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7i6 THE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY, The formerstands as valid only if we can findcriteriaforassigning. a differentlogical formto allegedly than to compulsively In this. case the criteriaexist compulsively is a predicate allegedly a. sentenceadverb But in countlessothercases counterexamplesare. not so easily dismissed Such an example bearingon the inference. in question is,Otto closed the door partway,ThereforeOtto closed the door. It seems clear to me that betterdata are needed beforeprogress. can be made in this area we need much more refinedlinguistic. classificationsof adverbial constructionsthan are presentlyavail. able ifour evidenceconcerningvalidityis to be good enough to per. mit a richerlogical theory In the meantime Montague s account. stands thereis no reasonto thinka morerefinedtheory ifit can be. produced should not be obtainable within the frameworkhe has. RICHMOND H THOMASON,Yale University,THE ABSURD, OST peoplefeelon occasionthatlifeis absurd and some. feel it vividly and continually Yet the reasons usually. offeredin defense of this conviction are patently in. adequate they could not really explain why life is absurd Why. then do they provide a natural expressionforthe sense that it is. Consider some examples It is oftenremarkedthat nothingwe do. now will matterin a millionyears But if that is true then by the. same token nothingthat will be the case in a millionyears matters. now In particular it does not matternow that in a millionyears. nothingwe do now will matter Moreover even if what we did now. weregoing to matter in a millionyears how could that keep our. presentconcernsfrombeing absurd If theirmatteringnow is not. enough to accomplish that how would it help if they mattereda. millionyears fromnow, Whether what we do now will matter in a million years could. make the crucial differenceonly if its matteringin a millionyears. depended on its mattering period But then to deny that whatever. in an APA symposium,To be presented on The MeaningofLife December29.
1971 Co symposiasts willbe RogersAlbritton and WilliamRichardson neither. oftheirpapersare availableat thistime,THE ABSURD 7I7. happens now will matterin a millionyears is to beg the question. against its mattering period for in that sense one cannot know. that it will not matter in a million years whether for example. someone now is happy or miserable withoutknowingthat it does. not matter period, What we say to convey the absurdityof our lives oftenhas to. do withspace or time we are tinyspecks in the infinitevastness of. the universe our lives are mere instantseven on a geological time. scale let alone a cosmic one we will all be dead any minute But. of course none of these evidentfactscan be what makeslifeabsurd. ifit is absurd For suppose we lived forever would not a lifethat is. absurd if it lasts seventy years be infinitelyabsurd if it lasted. througheternity And if our lives are absurd given our present. size why would they be any less absurd if we filledthe universe. eitherbecause we werelargeror because the universewas smaller. Reflectionon our minutenessand brevityappears to be intimately. connectedwith the sense that lifeis meaningless but it is not clear. what the connectionis, Another inadequate argumentis that because we are going to. die all chains of justificationmust leave offin mid air one studies. and works to earn money to pay for clothing housing entertain. ment food to sustain oneselffromyear to year perhapsto support. a familyand pursue a career but to what finalend All of it is an. elaborate journeyleading nowhere One will also have some effect. on other people s lives but that simply reproducesthe problem. fortheywill die too, There are several replies to this argument First life does not. consistof a sequence of activitieseach of which has as its purpose. some later memberof the sequence Chains of justificationcome. repeatedlyto an end withinlife and whetherthe processas a whole. can be justifiedhas no bearing on the finalityof these end points. No furtherjustificationis needed to make it reasonable to take. aspirin fora headache attend an exhibitof the work of a painter. one admires or stop a child fromputtinghis hand on a hot stove. No larger context or furtherpurpose is needed to prevent these. acts frombeing pointless, Even if someone wished to supply a furtherjustificationfor.
pursuingall the thingsin life that are commonlyregardedas self. justifying that justificationwould have to end somewheretoo If. nothingcan justifyunlessit is justifiedin termsof somethingoutside. itself whichis also justified then an infiniteregressresults and no. chain of justificationcan be complete Moreover if a finitechain. of reasons cannot justifyanything what could be accomplishedby. 7I8 THE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY, an infinitechain each link of whichmust be justifiedby something. outside itself, Since justificationsmust come to an end somewhere nothingis. gained by denyingthat theyend wheretheyappear to withinlife. or by tryingto subsume the multiple oftentrivialordinaryjustifi. cations of action undera single controllinglifescheme We can be. satisfiedmore easily than that In fact throughits misrepresen. tationof the processof justification the argumentmakes a vacuous. demand It insiststhat the reasons available withinlifeare incom. plete but suggeststherebythat all reasons that come to an end are. incomplete Tlis makes it impossibleto supply any reasons at all. The standard argumentsforabsurdityappear thereforeto fail as. arguments Yet I believe they attempt to expresssomethingthat. to state but fundamentallycorrect,is difficult, In ordinarylifea situationis absurd whenit includesa conspicuous. discrepancybetweenpretensionor aspirationand reality someone. gives a complicatedspeech in supportof a motionthat has already. been passed a notorious criminal is made presidentof a major. philanthropicfoundation you declare your love over the telephone. to a recordedannouncement as you are beingknighted yourpants. When a person finds himselfin an absurd situation he will. usually attempt to change it by modifyinghis aspirations or by. tryingto bringrealityinto betteraccord withthem or by removing. himselffromthe situation entirely We are not always willingor. able to extricate ourselves froma position whose absurdity has. become clear to us Nevertheless it is usually possible to imagine. some change that would remove the absurdity whether or not. we can or will implementit The sense that lifeas a whole is absurd. arises when we perceive perhaps dimly an inflatedpretensionor. aspirationwhichis inseparablefromthe continuationof human life. and whichmakes its absurdityinescapable shortof escape fromlife. Many people s lives are absurd temporarilyor permanently for. conventionalreasons having to do with theirparticularambitions. circumstances and personal relations If there is a philosophical. sense of absurdity however it must arise fromthe perceptionof. somethinguniversal some respectin whichpretensionand reality. inevitablyclash forus all This conditionis supplied I hall argue. by the collision between the seriousnesswith which we take our. lives and the perpetual possibilityof regardingeverythingabout. whichwe are seriousas arbitrary or open to doubt,THE ABSURD 719. We cannot live human lives withoutenergyand attention nor. withoutmakingchoices whichshow that we take some thingsmore. seriouslythan others Yet we have always available a point of view. outside the particularformof our lives fromwhich the seriousness. appears gratuitous These two inescapable viewpointscollide in us. and that is what makes life absurd It is absurd because we ignore. the doubts that we know cannot be settled continuingto live with. nearlyundiminishedseriousnessin spite of them, This analysis requiresdefensein two respects firstas regardsthe.
unavoidabilityof seriousness second as regards the inescapability. We take ourselvesseriouslywhetherwe lead serious lives or not. and whetherwe are concernedprimarilywithfame pleasure virtue. luxury triumph beauty justice knowledge salvation or mere. survival If we take other people seriouslyand devote ourselves to. them that only multipliesthe problem Human lifeis fullof effort. plans calculation success and failure we pursue our lives with. varyingdegreesof sloth and energy, It would be differentif we could not step back and reflecton the. process but were merelyled fromimpulse to impulse withoutself. consciousness But human beingsdo not act solelyon impulse They. are prudent theyreflect theyweighconsequences theyask whether. what they are doing is worthwhile Not only are theirlives fullof. particular choices that hang together in larger activities with. temporalstructure they also decide in the broadest termswhat to. pursue and what to avoid what the prioritiesamong theirvarious. aims should be and what kindof people theywant to be or become. Some men are faced with such choices by the large decisions they. make fromtime to time some merelyby reflectionon the course. their lives are taking as the product of countless small decisions. They decide whom to marry what professionto follow whetherto. join the CountryClub or the Resistance or theymay just wonder. why they go on being salesmen or academics or taxi drivers and. then stop thinkingabout it after a certain period of inconclusive. reflection, Although they may be motivated fromact to act by those im. mediate needs withwhichlifepresentsthem theyallow the process. to continue by adhering to the general system of habits and the. formof lifein whichsuch motivleshave theirplace or perhapsonly. by clingingto lifeitself They spend enormousquantitiesof energy. risk and calculation on the details Think of how an ordinary. individual sweats over his appearance his health his sex life his. emotionalhonesty his social utility his self knowledge the quality. 720 THE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY, of his ties with family colleagues and friends how well he does his. job whetherhe understandsthe world and what is going on in it. Leading a human life is a full timeoccupation to which everyone. devotes decades of intenseconcern, This fact is so obvious that it is hard to findit extraordinaryand. important Each of us lives his own life lives with himselftwenty. four hours a day What else is he supposed to do live someone. else s life Yet humans have the special capacity to step back and. surveythemselves and the lives to whichtheyare committed with. that detached amazement which comes from watching an ant. struggleup a heap of sand Without developing the illusion that. they are able to escape fromtheirhighlyspecificand idiosyncratic. position they can view it sub specie aeternitatis andthe view is at. once soberingand comical, The crucial backward step is not taken by askingforstill another.
justificationin the chain and failingto get it The objectionsto that. line of attack have already been stated justificationscome to an. end But this is preciselywhat provides universal doubt with its. object We step back to findthat the whole systemof justification. and criticism whichcontrolsour choices and supportsour claims to. rationality rests on responses and habits that we never question. that we should not know how to defendwithoutcircularity and to. which we shall continue to adhere even after they are called into. The thingswe do or want withoutreasons and withoutrequiring. reasons the thingsthat definewhat is a reason forus and what is. not are the starting points of our skepticism We see ourselves. fromoutside and all the contingencyand specificityof our aims. and pursuitsbecomeclear Yet whenwe take thisview and recognize. what we do as arbitrary it does not disengageus fromlife and there. lies our absurdity not in the fact that such an externalview can be. taken of us but in the fact that we ourselvescan take it without. ceasing to be the persons whose ultimate concerns are so coolly. One may try to escape the position by seeking broader ultimate. concerns fromwhich it is impossibleto step back the idea being. that absurdityresultsbecause what we take seriouslyis something. small and insignificantand individual Those seeking to supply. their lives with meaning usually envision a role or functionin. somethinglarger than themselves They thereforeseek fulfillment. in service to society the state the revolution the progress of. history the advance of science or religionand the gloryof God. THE ABSURD 721, But a role in some larger enterprisecannot confersignificance. unless that enterpriseis itselfsignificant And its significancemust. come back to what we can understand or it will not even appear to. give us what we are seeking If we learned that we were beingraised. to providefoodforothercreaturesfondof human flesh who planned. to turnus into cutletsbeforewe got too stringy even ifwe learned. that the human race had been developed by animal breederspre. cisely forthis purpose that would still not give our lives meaning. for two reasons First we would still be in the dark as to the sig. nificanceof the lives of those other beings second although we. might acknowledge that this culinary role would make our lives. meaningfulto them it is not clear how it would make them mean. ingfulto us, Admittedly the usual formof serviceto a higherbeingis different. fromthis One is supposed to beholdand partakeof the gloryof God. forexample in a way in which chickensdo not share in the glory. of coq au vin The same is trueof serviceto a state a movement or. a revolution People can come to feel when they are part of some. thingbigger that it is part of themtoo They worryless about what. is peculiar to themselves but identifyenoughwith the largerenter. prise to findtheirrole in it fulfilling, However any such largerpurposecan be put in doubt in the same. way that the aims of an individual life can be and for the same. reasons It is as legitimateto findultimatejustificationthereas to. findit earlier among the details of individuallife But this does not. alter the factthat justificationscome to an end whenwe are content. to have them end when we do not findit necessaryto look any. further If we can step back fromthe purposesof individuallifeand. doubt theirpoint we can step back also fromthe progressof human. history or of science or the success of a society or the kingdom. power and gloryof God and put all these thingsinto question in. the same way What seems to us to confermeaning justification. significance does so in virtue of the fact that we need no more. reasons aftera certainpoint, What makes doubt inescapable with regard to the limited aims. of individuallifealso makes it inescapable withregardto any larger. purpose that encouragesthe sense that lifeis meaningful Once the. fundamentaldoubt has begun it cannot be laid to rest. Camus maintainsin The Mythof Sisyphus that the absurd arises. because the world fails to meet our demands for meaning This. suggests that the world might satisfy those demnandsif it were. different But now we can see that this is not the case There does. ICf RobertNozick Teleology Mosaic xu 1 Spring1971 27 8. 722 THE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY, notappearto be anyconceivableworld containing us aboutwhich.
unsettlabledoubtscould not arise Consequently,the absurdityof. oursituationderivesnot froma collisionbetweenourexpectations. and theworld butfroma collisionwithinourselves, It may be objectedthat the standpointfromwhichthesedoubts. are supposedto be feltdoes notexist that if we take the recom. mendedbackwardstep we willland on thinair withoutany basis. forjudgmentabout the naturalresponseswe are supposedto be. surveying If we retainour usual standardsof whatis important. thenquestionsaboutthesignificance ofwhatwe are doingwithour. liveswillbe answerable intheusualway Butifwedo not thenthose. questionscan mean nothingto us since thereis no longerany. contentto the idea of whatmatters and henceno contentto the. idea thatnothing does, But thisobjectionmisconceives thenatureofthebackwardstep. It is not supposedto give us an understanding of what is really. important so thatwesee bycontrastthatourlivesareinsignificant. We never in thecourseof thesereflections abandontheordinary. standardsthat guideour lives We merelyobservethemin oper. ation and recognizethat if theyare called into questionwe can. justifythemonlyby reference to themselves uselessly We adhere. to thembecauseofthewaywe are put together whatseemsto us. importantor seriousor valuable would not seem so if we were. differentlyconstituted, In ordinarylife to be sure we do not judge a situationabsurd. unlesswe have in mindsomestandardsofseriousness significance. or harmony withwhichtheabsurdcan be contrasted This contrast. is notimpliedby thephilosophical judgmentofabsurdity and that. mightbe thoughtto maketheconceptunsuitablefortheexpression. of such judgments This is not so however forthe philosophical. judgmentdependson anothercontrastwhichmakesit a natural. extensionfrommoreordinarycases It departsfromthemonlyin. contrasting thepretensions oflifewitha largercontextin whichno. standardscan be discovered ratherthanwitha contextfromwhich. alternative overridingstandardsmaybe applied, In thisrespect as in others philosophical of theabsurd.
perception, resemblesepistemological skepticism In both cases the final. philosophicaldoubt is not contrastedwithany unchallenged cer. tainties thoughit is arrivedat by extrapolationfromexamplesof. doubtwithinthe systemof evidenceor justification wherea con. trastwithothercertainties is implied Ia bothcasesourlimitedness. THE ABSUD 723, joins with a capacity to transcend those limitationsin thought. thus seeing themas limitations and as inescapable, Skepticism begins when we include ourselves in the world about. whichwe claim knowledge We noticethat certaintypesof evidence. convince us that we are content to allow justificationsof beliefto. come to an end at certainpoints that we feelwe know many things. even without knowingor having grounds for believing the denial. of others which if true would make what we claim to know false. For example I know that I am looking at a piece of paper al. thoughI have no adequate groundsto claim I know that I am not. dreaming and if I am dreamingthen I am not lookingat a piece of. paper Here an ordinaryconceptionof how appearance may diverge. fromreality is employed to show that we take our world largely. for granted the certainty that we are not dreaming cannot be. justifiedexcept circularly in termsof those very appearances which. are being put in doubt It is somewhatfar fetched to suggestI may. be dreaming but the possibilityis only illustrative It reveals that. our claims to knowledgedepend on our not feelingit necessaryto. exclude certain incompatiblealternatives and the dreamingpossi. bilityor the total hallucinationpossibilityare just representatives. for limitlesspossibilitiesmost of which we cannot even conceive. Once we have taken the backwardstep to an abstractview of our. whole systemof beliefs evidence and justification and seen that. it works only despite its pretensions by taking the world largely. forgranted we are notin a positionto contrastall theseappearances. withan alternativereality We cannot shed our ordinaryresponses. and if we could it would leave us with no means of conceivinga. realityof any kind, It is the same in the practical domain We do not step outside. our lives to a new vantage point fromwhich we see what is really. objectivelysignificant We continueto take lifelargelyforgranted. while seeing that all our decisions and certaintiesare possible only. because thereis a great deal we do not botherto rule out. Both epistemologicalskepticismand a sense of the absurd can. be reached via initial doubts posed withinsystemsof evidence and. justificationthat we accept and can be stated withoutviolence to. our ordinaryconcepts We can ask not only why we should believe. thereis a floorunderus but also whywe should believethe evidence. of our senses at all and at some point the framablequestions will. abouttheexternal,I am awarethatskepticism worldis widelythoughtto.
butI haveremained,havebeenrefuted convincedofitsirrefutability. sincebeing,to Thompson,exposedat Berkeley ideason the. Clarke slargelyunpublished,724 THE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY. have outlasted the answers Similarly we can ask not only why we. should take aspirin but why we should take troubleover our own. comfortat all The fact that we shall take the aspirin without. waitingforan answer to this last question does not show that it is. an unreal question We shall also continue to believe there is a. floorunder us withoutwaitingforan answer to the otherquestion. In bothcases it is thisunsupportednaturalconfidencethat generates. skeptical doubts so it cannot be used to settle them. Philosophical skepticism does not cause us to abandon our. ordinarybeliefs but it lends thema peculiarflavor Afteracknowl. edgingthat theirtruthis incompatiblewithpossibilitiesthat we have. no groundsforbelievingdo not obtain apart fromgroundsin those. very beliefswhich we have called into question we returnto our. familiarconvictionswitha certainironyand resignation Unable to. abandon the naturalresponseson whichtheydepend we take them. back like a spouse who has run offwith someone else and then. decided to return but we regardthemdifferently not that the new. attitude is necessarilyinferiorto the old in eithercase. The same situation obtains after we have put in question the. seriousnesswith whichwe take our lives and human lifein general. and have looked at ourselves without presuppositions We then. returnto our lives as we must but our seriousnessis laced with. irony Not that ironyenables us to escape the absurd It is useless to. mutter Life is meaningless lifeis meaningless as an accompa. nimentto everythingwe do In continuingto live and work and. strive we take ourselvesseriouslyin action no matterwhat we say. What sustains us in beliefas in action is not reason or justifi. cation but somethingmore basic than these for we go on in the. same way even afterwe are convinced that the reasons have given. out If we triedto relyentirelyon reason and pressedit hard our. lives and beliefs would collapse a form of madness that may. actually occur if the inertialforceof taking the world and life for. grantedis somehowlost If we lose our gripon that reason will not. give it back to us, As Hume says in a famouspassage of the Treatise Most fortunately it. happens that sincereasonis incapableof dispellingtheseclouds natureherself. sufficesto that purpose and cures me of this philosophicalmelancholyand. delirium eitherby relaxingthisbentof mind or by someavocation and lively. impression of mysenses whichobliterate all thesechimeras I dine I playa game. ofbackgammon I converse and am merrywithmyfriends and whenafterthree. or fourhours amusement I wouldreturnto thesespeculations theyappear so. cold and strain d and ridiculous that I cannotfindin my heartto enterinto. themany farther Book 1 Part 4 Section7 Selby Bigge p 269. THE ABSURD 725, In viewingourselvesfroma perspectivebroaderthan we can.
occupyin the flesh we becomespectatorsof our own lives We. cannotdo verymuchas purespectatorsof our own lives so we. continueto lead them and devoteourselvesto whatwe are able at. thesametimeto viewas no morethana curiosity liketheritualof. an alienreligion, This explainswhythe sense of absurdityfindsits naturalex. pressionin thosebad arguments withwhichthediscussionbegan. Reference to our smallsize and shortlifespanand to thefactthat. all ofmankindwilleventually vanishwithouta tracearemetaphors. forthe backwardstep whichpermitsus to regardourselvesfrom. withoutand to findthe particularformof our livescuriousand. slightlysurprising By feigning a nebula s eyeview we illustrate. thecapacityto see ourselveswithoutpresuppositions as arbitrary. idiosyncratic highly specific,occupantsoftheworld oneofcountless. possibleformsoflife, Beforeturning to thequestionwhether theabsurdity ofourlives. is something to be regrettedand ifpossibleescaped letmeconsider. whatwouldhave to be givenup in orderto avoidit, Whyis thelifeofa mousenotabsurd The orbitof themoonis. not absurdeither but thatinvolvesno strivings or aimsat all A. mouse however has to workto stay alive Yet he is not absurd. because he lacks the capacitiesfor self consciousness and self. transcendence thatwouldenablehimtosee thathe is onlya mouse. If thatdidhappen hislifewouldbecomeabsurd sinceself awareness. wouldnotmakehimceaseto be a mouseand wouldnotenablehim. to rise above his mouselystrivings Bringinghis new found self. consciousness withhim he wouldhave to returnto his meagreyet. franticlife fullof doubtsthathe was unableto answer but also. fullofpurposesthathe was unableto abandon, Giventhatthe transcendental stepis naturalto us humans can.
we avoid absurdityby refusing to take that step and remaining. entirelywithinour sublunarlives Well we cannotrefusecon. sciously forto do thatwe wouldhaveto be awareoftheviewpoint. we wererefusing to adopt The onlyway to avoidtherelevantself. consciousness wouldbe eitherneverto attainit or to forgetit. neitherofwhichcan be achievedby thewill, On theotherhand it is possibleto expendeffort on an attempt. to destroytheothercomponent of the absurd abandoningone s. earthly individual humanlifein orderto identify as completely. as possiblewiththat universalviewpointfromwhichhumanlife. 726 THE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY, seems arbitraryand trivial This appears to be the ideal of certain. Orientalreligions If one succeeds then one will not have to drag. the superior awareness through a strenuous mundane life and. absurditywill be diminished, However insofar as this self etiolationis the result of effort. will power asceticism and so forth it requiresthat one take one. self seriouslyas an individual that one be willing to take con. siderable trouble to avoid being creaturelyand absurd Thus one. may underminethe aim of unworldlinessby pursuingit too vigor. ously Still ifsomeonesimplyallowed his individual animal nature. to driftand respondto impulse withoutmaking the pursuitof its. needs a central conscious aim then he might at considerabledis. sociative cost achieve a life that was less absurd than most It. would not be a meaningfullife either of course but it would not. involve theengagementofa transcendentawarenessin the assiduous. pursuit of mundane goals And that is the main condition of. absurdity the dragooningof an unconvinced transcendentcon. sciousness into the service of an immanent limitedenterpriselike. a human life, The finalescape is suicide but beforeadoptingany hastysolutions. it would be wise to considercarefullywhetherthe absurdityof our. existencetrulypresentsus with a problem to which some solution. must be found a way of dealing withprima facie disaster That is. certainlythe attitude with whichCamus approaches the issue and. it gains support fromthe fact that we are all eager to escape from. absurd situationson a smallerscale, Camus not on uniformlygood grounds rejects suicide and the.
other solultions he regards as escapist What he recommendsis. defianceor scorn We can salvage our dignity he appears to believe. by shaking a fistat the world whichis deaf to our pleas and con. tinuingto live in spite of it This will not make our lives un absurd. but it will lend them a certainnobility 4, This seemsto me romanticand slightlyself pitying Our absurdity. warrantsneitherthat much distressnor that much defiance At the. risk of fallinginto romanticismby a different route I would argue. that absurdityis one of the most human thingsabout us a mani. festationof our most advanced and interestingcharacteristics Like. 4 Siyphus proletarianof thegods powerlessand rebellious knowsthewhole. extentof his wretched condition it is whathe thinksof duringhis descent The. luciditythat was to constitutehis tortureat the same timecrownshis victory. There is no fatethat cannotbe surmounted by scorn The Mythof Sisyphus. Vintageedition p 90,THE ABSURD 727, skepticism in epistemology it is possibleonlybecausewe possessa. certainkind of insight thecapacity to transcendourselvesin. If a senseof theabsurdis a wayofperceiving our truesituation. even thoughthe situationis not absurd until the perception. arises thenwhatreasoncan we have to resentor escapeit Like. the capacityfor epistemological skepticism it resultsfromthe. abilityto understand ourhumanlimitations It neednotbe a matter. foragonyunlesswemakeitso Norneeditevokea defiant contempt. offatethatallowsus to feelbraveor proud Suchdramatics even. if carriedon in private betraya failureto appreciatethe cosmic. unimportance thereis no,of thesituation If sub specieaeternitatis. reasonto believethatanything matters thenthatdoesn tmatter. either and we can approachourabsurdliveswithironyinsteadof. heroism or despair,THOMAS NAGEL,University,NOTES AND NEWS. ColumbiaUniversity has awardedits NicholasMurrayButlerMedal in. of theUniversity, Silverto AlbertHofstadter of Californiaat SantaCrux.
This awardis givenannuallyto thatgraduateof ColumbiaUniversity. whohas duringtheyearpreceding shownthemostcompetence in philoso. phyor in educationaltheory practiceand administration It was pre. sentedat an informalceremony on Sunday October17 at University. House Santa Cruz by W Theodorede Bary Columbia sexecutivevice. presidentforacademicaffairs,and provost Professor,Hofstadter whowasa. memberof Columbia sfacultyforI7 years is citedfortwoof his more. recentbooks Truthin Artand Agonyand Epitaph, The Collegeof DuPage and LoyolaUniversity Department of Philosophy. are once again holdinga Colloquiumon the Teachingof Philosophy at. theIllinoisStatePhilosophical,Convention thedaypriorto theconvening. of theconvention November 4th in Edwardsville Illinois on thecampus. of SouthernIllinoisUniversity,The keynote speakerwillbe WillisMoore. of Southe IllinoisUniversity Also participatingwill be MorrisEames. SouthernIllinois University Keith Yandell University of Wisconsin. JohnEconomos University of Illinois Chicago and RobertLechner the. editorof PhilosophyToday JohnOastlerof Collegeof DuPage and Rich. ard Wesleyof LoyolaUniversity Department of Philosophy are in charge.

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Talk to the animals 4 Caring for a cat or dog 5 Pupil magazine Cats, dogs and us 1 The incredible cat 2 Cat talk 3 ... Thomas, S. C. & Beirne, P. (2002). Humane education and humanistic philosophy: Toward a new curriculum. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 41, 190-199. 2 Gerald A Liberman and Linda L Hoody, 1998. Closing the achievement gap: using the environment as

European Journal of Education Studies - ERIC

European Journal of Education Studies ERIC

JOHN DEWEY, PHILOSOPHER AND EDUCATIONAL REFORMER European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 1 G Issue 1 G 2015 2 H e started teaching philosophy and psychology at the University of Michigan in 1884. In time, his interests progressively moved from the philosophy of Georg Wilhelm