like the anima the animus too has a positive aspect Through the figure of the father he. expresses not only conventional opinion but equally what we call spirit philosophical. or religious ideas in particular or rather the attitude resulting from them Thus the animus. is a psychopomp a mediator between the conscious and the unconscious and a. personification of the latter Ibid par 33, Jung described four stages of animus development in a woman He first appears in. dreams and fantasy as the embodiment of physical power an athlete muscle man or thug. In the second stage the animus provides her with initiative and the capacity for planned. action He is behind a woman s desire for independence and a career of her own In the. next stage the animus is the word often personified in dreams as a professor or. clergyman In the fourth stage the animus is the incarnation of spiritual meaning On this. highest level like the anima as Sophia the animus mediates between a woman s. conscious mind and the unconscious In mythology this aspect of the animus appears as. Hermes messenger of the gods in dreams he is a helpful guide. Any of these aspects of the animus can be projected onto a man As with the projected. anima this can lead to unrealistic expectations and acrimony in relationships. Like the anima the animus is a jealous lover He is adept at putting in place of the real. man an opinion about him the exceedingly disputable grounds for which are never. submitted to criticism Animus opinions are invariably collective and they override. individuals and individual judgments in exactly the same way as the anima thrusts her. emotional anticipations and projections between man and wife Anima and Animus CW 7. The existence of the contrasexual complexes means that in any relationship between a. man and a woman there are at least four personalities involved The possible lines of. communication are shown by the arrows in the diagram Adapted from The Psychology of the. Transference CW 16 par 422, While a man s task in assimilating the effects of the anima involves discovering his true.
feelings a woman becomes familiar with the nature of the animus by constantly. questioning her ideas and opinions, The technique of coming to terms with the animus is the same in principle as in the case. of the anima only here the woman must learn to criticize and hold her opinions at a. distance not in order to repress them but by investigating their origins to penetrate. more deeply into the background where she will then discover the primordial images. just as the man does in his dealings with the anima Anima and Animus CW 7 par 336. Anthropos Original or primordial man an archetypal image of wholeness in alchemy. religion and Gnostic philosophy, There is in the unconscious an already existing wholeness the homo totus of the. Western and the Ch n y n true man of Chinese alchemy the round primordial being. who represents the greater man within the Anthropos who is akin to God The. Personification of the Opposites CW 14 par 152, Apotropaic Descriptive of magical thinking based on the desire to depotentiate the. influence of an object or person Apotropaic actions are characteristic of introversion as a. mode of psychological orientation, I have seen an introverted child who made his first attempts to walk only after he had. learned the names of all the objects in the room he might touch Psychological Types CW 6. Apperception A psychic process by which a new conscious content is articulated with. similar already existing contents in such a way that it is understood Compare. assimilation, Sense perceptions tell us that something is But they do not tell us what it is This is told.
us not by the process of perception but by the process of apperception and this has a. highly complex structure Not that sense perception is anything simple only its complex. nature is not so much psychic as physiological The complexity of apperception on the. other hand is psychic The Structure of the Psyche CW 8 par 288. Jung distinguishes active from passive apperception In active apperception the ego. grabs hold of something new and comes to grips with it In passive apperception the new. content forces itself upon consciousness either from outside through the senses or from. within the unconscious Apperception may also be either directed or undirected. In the former case we speak of attention in the latter case of fantasy or dreaming. The directed processes are rational the undirected irrational Ibid par 294. Archaic Primal or original See also participation mystique. Every civilized human being however high his conscious development is still an archaic. man at the deeper levels of his psyche Archaic Man CW 10 par 105. In anthropology the term archaic is generally descriptive of primitive psychology Jung. used it when referring to thoughts fantasies and feelings that are not consciously. differentiated, Archaism attaches primarily to the fantasies of the unconscious i e to the products of. unconscious fantasy activity which reach consciousness An image has an archaic quality. when it possesses unmistakable mythological parallels Archaic too are the associations. by analogy of unconscious fantasy and so is their symbolism The relation of identity. with an object or participation mystique is likewise archaic Concretism of thought and. feeling is archaic also compulsion and inability to control oneself ecstatic or trance. state possession etc Fusion of the psychological functions of thinking with feeling. feeling with sensation feeling with intuition and so on is archaic as is also the fusion of. part of a function with its counterpart Definitions CW 6 par 684. Archetype Primordial structural elements of the human psyche See also archetypal. image and instinct, Archetypes are systems of readiness for action and at the same time images and. emotions They are inherited with the brain structure indeed they are its psychic aspect. They represent on the one hand a very strong instinctive conservatism while on the. other hand they are the most effective means conceivable of instinctive adaptation They. are thus essentially the chthonic portion of the psyche that portion through which the. psyche is attached to nature Mind and Earth CW 10 par 53. It is not a question of inherited ideas but of inherited possibilities of ideas Nor are. they individual acquisitions but in the main common to all as can be seen from their. universal occurrence Concerning the Archetypes and the Anima Concept CW 9i par 136. Archetypes are irrepresentable in themselves but their effects are discernible in. archetypal images and motifs, Archetypes present themselves as ideas and images like everything else that becomes. a content of consciousness On the Nature of the Psyche CW 8 par 435. Archetypes are by definition factors and motifs that arrange the psychic elements into. certain images characterized as archetypal but in such a way that they can be recognized. only from the effects they produce A Psychological Approach to the Trinity CW 11 par 222. Jung also described archetypes as instinctual images the forms which the instincts. assume He illustrated this using the simile of the spectrum. The dynamism of instinct is lodged as it were in the infra red part of the spectrum. whereas the instinctual image lies in the ultra violet part The realization and. assimilation of instinct never take place at the red end i e by absorption into the. instinctual sphere but only through integration of the image which signifies and at the. same time evokes the instinct although in a form quite different from the one we meet on. the biological level On the Nature of the Psyche CW 8 par 414. Psychologically the archetype as an image of instinct is a spiritual goal toward which. the whole nature of man strives it is the sea to which all rivers wend their way the prize. which the hero wrests from the fight with the dragon Ibid par 415. Archetypes manifest both on a personal level through complexes and collectively as. characteristics of whole cultures Jung believed it was the task of each age to understand. anew their content and their effects, We can never legitimately cut loose from our archetypal foundations unless we are. prepared to pay the price of a neurosis any more than we can rid ourselves of our body. and its organs without committing suicide If we cannot deny the archetypes or otherwise. neutralize them we are confronted at every new stage in the differentiation of. consciousness to which civilization attains with the task of finding a new interpretation. appropriate to this stage in order to connect the life of the past that still exists in us with. the life of the present which threatens to slip away from it The Psychology of the Child. Archetype CW 9i par 267, Archetypal image The form or representation of an archetype in consciousness See.
also collective unconscious, The archetype is a dynamism which makes itself felt in the numinosity and fascinating. power of the archetypal image On the Nature of the Psyche CW 8 par 414. Archetypal images as universal patterns or motifs which come from the collective. unconscious are the basic content of religions mythologies legends and fairy tales. An archetypal content expresses itself first and foremost in metaphors If such a content. should speak of the sun and identify with it the lion the king the hoard of gold guarded. by the dragon or the power that makes for the life and health of man it is neither the one. thing nor the other but the unknown third thing that finds more or less adequate. expression in all these similes yet to the perpetual vexation of the intellect remains. unknown and not to be fitted into a formula The Psychology of the Child Archetype CW 9i. On a personal level archetypal motifs are patterns of thought or behavior that are. common to humanity at all times and in all places, For years I have been observing and investigating the products of the unconscious in the. widest sense of the word namely dreams fantasies visions and delusions of the insane I. have not been able to avoid recognizing certain regularities that is types There are types. of situations and types of figures that repeat themselves frequently and have a. corresponding meaning I therefore employ the term motif to designate these. repetitions Thus there are not only typical dreams but typical motifs in dreams. These can be arranged under a series of archetypes the chief of them being the. shadow the wise old man the child including the child hero the mother Primordial. Mother and Earth Mother as a supraordinate personality daemonic because. supraordinate and her counterpart the maiden and lastly the anima in man and the. animus in woman The Psychological Aspects of the Kore ibid par 309. Assimilation The process of integrating outer objects persons things ideas values and. unconscious contents into consciousness, Assimilation is the approximation of a new content of consciousness to already. constellated subjective material Fundament ally it is a process of apperception. but is distinguished from apperception by this element of approximation to the subjective. material I use the term assimilation as the approximation of object to subject in. general and with it I contrast dissimilation as the approximation of subject to object and. a consequent alienation of the subject from himself in favour of the object whether it be. an external object or a psychological object for instance an idea Definitions CW 6 pars. Association A spontaneous flow of interconnected thoughts and images around a. specific idea often determined by unconscious connections See also Word Association. Experiment, Personal associations to images in dreams together with amplification are an important. initial step in their interpretation, Attitude The readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way based on an.
underlying psychological orientation See also adaptation type and typology. From a great number of existing or possible attitudes I have singled out four those. namely that are primarily oriented by the four basic psychological functions thinking. feeling sensation intuition When any of these attitudes is habitual thus setting a. definite stamp on the character of an individual I speak of a psychological type These. function types which one can call the thinking feeling sen sation and intuitive types. may be divided into two classes the rational and the irrational A further division. into two classes is permitted by the predominant trend of the movement of libido namely. introversion and extraversion Ibid par 835, The whole psychology of an individual even in its most fundamental features is oriented. in accordance with his habitual attitude which is a resultant of all the factors that. exert a decisive influence on the psyche such as innate disposition environmental. influences experience of life insights and convictions gained through differentiation. collective views etc At bottom attitude is an individual phenomenon that eludes. scientific investigation In actual experience however certain typical attitudes can be. distinguished When a function habitually predominates a typical attitude is. produced There is thus a typical thinking feeling sensation and intuitive. attitude Ibid pars 690f, Adaptation to one s environment requires an appropriate attitude But due to changing. circumstances no one attitude is permanently suitable When a particular attitude is no. longer appropriate whether to internal or external reality the stage is set for. psychological difficulties e g an outbreak of neurosis. For example a feeling attitude that seeks to fulfil the demands of reality by means of. empathy may easily encounter a situation that can only be solved through thinking In. this case the feeling attitude breaks down and the progression of libido also ceases The. vital feeling that was present before disappears and in its place the psychic value of. certain conscious contents increases in an unpleasant way subjective contents and. reactions press to the fore and the situation becomes full of affect and ripe for. explosions On Psychic Energy CW 8 par 61, The tension leads to conflict the conflict leads to attempts at mutual repression and if. one of the opposing forces is successfully repressed a dissociation ensues a splitting of. the personality or disunion with oneself Ibid, Autonomous Independent of the conscious will associated in general with the nature of. the unconscious and in particular with activated complexes. Auxiliary function A helpful second or third function according to Jung s model of. typology that has a co determining influence on consciousness. Absolute sovereignty always belongs empirically to one function alone and can belong. only to one function because the equally independent intervention of another function. would necessarily produce a different orientation which partially at least would. contradict the first But since it is a vital condition for the conscious process of adaptation. always to have clear and unambiguous aims the presence of a second function of equal. power is naturally ruled out This other function therefore can have only a secondary. importance Its secondary importance is due to the fact that it is not like the primary. function an absolutely reliable and decisive factor but comes into play more as an. auxiliary or complementary function General Description of the Types CW 6 par 667. The auxiliary function is always one whose nature differs from but is not antagonistic to. the superior or primary function either of the irrational functions intuition and. sensation can be auxiliary to one of the rational functions thinking and feeling and.


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