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Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Press Information. Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book,Alain Trottier. Al Williams,President and CEO,Roland Elgey,Al Valvano. Associate Publisher,Katherine R Hartlove,Acquisitions Editor. Jawahara Saidullah,Development Editor,Jessica Choi. Product Marketing Manager,Jeff Johnson,Project Editor.
Sally M Scott,Technical Reviewer,Production Coordinator. Peggy Cantrell,Cover Designer,Laura Wellander,Copyright 2002 The Coriolis Group LLC. All rights reserved, This book may not be duplicated in any way without the express written consent of the publisher. except in the form of brief excerpts or quotations for the purposes of review The information. contained herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any. commercial programs other books databases or any kind of software without written consent of. the publisher Making copies of this book or any portion for any purpose other than your own is a. violation of United States copyright laws,Limits of Liability and Disclaimer of Warranty. The author and publisher of this book have used their best efforts in preparing the book and the. programs contained in it These efforts include the development research and testing of the. theories and programs to determine their effectiveness The author and publisher make no. Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Press Information. warranty of any kind expressed or implied with regard to these programs or the documentation. contained in this book, The author and publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages.
in connection with or arising out of the furnishing performance or use of the programs. associated instructions and or claims of productivity gains. Trademarks, Trademarked names appear throughout this book Rather than list the names and entities that. own the trademarks or insert a trademark symbol with each mention of the trademarked name. the publisher states that it is using the names for editorial purposes only and to the benefit of the. trademark owner with no intention of infringing upon that trademark. The Coriolis Group LLC,14455 North Hayden Road,Scottsdale Arizona 85260. 480 483 0192,FAX 480 483 0193,http www coriolis com. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Trottier Alain, Java 2 core language little black book by Alain Trottier and Al Williams. Includes index,1 932111 66 2, 1 Java Computer program language I Williams Al 1963 II Title.
QA76 73 J38 T76 2002,005 13 3 dc21 2001058409,10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. This book is dedicated to my wife Patricia the love of my life and to my son Devyn who has. brought us tremendous joy,Alain Trottier,As always for my wife Pat. Al Williams,About the Authors, Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Press Information. Alain Trottier observes the dot com warfare of Southern California from his vantage point as an. independent consultant Trottier Technologies and Adjunct Professor at Vanguard University of. Southern California He has been in the tech sector for two decades wearing many hats such as. technologist customer support provider programmer architect manager and director He has. worked in a wide range of environments such as the U S Navy Chevron s research center and. Adforce His experience includes methodical exacting research as well as code til ya drop. Internet pre IPO ventures, He is as fascinated by people as he is by the IT trenches they inhabit His Microsoft and Sun. certifications are balanced by his Bachelor s and Master s degrees in religion Alain would be. delighted to hear from readers who have requests or comments he can be reached at. http www inforobo com javacorelanguage, Al Williams is a long time consultant and author His articles have appeared regularly in.
magazines such as Web Techniques Dr Dobb s Visual Developer and many others He s the. author of more than a dozen books on programming and computers including MFC Black Book. and Java 2 Network Protocol Black Book both from The Coriolis Group Al s programming. career has seen him programming in Fortran C C and more recently Java Al s consulting. projects have included aerospace projects chemical production software a nd many embedded. systems He also teaches programming courses across the United States. When Al s not working which isn t often he enjoys tinkering with amateur radio projects. watching or reading science fiction and maintaining a few personal Web sites He lives near. Houston Texas with his wife Pat and a varying number of kids dogs and cats. Acknowledgments, I would like to thank Jawahara Saidullah Acquisitions Editor and Chris Van Buren agent at. Waterside who made this book possible Thank you also to Jessica Choi Development Editor. for your valuable guidance Thank you Sally Scott Project Editor and your team for all the. detailed work you do Every book purchase is a nod to your effectiveness. Alain Trottier, Producing a book is a lot of work Sure writing is hard but that s just the tip of the iceberg. Behind the scenes a lot of people do most of the real work the proofreading the typesetting. the layout the indexing and all the other details that it takes to transform some ran dom typing in. Microsoft Word into the book you re holding in your hands. To that end I d like to thank Sally Scott Project Editor Peggy Cantrell Production Coordinator. Catherine Oliver Copyeditor Sumit Pal Technical Reviewer Christine Sherk Proofreader. William Hartman Compositor Christina Palaia Indexer and Laura Wellander Cover Designer. I d also like to thank Jawahara Saidullah Acquisitions Editor for bringing me in to join the team. that produced this book, Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Press Information. My thanks also go to Alain Trottier for all of his example code and other material There s an old. saying that two workers make twice the work but fortunately in this case it cut the work in half. as it should, Some of the material in this book appeared in a different format in my Java Work column in. Web Techniques magazine and appears with permission Thanks to Amit Asaravala at Web. Techniques for his continuing support and friendship. I couldn t even start to tackle projects of this size and scope without the support of my family My. wife Pat and kids Jerid Amy and Patrick all have to put up with me seeming to live in my office. but they never complain well almost never Thanks guys Oh and if you ve read this. far thanks to you for taking the time to read about all of these people who are important to me. Al Williams, Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Introduction.
Introduction, Suppose you wanted to take up painting You can learn about painting basically in one of two ways. First you can make a study of painting and spend a lot of time reading and thinking about c olors. lighting and perspective Eventually you could make some simple sketches maybe just some. geometrical shapes and tentatively try to paint them After a great deal of study and effort you might. even be able to produce something you might be able to sell. The second way is to buy a paint by number set You ve seen these of course You get a canvas with. all the areas of the painting already marked and numbered All you have to do is fill in the areas with. paint from the little numbered tins and you have a masterpiece. Programming is a lot like painting You can spend years training and planning and writing small. tentative programs Or you can use wizards and example code essentially this is a. program by number In this book you ll find a hybrid a pproach that bridges these two philosophies. Modern tools and the Internet have made it very easy for people to create programs without having a. real understanding of the details This is especially true with graphical user interface builders that. automatically write all but the small details of your application On the other hand most of us need. professional results now We don t want to spend years honing skills instead we need to produce. results today, We wrote this book to provide you with plenty of cut and paste examples and also to explain the. reasoning behind them This lets you find a balance between your need to get things done and your. need to understand why and how things work,Why This Book Is for You. Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book is for the intermediate to advanced Java programmer If you. are just starting out however you might find it useful to study this book in conjunction with a language. reference such as the Sun documentation This book concentrates on helping you apply the. language in real world development presenting building blocks and the details about their. construction, You ll find that this book focuses on the Java language and its core libraries While many books jump. into graphical programming this book focuses on non graphical text based programs Why. Because graphics programming techniques can obscure the fundamental Java tasks you need to. understand And also setting up user interface screens is one place where the paint by number. tools are something you probably will use It is better that you have a firm grasp of the underlying Java. language and calls Even the most sophisticated graphics program uses the same core language. techniques that this book illustrates, Some of the book s sample code also comes from a working online service the engine behind Words.
Count a Writing Analysis Tool at http wordscount ezpublishing com This is because there is no. tougher test for code than placing it in production if you miss something customers will howl Using. the unforgiving production test as a result keeps the material practical and we wanted to give you. something more than academic code to study, Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Introduction. In short if you want to learn about the core Java language and libraries in settings as diverse as. Internet access security and XML then this book is for you If you ve been using a. paint by numbers tool and you want to increase your understanding of what s going on behind the. scenes you ll find that this book will help you fill in the gaps If you are an experienced developer. looking for quick code examples for database code network servers and other topics covered in this. book you ll find the Little Black Book format fast and useful. You ll find quite a few example programs in this book including. Examples of major language features including arrays exceptions casting and more. Object and package examples that show you how to get the most from the class system. Examples of using vectors arrays and other data structures to store and manipulate data. efficiently, File and stream handling examples These programs show you a variety of ways to deal. with files and also illustrate how to apply the techniques to any data source not just files. E xamples that use JDBC Java DataBase Connectivity for database access You can use. JDBC to access a variety of SQL databases, Programs that act as Internet clients and servers including programs that extract data from. Web pages These examples also show techniques used with network sockets and. Examples of using SAX and DOM parsers to read XML documents. Programs that use multiple threads to execute several tasks at once which can provide. better performance for programs that can benefit from multitasking. Examples that serialize objects to persistent storage and later restore them You can use. these techniques to save and restore data or transmit data across a network. Encryption key generation and digital signature examples Encryption is necessary for. many e commerce and communications programs, Examples of internationalized programs that show how to accommodate multiple. languages using techniques like resource bundling,How to Use This Book.
Since this is a Little Black Book you ll find that each chapter has two sections First there is a brief. overview of the chapter s topics The second section a set of practical immediate solutions contains. specific examples that illustrate the chapter s points Often you can find a specific code example in. this second section If you want to customize it you can drill down into the details by reading the first. Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Introduction. If you haven t already installed Sun s free Software Development Kit SDK for Java start with. Chapter 1 Although you can use other products like VisualAge or JBuilder you ll get more of a. low level view with the SDK The experience you gain will directly apply to writing programs using. these more sophisticated tools If you insist on using some other tool be sure to avoid or disable as. much of the automatic code generation as you can because like painting by number this hides much. of what is really happening at the code level Also be sure your tool is using the 1 4 version of the. Java 2 SDK, This book uses version 1 4 of the Java 2 SDK Standard Edition the latest version of the language. Although many of the topics will still be useful if you use a different version some of the exam ples. might require modification if you aren t using the same version that we use in this book. After Chapter 1 you can decide which approach you want to take If you are already familiar with. Java s syntax and semantics you might just randomly thumb through the chapters starting with. Chapter 5 until you find topics that interest you Although some of the examples in these chapters. assume familiarity with earlier chapters if you are comfortable with Java you shouldn t have much. trouble picking out what you need If you are just starting with Java or if you ve been using tools that. hide a lot of detail from you or even if you just want a refresher course pay special attention to. Chapters 2 3 and 4 These core concepts are not glamorous but they are the foundation that all. programs require You can t build a castle on a shaky foundation and you can t write a great Java. program without understanding why and how things work in Java including the class system Once. you are comfortable with these chapters you can pursue the more advanced chapters that appear. later in the book,The Little Black Book Philosophy. Written by experienced professionals Coriolis Little Black Books are terse easily thumb able. question answerers and problem solvers The Little Black Book s uniq ue two part chapter. format brief technical overviews followed by practical immediate solutions is structured to help you. use your knowledge solve problems and quickly master complex technical issues to become an. expert By breaking down complex topics into easily manageable components this format helps you. quickly find what you need with the code you need to make it happen. We welcome your feedback on this book You can email us at The Coriolis Group at. ctp coriolis com, Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Chapter 1 Getting Started with Java. Chapter 1 Getting Started with Java, This book focuses on the core Java language an easy to learn yet powerful programming language. The book will teach you what you need to know in order to produce full featured software products. based on Java It concentrates on the core language the use of which involves much more than. understanding a list of simple keywords and syntax Knowing how to use a language well requires. more than the ability to spell correctly the nuances come instead from word combinations Java and. English are similar in that they both have syntax grammars rules and conventions the core of any. You can divide Java into two main parts The first part the Java Virtual Machine executes Java. programs The second part the Software Development Kit is the set of tools used to develop Java. For execution you need a compiled program and a Java Virtual Machine JVM which serves as the. intermediary between your program and the host computer The JVM provides cross platform. portability because your program will work on any JVM regardless of the operating system or. hardware involved Of course there are different versions or editions of the JVM so in practice. some programs will require specific JVM versions However the idea is that one Java program can. run on many JVMs regardless of the operating system or computer hardware involved. Note Sun and Sun approved vendors give away a JVM with every major operating. system Of course your users machines need a JVM but many new PCs. servers and even handheld devices already have one installed If not Sun. allows you to redistribute the user portion of Java with your product. For development you need only a text editor and the basic Java tools that Sun provides for free. There are fancier tools available some for free, This chapter will introduce the Java architecture providing you with the background information you ll.
need in order to better understand what you re doing in later chapters This chapter will also teach you. how to enter code compile it and then run it on a JVM. Java Editions, Sun uses a peculiar naming scheme to differentiate different versions of Java First Sun generates an. abstract specification that defines what Java is This is known as the platform Major specification. changes would require a change in platform Then a particular version of Java might target a different. type of application for example a desktop computer or a handheld computer These different types. are known as editions Finally each specific implementation of an edition on the platform has a. version number and is known as a Java SDK Software Development Kit formerly known as the Java. Development Kit or JDK, Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Chapter 1 Getting Started with Java. Tip For a good glossary see Unraveling Java Terminology by Dana Nourie at. http www developer java sun com developer onlineTraining new2java programming learn unravelingjava html. Sun has three editions of Java for a given platform or version the current platform is Java 2 The. editions for the current platform are, J2ME Micro Edition Used to create programs that run on small handheld devices such. as phones PDAs personal digital assistants and appliances. J2SE Standard Edition Used primarily to create programs for desktop computers or for. any computer too large for J2ME and too small for J2EE. J2EE Enterprise Edition Used to create very large programs that run on servers. managing heavy traffic and complicated transactions These programs are the backbone of. many online services such as banking e commerce and B2B business to business. trading systems, Each edition has different capabilities It s important for you to know the differences among the. editions because they affect your projects Many programmers start with J2SE and intend to jump to. J2EE later The advantage of this approach is that the development team can get up to speed on Java. technology with J2SE which is not as complex as J2EE The disadvantage is that the team will face a. major conversion to move to J2EE In addition equipping a team for J2EE can be significantly more. expensive than equipping a team for J2SE The SDK is free but you ll probably want a server. machine in addition to workstations not to mention database software and multiple clients for testing. There is a world of difference between writing and testing code snippets on a standalone machine and. stress testing the whole product on a true enterprise system that involves multiple servers clients. and middleware Therefore if you have J2SE v1 3 you know that it is the Java SDK version 1 3. targeting desktop computers Standard Edition and that it is based on the Java 2 platform. specification Presumably in the future there will be a Java 3 and even additional editions unless. Sun changes the naming scheme again,The Java SDK, For each Java edition Sun gives away a Software Development Kit SDK which has everything you.
need to compile and test programs Most of the code in this book was developed with the J2SE SDK. Be warned that the programs you compile for one edition will often not work for the other two editions. J2SE compiled programs will work on J2EE because J2EE is a true superset of J2SE J2EE. programs that use special J2EE features won t work with J2SE however Nor will J2SE or J2EE. programs run on J2ME since the JVMs are quite different between the two editions. The SDK is a development environment for building programs using the Java programming language. the SDK includes everything you need to develop and test programs The tools include command line. programs which were used incidentally to develop the samples for this book Although these tools. do not provide a graphical user interface GUI using them is a good way to learn the Java language. Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Chapter 1 Getting Started with Java. Besides if you understand how the core tools work you ll have no problems using one of the many. integrated development environments IDEs available. Tip You can download the current release of the Java 2 SDK Standard Edition from. http www java sun com, The SDK provides many tools the three most important of which are. The compiler The compiler converts the human readable source file into. platform independent code that a JVM interprets This code is called bytecode. The runtime system The SDK includes a JVM that allows you to run Java programs. and test your programs The runtime system also includes a command line debugger. that you can use to monitor your program s execution. The source code Sun provides quite a bit of source code for the Java libraries that. form part of the JVM You shouldn t change this code directly Thanks to object. orientation however you can modify these classes by making new classes that. extend the existing ones Examining the source code is often helpful in understanding. how a class works Y, If you are familiar with other programming languages you might wonder about linking A C program. for example is not only compiled but also linked with other library modules to form an executable. program This linking is not necessary or even possible in Java The JVM dynamically searches for. and loads library modules as the prog ram needs them This dynamic loading is a crucial capability. For example a Java program embedded in a Web browser can load modules over the Internet The. browser does not need to know anything about the modules at compile time The linkage is handled. completely at run time,The Java Virtual Machine, Java is the first truly useful portable language The JVM architecture offers you several advantages. cross platform portability size and security,Cross Platform Portability. The JVM provides cross platform portability You write code for the JVM not for the operating system. OS Because all JVMs look the same to Java programs you have to write only one version of your. program and it will work on all JVMs The JVM interprets the byte code and carries out the program s. operations in a way that is compatible with the current hardware architecture and operating system. Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Chapter 1 Getting Started with Java. The second interesting side effect of using JVM architecture is the small size of its compiled code. Most of the functionality is buried in the JVM so the compiled code that runs on top of it doesn t need. to be loaded with large libraries Of course the JVM is among other things a large library but it is. shared among all Java programs That means that a Java program can be quite small at least the. part of the program that is uniquely yours All Java programs share the large JVM but presumably it is. already on the target machine This is especially important when users are downloading programs. over the Internet for example Of course if users computers don t have a JVM they ll have a large. download for installing the JVM on their machines first After the JVM installs the users won t have to. worry about installing again, Java has been designed to protect users from malicious programs Programs from an untrusted.
source for example the Internet execute in a restricted environment known as a sandbox The. JVM can then prevent those programs from causing mischief For example a Java applet a small. program that runs on a Web page usually can t access local files or open network connections to. arbitrary computers These restrictions prevent a Web page from erasing your critical files or sending. threatening email from your computer,Data Types and Unicode. Software has to manage many types of data including numbers dates currencies and letters There. are several numeric data types and two character data types among others Whereas the decimal. number system is universal alphabets vary considerably What do you do if you want to name a. variable using Cyrillic letters for example To accommodate these variations Java uses the Unicode. character set, At the basic level computers only crunch numbers When it comes to character data the computer. assigns a number for each letter Because computers need to communicate with each other there. should be a standard way to map characters to numbers For years the two predominant standards. were ASCII the American Standard Code for Information Interchange and EBCDIC Extended. Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code Both of these used 8 bit numbers to represent common. characters used in the United States, With only 8 bits these character sets can handle only 256 unique characters including spaces and. control characters However this capability is not adequate for truly international programs that might. encounter languages using a variety of alphabets such as Farsi or Cyrillic. To deal with these problems a new standard emerged Unicode see http www unicode org. Unicode uses 16 bit or even 32 bit characters that allow it to represent a large number of symbols. The 32 bit Unicode system with 4 3 billion characters can handle all known languages including the. huge Asian character sets and still leave room for growth There are even Unicode characters for. Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Chapter 1 Getting Started with Java. dead languages such as Sanskrit Unicode is used by Java as well as by XML ECMAScript. JavaScript and many others It is also used by most modern operating systems and We b browsers. That means you can write programs that deal with international character sets This Unicode support. is provided throughout Java Not only can your programs handle user input and output in Unicode but. the programs themselves are written using Unicode You can name variables and functions using any. character set you can represent, If you are an American used to dealing with ASCII don t worry It just so happens that the first 256. characters of the Unicode set correspond to those in the ASCII character set Programs like the Java. compiler can recognize ASCII files so you can write programs with any text editor A special encoding. known as Unicode Transformational Format or UTF allows you to specify extended characters in an. ASCII file so you can take advantage of Unicode even if you don t have a Unicode aware text editor. Java Tools, Many tool vendors provide additional tools for Java some free and some for a price Because the.
SDK is command line oriented it s no surprise that tool vendors sell IDEs integrated development. environments that enable you to edit and compile code from a GUI improving productivity Even Sun. has a GUI IDE Forte You can download a free version of Forte or buy a version with additional. Note You can read more about tools in Appendix A For now just understand that. although these tools can improve productivity they are not generally discussed. in this book Once you are comfortable with the basic Java system you ll be. able to use any IDE with ease, Several good editors are on the market IBM provides a world class IDE called VisualAge for Java. The entry level version is free and targets the IBM WebSph ere software platform a combination Web. server and application server not bad considering that IBM is giving away WebSphere with a. one user license You can download these two tools and use them to develop powerful applications. Inprise formerly Borland offers JBuilder and Sun provides Forte. Note Be careful if you install these IDEs because they might take a huge amount of. disk space Also many are written in Java This is a good idea but because. the JVM interprets the programs the IDEs may require a fast computer and lots. of memory to be truly useful, Other tools are also available but all you need for now is a text editor We will be starting with simple. programs so you don t need anything fancy I use Notepad the simple editor included with the. Windows OS You can use plenty of other editors ranging from simple Notepad replacements and vi. a common Unix text editor to large text editor systems such as Emacs The key is to use something. you are already comfortable with so you can focus on the Java code instead of on the text editor. Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Chapter 1 Getting Started with Java. SDK Contents, The SDK provides you with several tools that you d expect to receive from a language vendor along. with a few additional tools that help with the overall development effort The basic components include. the compiler javac exe under Windows the runtime engine java exe and the debugger jdb exe. The SDK provides a few other tools that you probably won t use as often. javadoc Generates HTML documentation from special comments in your files. appletviewer Runs and debugs applets small programs that run in other programs. jar Manages Java archives collections of files similar to a Zip file or a compressed tar. native2ascii Used to convert files that contain native encoded characters into UTF format. keytool jarsigner policytool Provide security tools. The SDK also has tools that handle network programming but you won t need these for a while yet. Multiple Versions of the Java 2 SDK, The examples in this book were written using the Java 2 SDK version 1 4 Usually newer versions of. the SDK will work with older versions but to be safe you should work through the examples using. version 1 4 if possible Installing multiple SDK versions is possible if you are not careful however. installing two or more versions can cause problems For example if you compile with one version and. inadvertently execute with a different runtime version your program will probably not work properly. You can have two versions of the SDK installed however if you are very careful to keep them. separate If you have 1 3 of the Java 2 SDK and you install Java 2 SDK 1 4 you will have to decide. which version s binaries i e java exe javac exe you want the PATH variable to point to Also. Windows systems have DLLs that are difficult to keep separate between versions. New Features in Java 2 SDK 1 4, Java in general has many powerful features and Java 2 SDK 1 4 provides a few new twists Many of.
the improvements are performance related so they don t change your programming. One major change that is apparent is Java s handling of XML Prior to SDK 1 4 you had to add. someone else s XML parser to your program to handle XML Now Java has its own XML parser The. next release will include a major expansion of this a rea but at least now there is a native XML API. Before SDK 1 4 real database work required you to buy or download and install third party packages. It is such a relief that SDK 1 4 now includes APIs for JDBC Java Database Connectivity 3 as part of. the core Java platform Relying on additional third party packages for this important functionality was. Java 2 Core Language Little Black Book Chapter 1 Getting Started with Java. irksome SDK 1 4 also adds full support for Unicode 3 Java now supports all major locales on the. planet making internationalization easier For example this support affects the handling of. currency Java now makes the euro the default currency used by the java text NumberFormat. DecimalFormat and DecimalFormatSymbol classes for the member countries of the European. Monetary Union, Finally there is a major improvement to security Java now includes JSSE Java Secure Socket. Extensions JAAS Java Authentication and Authorization Service JCE Java Cryptography. Extensions and Kerberos security capabilities In fact Java Kerberos supports single sign on using. OS credentials, You may redistribute the Java 2 runtime environment with your applications subject to Sun s license. The Java 2 runtime environment can be downloaded separately offering you a way to distribute your. program and the Java virtual machine it needs to run The JVM comes in the Java 2 SDK or you can. download the JVM alone and then give it out so your end users will have a JVM with which to run your. Source Files and Compiled Files, To produce a Java program complete the following three steps. 1 Create your source code,2 Compile your files into bytecode. 3 Execute the main bytecode file using a JVM, A source file contains the Java program as text You can place this file anywhere but keep in mind.
that Java development is easier if you organize files properly. Tip We recommend creating a directory like C myPrograms somewhere other than. under the installed SDK directory Under this new directory create a few. throw away directories like test1 and test2 Keep the source and compiled files. together Some people advocate keeping all the source files together and all the. compiled files in another directory Don t do that at first Keep things simple We. also don t recommend that you put your files under the SDK directory because. you might accidentally delete your own files when you delete the SDK for. example after upgrading to a newer SDK, The source file must have a java extension like this myFirstProgram java If you don t use this. extension the compiler will ignore the file, The compiler creates a file by the class name not by the file name So when you compile a file the. compiler will create a new file with the class name and will add the extension class like this.

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