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JOURNAL OF CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR Ezgi Akar
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216 JCB Journal of Customer Behaviour Volume 14,INTRODUCTION. The Internet and the rapid development of technology reveal a new global market. where time and space barriers do not exist Racolta Paina Luca 2010 Additionally. these advancements lead to the emergence of a new consumer profile called the online. consumer Racolta Paina Luca 2010 These consumers play an important role. in the e commerce world and they have different purchasing habits compared with. traditional consumers Companies must pay attention to online consumers needs. habits lifestyles and characteristics to satisfy them in a more global competitive and. dynamic environment Due to its characteristics e g having neither time nor location. constraints utilising the web as a sales channel is key to reaching different wide. and global markets Peterson Balasubramanian Bronnenberg 1997 In order to. satisfy online consumers needs and to be an important player in such a global and. competitive market companies should understand consumers characteristics their. online purchase intentions and online behaviours, The objectives of this study are listed as follows 1 identification of the factors. that have an effect on online consumers purchase intentions and consumer behaviour. based on past studies in the literature 2 categorisation of these factors in order to. have a comprehensive framework for consumers online purchase intentions and 3. detection of further research areas on this topic,AUTHOR COPY. RESEARCH BASED ON LITERATURE, In order to identify relevant studies an electronic search was conducted and a. number of index databases of academic journals were searched Then titles and. abstracts of the studies were reviewed to identify more appropriate and relevant. articles in the field Databases that were included in our meta analysis were ABI. INFORM Complete Ebscohost and Emerald Keywords and phrases used in the. literature review were online shopping internet shopping online consumer online. purchasing behaviour online buying behaviour online consumer behaviour and. e consumer behaviour The most relevant 100 articles were identified from 2000 to. December 2014, The articles are limited to those using an empirical research method and they.
mainly investigated online shopping purchasing intention attitude adoption or use. Hence conceptual papers and articles using other types of research methods are out. of the scope of this study,LITERATURE REVIEW AND CLASSIFICATION OF FACTORS. According to literature analysis results many independent variables are identified. While some of the independent variables cited in Table 1 pertain to only one. article other independent variables appear in multiple articles All variables are. classified according to their similarities Some of the main categories i e consumer. characteristics website characteristics and characteristics of web as a sales channel. in Figure 1 are adapted from the literature Chang Cheung Lai 2005 However. all sub categories and remaining main categories are developed according to the. Akar Nasir Consumers online purchase intentions 217. TABLE 1 Summary of the factors that have impact on online purchase intention. Independent Summary of,Studies Freq,variables findings. Consumer characteristics,Demographic variables, Gender Alreck Settle 2002 Boyle Ruppel 2006 Cal k 19 Significant. Ersoy 2008 Chen Lee 2005 Clemes et al 2014 impact except. Doolin et al 2005 El Ansary Roushdy 2013 Wang et al. Fan Miao 2012 Girard Silverblatt 2003 Gong 2010,Maddox 2011 Koyuncu Lien 2003 Lian. Yen 2014 Rodgers Harris 2003 Saprikis 2013,Stafford et al 2004 Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013.
Vaidehi 2014 Van Slyke et al 2002 Wang et al 2010, Level of internet Bhatnagar et al 2000 Cal k Ersoy 2008 Cho 2004 17 Significant. usage Citrin et al 2000 Doolin et al 2005 El Ansary impact except. Roushdy 2013 Gong Maddox 2011 Koyuncu Thamizhvanan. Lien 2003 Kuhlmeier Knight 2005 Liao Xavier 2013, Cheung 2001 Nysveen Pedersen 2004 Park Van Slyke et. 2002 Punj 2011 Saprikis 2013 Thamizhvanan al 2002,Xavier 2013 Van Slyke et al 2002 Wang et al 2010. Purchase Bhatnagar et al 2000 Cho 2004 El Ansary 17 Significant. experience Roushdy 2013 Cal k Ersoy 2008 Citrin et al positive impact. 2000 Dai et al 2014 Doolin et al 2005 Gong,AUTHOR COPY. Maddox 2011 Koyuncu Lien 2003 Kuhlmeier,Knight 2005 Liao Cheung 2001 Nysveen.
Pedersen 2004 Park Jun 2003 Punj 2011,Saprikis 2013 Van Slyke et al 2002 Wang et al. Age Bhatnagar et al 2000 El Ansary Roushdy 2013 13 Significant. Cal k Ersoy 2008 Clemes et al 2014 Doolin et al impact except. 2005 Gong Maddox 2011 Hernandez et al 2011 Doolin et. Koyuncu Lien 2003 Lian Yen 2014 Punj 2011 al 2005, Stafford et al 2004 Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013 Thamizhvanan. Van Slyke et al 2002 Xavier 2013,Van Slyke et, Education El Ansary Roushdy 2013 Cal k Ersoy 2008 9 Significant. Clemes et al 2014 Girard Silverblatt 2003 Gong impact. Maddox 2011 Koyuncu Lien 2003 Punj 2011,Saprikis 2013 Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013. Income Cal k Ersoy 2008 Clemes et al 2014 Doolin et al 9 Significant. 2005 Girard Silverblatt 2003 Gong Maddox impact,2011 Hernandez et al 2011 Koyuncu Lien 2003.
Punj 2011 Susskind 2004, Culture Chau et al 2002 Koyuncu Lien 2003 O Keefe et al 7 Significant. 2000 Park Jun 2003 Rodgers Harris 2003 Shiu impact except. Dawson 2002 Stafford et al 2004 Koyuncu, Occupation Cal k Ersoy 2008 Chen Lee 2005 Clemes et al 4 Significant. 2014 Girard Silverblatt 2003 impact, Marital status Clemes et al 2014 Gong Maddox 2011 Koyuncu 3 Significant. Lien 2003 impact except,218 JCB Journal of Customer Behaviour Volume 14. Independent Summary of,Studies Freq,variables findings.
Credit card Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013 Van Slyke et al 2002 2 Significant. usage impact,Thamizhvanan,Xavier 2013,Residential area Doolin et al 2005 1 Significant. Direct shopping Doolin et al 2005 1 Significant,experience impact. Race Koyuncu Lien 2003 1 No significant,Sexual Koyuncu Lien 2003 1 Significant. preference impact,General variables, Trust Aghdaie et al 2011 Al Nasser et al 2014 Becerra 18 Significant. Korganonkar 2011 Bianchi Andrews 2012 positive, Chang Chen 2008 El Ansary Roushdy 2013 impact except.
George 2002 2004 Harris Goode 2010 Hsu et al Leerapong. 2014 Kamtarin 2012 Leerapong Mardjo 2013 Mardjo 2013. Li et al 2007 Ling et al 2010 Ling et al 2011,Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013 Wu Lee 2012 Yoon. AUTHOR COPY, Perceived risk Adnan 2014 Almousa 2014 Bhatnagar et al 2000 15 Significant. Bianchi Andrews 2012 Boyle Ruppel 2006 negative, Chang Chen 2008 Clemes et al 2014 Doolin et impact. al 2005 Hsu Bayarsaikhan 2012 Kim Lennon,2010 Kim Byramjee 2014 Kuhlmeier Knight. 2005 Leerapong Mardjo 2013 Liao Cheung,2001 Pavlou 2003.
Attitude Al Nasser et al 2014 Bianchi Andrews 2012 elik 13 Significant. Y lmaz 2011 Chu 2008 El Ansary Roushdy positive impact. 2013 Hsu Bayarsaikhan 2012 Laohapensang,2009 Limayem et al 2000 Ling et al 2011. Mazaheri et al 2012 Wang et al 2007 Y r k,D ndar Moga Neculita 2011 Yu Wu 2007. Subjective Bonera 2011 Clemes et al 2014 Foucault 9 Significant. norms Scheufele 2002 Laohapensang 2009 Leerapong positive impact. Mardjo 2013 Limayem et al 2000 Wang et al 2007 except Wang. Yu Wu 2007 Zhang et al 2006 et al 2007, Personal Boyle Ruppel 2006 Citrin et al 2000 Goldsmith 8 Significant. Innovativeness 2001 2002 Hsu Bayarsaikhan 2012 Limayem et positive impact. al 2000 Sin Tse 2002 Wang et al 2010, Satisfaction Cho 2004 Foucault Scheufele 2002 Hackman et al 4 Significant. 2006 Kim Lennon 2010 positive impact,except Kim,and Lennon.
Perceived self Bonera 2011 Boyle Ruppel 2006 Wang et al 2010 3 Significant. efficacy positive impact, Perceived Laohapensang 2009 Wang et al 2007 2 Significant. behavioural positive impact, Emotions Ha Lennon 2010 Hackman et al 2006 2 Significant. positive impact, Akar Nasir Consumers online purchase intentions 219. Independent Summary of,Studies Freq,variables findings. Perceived price Liao Cheung 2001 Mehta Kumar 2012 2 Significant. Perceived Chen Gillenson Sherrell 2002 Leerapong Mardjo 2 Significant. compatibility 2013 impact,Web navigation Adeline 2008 1 Significant.
ability positive impact,Involvement Chen Lee 2005 1 Significant. positive impact,Cognitive Wang et al 2010 1 No significant. adoption impact,Perceived Leerapong Mardjo 2013 1 Significant. observability impact, Shopping Boyle Ruppel 2006 Cal k Ersoy 2008 Girard 7 Significant. orientations Silverblatt 2003 Ling et al 2010 Park 2002 impact except. Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013 Zhang et al 2006 Thamizhvanan. Xavier 2013,Web as a sales channel,General variables.
Service quality El Ansary Roushdy 2013 Clemes et al 2014 6 Significant. Gatautis et al 2014 Hackman et al 2006 Liao positive impact. Cheung 2001 Tsao Tseng 2011,AUTHOR COPY, After sale Gatautis et al 2014 Jun Jaafar 2011 Koo et al 3 Significant. service quality 2008 positive impact,except Jun,Jaafar 2011. Online Goode Harris 2007 Kiran et al 2008 Momtaz et al 3 Significant. advertisement 2011 positive impact, Delivery Aghdaie et al 2011 Alam Yasin 2010 2 No significant. E word of Fan Miao 2012 Kamtarin 2012 2 Significant. mouth positive impact,Payment Aghdaie et al 2011 1 Significant. Service value Hackman et al 2006 1 Significant,positive impact.
Online Oncioiu 2014 1 Significant,feedbacks positive impact. Auctions Cal k Ersoy 2008 1 Significant,positive impact. Relative Adnan 2014 Clemes et al 2014 Hsu Bayarsaikhan 12 Significant. advantages 2012 Kamtarin 2012 Leerapong Mardjo 2013 positive impact. Mehta Kumar 2012 Ozen Engizek 2014 Park except Adnan. Kim 2008 Punj 2011 Saprikis 2013 Vaidehi 2014 2014. Y r k et al 2011,Merchant characteristics, Reputation Aghdaie et al 2011 Goode Harris 2007 Ha 3 Significant. Lennon 2010 positive impact, Brand Gatautis et al 2014 Momtaz et al 2011 2 Significant. positive impact,Perceived Jun Jaafar 2011 1 Significant.
marketing mix positive impact,220 JCB Journal of Customer Behaviour Volume 14. Independent Summary of,Studies Freq,variables findings. Website characteristics, Web Adnan 2014 Aghdaie et al 2011 Alam Yasin 2010 10 Significant. atmosphere Chen Lee 2005 Clemes et al 2014 Gatautis et positive impact. al 2014 Goode Harris 2007 Koo et al 2008 except Adnan. Mazaheri et al 2012 Zhang et al 2006 2014, Perceived ease Aghdaie et al 2011 Bonera 2011 Chen et al 2002 6 Significant. of use Gatautis et al 2014 Jun Jaafar 2011 Mehta positive impact. Kumar 2012, Perceived Aghdaie et al 2011 Bonera 2011 Chen et al 2002 5 Significant.
usefulness Gatautis et al 2014 Wang et al 2010 positive impact. Reliability Alam Yasin 2010 Gatautis et al 2014 Goode 4 Significant. Harris 2007 Mehta Kumar 2012 impact, Information Aghdaie et al 2011 Koo et al 2008 2 Significant. quality positive impact,Message Chu 2008 1 Significant. framing positive impact,Playfulness Bonera 2011 1 Significant. positive impact,Avatars Holzwarth et al 2006 1 Significant. positive impact,Product characteristics,AUTHOR COPY.
Product type Boyle Ruppel 2006 Gatautis et al 2014 Nagra 5 Significant. Gopal 2014 Park 2002 Vijayasarathy 2002 impact, Product price Clemes et al 2014 Gatautis et al 2014 2 Significant. impact except,Clemes et al, Product variety Clemes et al 2014 Koo et al 2008 1 Significant. positive impact,Product Clemes et al 2014 1 No significant. guarantee impact,Product Gatautis et al 2014 1 Significant. knowledge impact,Social media, Chaturvedi Gupta 2014 Forbes Vespoli 2013 5 Significant.
Leerapong Mardjo 2013 Maoyan et al 2014 positive impact. Vinerean et al 2013, similarities of factors The main categories are 1 consumer characteristics 2. characteristics of the web as a sales channel 3 website characteristics 4 merchant. characteristics 5 social media and 6 product characteristics. Consumer characteristics,General variables, As shown in Table 1 studies mostly focus on trust perceived risk attitude towards. online purchasing subjective norms perceived self efficacy personal innovativeness. and satisfaction from online purchasing, Trust is one of the most important dimensions in the majority of the studies. Consumers trust in vendors or websites i e consumers evaluations of websites. or vendor trustworthiness plays a crucial role in online shopping Lack of trust has. Akar Nasir Consumers online purchase intentions 221. FIGURE 1 Categorisation of framework,Consumer characteristics. General Demographic Shopping,variables variables orientations.
Characteristics of web as a sales channel,General Relative characteristics. variables advantages,Merchant Social Website,characteristics media characteristics. AUTHOR COPY, Source Consumer characteristics characteristics of the web as a sales channel and website. characteristics are borrowed from Chang et al 2005 p 545. a negative impact on online purchase intention Hence consumers do not prefer. shopping online if they think that a website or vendor is not trustworthy Aghdaie. Piraman Fathi 2011 Al Nasser Yusoff Islam ALNasser 2014 Becerra. Korganonkar 2011 Bianchi Andrews 2012 Chang Chen 2008 El Ansary. Roushdy 2013 George 2002 2004 Harris Goode 2010 Kamtarin 2012. Li Kim Park 2007 Ling Chai Piew 2010 Ling Piew Daud Keoy. Hassan 2011 Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013 Yoon 2002 Conversely Leerapong. and Mardjo 2013 do not find a relationship between consumers online purchase. intentions and either consumers trust attitude or trust propensity Hsu Chuang and. Hsu 2014 study trust from four different perspectives website vendor auction. initiator and group members They find a positive effect of trust on online shopping. intention only for website vendor and group members but not for auction initiator. Besides Wu and Lee 2012 focus on trust from a different perspective They. investigate blog trustworthiness instead of website or vendor trustworthiness They. state that bloggers have an impact on consumers purchase intentions However they. do not find a significant impact of blog trustworthiness on online shopping intention. Perceived risk is another factor that is investigated in the majority of the studies. Li et al 2007 p 272 define perceived risk as consumer s perceptions of the. uncertainty and adverse consequences of engaging in an activity All of the studies. shown in Table 1 state that perceived risk has a negative impact on consumers. online purchase intentions Adnan 2014 Almousa 2014 Bhatnagar Misra Rao. 2000 Bianchi Andrews 2012 Boyle Ruppel 2006 Chang Chen 2008. Clemes Gan Zhang 2014 Doolin Dillon Thompson Corner 2005 Hsu. Bayarsaikhan 2012 Kim J Lennon 2010 Kim S H Byramjee 2014. Kuhlmeier Knight 2005 Leerapong Mardjo 2013 Liao Cheung 2001. 222 JCB Journal of Customer Behaviour Volume 14, Pavlou 2003 It implies that if consumers think purchasing is very risky on the. Internet due to security or privacy issues their online purchases decrease. Wang Gu and Aiken 2010 p 56 describe personal innovativeness as the. degree to which an individual is receptive to new ideas It is stated that personal. innovativeness has a positive impact on online shopping intention Boyle Ruppel. 2006 Goldsmith 2001 2002 Hsu Bayarsaikhan 2012 Limayem Khalifa. Frini 2000 Sin Tse 2002 Wang et al 2010 However Boyle and Ruppel 2006. state that identification of innovative consumers is a very difficult task in practice. Perceived self efficacy is yet another dimension as prior research shows. According to Wang et al 2010 p 56 self efficacy is referred to as a consumer s. self assessment of his or her capabilities to shop online If consumers level of self. assessment is high their online purchases increase Bonera 2011 Boyle Ruppel. 2006 Wang et al 2010 Subjective norms are defined as the rules by which. operates sic the subjective motivation of individuals to act consistently with the. views of the individuals peer and social group Bonera 2011 p 826 The majority. of the studies find that the views of social groups or those of other individuals such. as opinion leaders affect consumers purchase intentions Bonera 2011 Clemes et. al 2014 Foucault Scheufele 2002 Laohapensang 2009 Leerapong Mardjo. 2013 Limayem et al 2000 Yu Wu 2007 Zhang Prybutok Koh 2006. On the other hand Wang Chen Chang and Yang 2007 do not find an impact of. subjective norms on online shopping intention, As stated in Table 1 perceived compatibility perceived observability web.
AUTHOR COPY, navigation ability involvement emotions perceived behavioural control perceived. price and cognitive adoption are analysed in several studies Adeline 2008 Chen. Lee 2005 Hackman Gundergan Wang Daniel 2006 Hsu Bayarsaikhan. 2012 Laohapensang 2009 Liao Cheung 2001 Mazaheri Richard Laroche. 2012 Mehta Kumar 2012 Wang et al 2007 Wang et al 2010. Demographic variables, As indicated in Table 1 there are different types of demographic variables that have. an impact on consumers online purchase intentions Variables such as gender age. education income level of internet usage culture and online shopping experience. are investigated in many studies, According to Table 1 all studies but one indicate that gender has an effect on. online shopping intention The majority of the studies reveal that men are more. likely to make online purchases than women Brown Pope Voges 2003 Doolin. et al 2005 El Ansary Roushdy 2013 Fan Miao 2012 Girard Silverblatt. 2003 Lian Yen 2014 Rodgers Harris 2003 Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013. Vaidehi 2014 Conversely Clemes et al 2014 find that women tend to shop online. more than men, Age is also analysed as a dimension in the majority of the studies which find both. positive and negative impacts of age Brown et al 2003 Doolin et al 2005 El. Ansary Roushdy 2013 Fan Miao 2012 Girard Silverblatt 2003 Lian. Yen 2014 Rodgers Harris 2003 Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013 whereas three. studies indicate that there is no significant relationship between age and consumers. online purchase intentions Doolin et al 2005 Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013 Van. Slyke Comunale Belanger 2002 Clemes et al 2014 reveal that due to their. past internet experience younger consumers tend to shop online more than older. Akar Nasir Consumers online purchase intentions 223. Education is one of the key factors among demographic variables More educated. people are more likely to purchase online Girard Silverblatt 2003 Gong. Maddox 2011 Punj 2011 Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013 Level of internet usage. is another dimension found in the literature reviewed Consumers who have previous. internet experience are more likely to shop online than those who do not have such. experience Bhatnagar et al 2000 Cal k Ersoy 2008 Cho 2004 Citrin Sprott. Silverman Stem 2000 Doolin et al 2005 El Ansary Roushdy 2013 Gong. Maddox 2011 Koyuncu Lien 2003 Kuhlmeier Knight 2005 Liao. Cheung 2001 Nysveen Pedersen 2004 Park 2002 Punj 2011 Saprikis 2013. Van Slyke et al 2002 Wang et al 2010, Income is also analysed in the majority of the studies Consumers who have higher.
income levels are more likely to shop online than those who have lower income. levels Cal k Ersoy 2008 Doolin et al 2005 Girard Silverblatt 2003 Gong. Maddox 2011 Hernandez Jimenez Martin 2011 Punj 2011 Conversely. Clemes et al 2014 state that consumers who have high income levels do not tend to. shop online because they prefer buying branded products at retail stores in order to. have a nice user experience and get support and service It is stated that prior online. purchase experience is positively related to online shopping Bonera 2011 Bosnjak. Galesic Tuten 2007 Huang 2011 Kuhlmeier Knight 2005 Leerapong. Mardjo 2013 Ling et al 2010 Moe Pader 2004 Momtaz Islam Ariffin. Karim 2011 Park Jun 2003 Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013 Wang et al 2010. Yang Lester 2004 Moreover Dai Forsythe and Kwon 2014 indicate that online. AUTHOR COPY, shopping experience is a positive predictor for both digital and non digital product. categories, Culture is yet another indicator among demographic variables All studies but. one reveal that different cultures use the Internet for different purposes and the. development of the Internet is different around the globe Chau Cole Massey. Montoya Weiss O Keefe 2002 O Keefe et al 2000 Pavlou 2003 Shiu. Dawson 2002 Stafford Turan Raisinghani 2004 Residential area sexual. preference purchase experience marital status credit card usage accessibility and. race have also been investigated in past studies and their impacts on online shopping. intention are shown in Table 1 Chen Lee 2005 Doolin et al 2005 Gong. Maddox 2011 Koyuncu Lien 2003 Thamizhvanan Xavier 2013 Van Slyke. Lou Belanger Sridhar 2010,Shopping orientations, Consumers shopping orientations play a crucial role in their online purchase. intention Ling et al 2010 find that brand and quality orientation are positively. related to online purchase intention On the other hand Thamizhvanan and Xavier. 2013 do not find an impact of brand and quality orientation on online purchase. intention Hence previous studies have contained mixed findings about whether. brand and quality orientation influence online purchase intention. In addition some studies focus on price consciousness convenience recreational. shopping variety seeking entertainment orientations and impulsiveness It has been. found that 1 consumers who purchase more items on the Internet are more price. sensitive 2 consumers who are loyal to websites prefer to purchase online more. and 3 people who spend more time online buy more items Cal k Ersoy 2008. Girard Silverblatt 2003 Ling et al 2010 Park 2002 Thamizhvanan Xavier. 2013 Conversely Brown et al 2003 indicate that shopping orientations do not. have a direct impact on online purchase intention,224 JCB Journal of Customer Behaviour Volume 14. Characteristics of the web as a sales channel,General variables.
As shown in Table 1 service quality advertisements and e word of mouth are. analysed in the majority of the studies Service quality and value have a positive. impact on online purchase intention Boyle Ruppel 2006 Clemes et al 2014. El Ansary Roushdy 2013 Gatautis Kazakeviciute Tarutis 2014 Hackman. et al 2006 Liao Cheung 2001 Tsao Tseng 2011 The effect of online. advertisements has been found to be a significant determinant on online purchase. intention as well Goode Harris 2007 Kiran Sharma Mittal 2008 Momtaz. et al 2011 E word of mouth has emerged with the rapid advancement of online. shopping It is available to all online consumers and helps them in making online. shopping decisions Thus it has a positive impact on online shopping intention Fan. Miao 2012 Kamtarin 2012, After service quality is analysed by Jun and Jaafar 2011 Koo Kim and Lee. 2008 and Gatautis et al 2014 Koo et al 2008 and Gatautis et al 2014 find an. impact of after service quality on online purchase intention whereas Jun and Jaafar. 2011 find no relationship between them In addition payment and delivery issues. auctions online feedback and service value have an impact on online purchase. intention Aghdaie et al 2011 Alam Yasin 2010 Cal k Ersoy 2008 Hackman. et al 2006 Oncioiu 2014,AUTHOR COPY,Relative advantages. Some of the studies focus on the relative advantages of online shopping They have. shown that online shopping is faster and more convenient than traditional shopping. and that consumers can 1 find the best product easily 2 have more product. alternatives 3 shop anytime anywhere 4 place orders easily and save money. and 5 follow promotional activities Adnan 2014 Clemes et al 2014 Hsu. Bayarsaikhan 2012 Kamtarin 2012 Kiran et al 2008 Leerapong Mardjo. 2013 Mehta Kumar 2012 Punj 2011 Saprikis 2013 Vahidehi 2014 Vinerean. Certina Dumitrescu Tichindelean 2013 In addition Ozen and Engizek 2014. focus on hedonic values and find that consumers enjoy online shopping and searching. Consumers socialise and relax while shopping On the other hand Adnan 2014. does not find a significant relationship between hedonic values and online shopping. Merchant characteristics, Reputation of the vendor or merchant is investigated in prior research and is found. to have a crucial role Aghdaie et al 2011 Goode Harris 2007 Jun Jaafar. 2011 Jun and Jaafar 2011 also focus on marketing mix and find that it has a. positive impact on online shopping Lastly Momtaz et al 2011 investigate brands. and find that brand management has an important role in online shopping. Website characteristics, As stated in Table 1 the studies mainly focus on information quality perceived ease. of use usefulness web atmosphere and reliability There is a positive impact of. information quality perceived ease of use and usefulness on online purchase intention. Aghdaie et al 2011 Bonera 2011 Gatautis et al 2014 Jun Jaafar 2011 Koo. et al 2008 Mehta Kumar 2012 Web atmosphere consists of structure design. Akar Nasir Consumers online purchase intentions 225. layout functionalities image and aesthetics dimensions There is a significant. relationship between the atmospheric cues of a website and online purchase intention. Aghdaie et al 2011 Alam Yasin 2010 Chen Lee 2005 Clemes et al 2014. Gatautis et al 2014 Goode Harris 2007 Koo et al 2008 Mazaheri et al. 2012 Zhang et al 2006 Conversely Adnan 2014 does not find a positive impact. of website atmosphere on online shopping intention Reliability of the website has. an impact on online purchase intention Alam Yasin 2010 Gatautis et al 2014. Goode Harris 2007 Mehta Kumar 2012, Message framing is investigated by Chu 2008 who found that negative messages.
have more impact on consumers than positive ones Other studies find an impact of. playfulness e g using avatars that are representations of humans in a virtual world. and perceived ease of use and usefulness on online purchase intention Bonera 2011. Holzwarth Janiszewski Neumann 2006 Ling et al 2011. Social media, Nowadays social media play a very important role in the rapid development of the. Internet For this reason it is added as a new category to the framework demonstrated. in Figure 1 Maoyan Zhujunxuan and Sangyang 2014 p 93 define social media. as a network and technology which is used to create hot news by Internet users. then communicate and disseminate information to each other and social media. marketing as community marketing which is a kind of Internet marketing model. AUTHOR COPY, it points to achieve marketing objectives by participating in various social media. networks p 93, Vinerean et al 2013 Forbes and Vespoli 2013 and Leerapong and Mardjo. 2013 analyse the importance of social media and its effects on online purchasing. Vinerean et al 2013 state that social media influence online shopping Forbes. and Vespoli 2013 indicate that people consider the views of opinion leaders in. social media when they make a purchase and buy both expensive and inexpensive. products according to their recommendations Accordingly they advise companies. to encourage their customers to post on social media Another implication is that. consumers desire information now so there is a shift from traditional social media. platforms such as Facebook to quicker social media platforms such as Twitter. In addition Maoyan et al 2014 study social media marketing and find that it. has an effect on consumers online purchase intentions with respect to four factors. placement marketing activities experiential marketing and interaction These factors. influence consumers inner perception i e perceived value and perceived risk and. altogether they affect online purchase intention In addition to this study Chaturvedi. and Gupta 2014 also observe the effect of social media on consumers purchase. intentions They conclude that social media is a powerful and low cost platform for. sales promotions to attract and reach the maximum number of consumers. Product characteristics, Product type and product assortment are the product characteristics that have an. impact on online purchase intention When a website is often updated with new. products product assortment increases which in turn has a positive impact on online. shopping Koo et al 2008 Regarding product type product tangibility is a crucial. factor in the sense that consumers prefer to buy intangible products from online. stores Brown et al 2003 Gatautis et al 2014 Park 2002 Vijayasarathy 2002. On the other hand Nagra and Gopal 2014 reveal that consumers buy all types. 226 JCB Journal of Customer Behaviour Volume 14, of goods and services online In particular they state that consumers explore the.
products offline and look for the best price online Additionally Clemes et al 2014. investigate product price guarantee and variety Although they find a positive impact. of product variety on online purchase intention they do not find a significant impact. of either guarantee or price On the other hand Gatautis et al 2014 find an impact. of both product price and product knowledge on online purchase intention. CONCLUSIONS, Technological developments and proliferation of the Internet introduce a new type. of consumer called an online consumer It is obvious that online consumers have. various characteristics and behave differently from traditional consumers In order. to understand online consumer behaviour and online purchase intention an analysis. of consumer characteristics environment and technological trends is necessary. Hence our paper evaluates past research on relevant factors that have an impact. on consumers online purchase intentions and categorises these factors with respect. to their similarities Indeed this study is a roadmap for further studies Our work. includes both heavily investigated and underestimated dimensions of consumers. online purchase intentions, Characteristics of online consumers is one of the topics that attracts much attention. AUTHOR COPY, in the literature The majority of research papers focus on demographic profiles and. technographics of online consumers particularly gender age education income. culture internet usage level and online purchase experience It is revealed that males. are more inclined to shop online compared with females Moreover studies indicate. that younger people make more online purchases than older people due to their level. of internet usage experience Past research provides evidence that online purchase. experience and high income also increase the online purchase tendency of consumers. From the consumers perspective trust perceived risk attitude and personal. innovativeness play vital roles in consumers online purchase intentions Trust and. perceived risk are considered as a challenge in the online environment If customers. trust vendors or websites and think that the environment is risk free they make more. online purchases, Nowadays companies treat the Web as a sales channel and service quality and. after service quality are among the most important dimensions of web channels in. order to increase the satisfaction level of online consumers In addition this online. environment offers many relative advantages to consumers These relative advantages. attract consumers to more convenient easier time saving and more enjoyable online. shopping The majority of the papers in this category focus on these points and. advantages of online purchasing, Features of a user friendly website have also received considerable attention in.
previous articles The most heavily examined topic is web atmosphere A website. should be aesthetic reliable responsive and include informative good and rich. content Product type and product characteristics are also intensely studied in past. Social media and social media marketing are hot topics in the research agenda. due to the development of Web 2 0 Consumers create share and disseminate. information and communicate with each other on digital platforms Past research. indicates that social media affect consumers online purchase intentions in this two. way online environment, Akar Nasir Consumers online purchase intentions 227. Our paper also identifies dimensions which are not frequently investigated in the. context of online purchase intention In this manner the paper proposes further. research areas about online shopping for academics. Impact of payment type service value online feedback and auctions on online. purchase intention, Impact of product variability guarantee and knowledge on online purchase. Impact of avatars message framing and playfulness of websites on online. purchase intention, Impact of web navigation ability of consumers their involvement cognitive. adoption and perceived observability on online purchase intention. Furthermore social media will continue to be a hot topic and will be investigated at. a tremendous rate within a more digitalised world,MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS. In today s competitive and digitalised world companies try to observe and understand. the differences between online consumers and traditional consumers Companies. AUTHOR COPY, concentrate on the needs and wants of online consumers in order to attract and.
satisfy these consumers This study suggests different approaches for managers who. are interested in online consumers, First of all managers should be aware of the fact that this new type of consumer. behaves in a distinct way and has various and diverse characteristics compared with. those of a traditional consumer Depending on the demographic profile of online. consumers companies should design their marketing campaigns accordingly. Furthermore trust is one of the crucial dimensions in the digitalised world. Consumers want to trust their vendors and websites In order to satisfy consumers. and earn their loyalty managers should provide consumers with a risk free. environment For this reason many companies may prefer to cooperate with cyber. security companies to increase their websites security Websites should be designed. well and their content should be clear attention grabbing and understandable for. consumers If both content and design represent the business image well consumers. begin to trust them as a vendor Besides service quality and after service quality are. very important aspects particularly in the online environment Companies should. assure their consumers that quality is guaranteed from the beginning of an online. purchase activity until the end, Companies should give their consumers explicit product information by using a. more descriptive language and it is suggested that companies provide consumers. not only textual information about their products but also images and videos on the. One of the important implications is that companies should follow technological. trends update themselves and be prepared for any changes in the market Companies. should be aware of the rise of social media It is clear that consumers share their. opinions on social networks which are very dynamic platforms Therefore. companies should analyse consumers activities and conversation patterns on these. social networks and should be prepared to take more responsive steps in order to. satisfy online consumers,228 JCB Journal of Customer Behaviour Volume 14. REFERENCES, Adeline P 2008 Web Navigation Behavior of Malaysians in Relation to Online Purchasing. International Journal of Business and Society 9 1 77 102. Adnan H 2014 An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behavior of Pakistani. Consumers International Journal of Marketing Studies 6 5 133 148 doi 10 5539 ijms. Aghdaie S Piraman A Fathi S 2011 An Analysis of Factors Affecting the Consumer s. Attitude of Trust and their Impact on Internet Purchasing Behavior International Journal. of Business and Society 2 23 147 158, Alam S Yasin N 2010 An Investigation into the Antecedents of Customer Satisfaction.
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