CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES,JOB ANALYSIS COURSE. TABLE OF CONTENTS,Chapter 1 WHAT IS A JOB ANALYSIS 1. WHY CONDUCT A JOB ANALYSIS 2,Meet Legal and Professional Standards 2. Select the Best Qualified Candidates 2, Use Job Analysis to Make Employment and Management. Decisions 2,LEGAL BACKGROUND 4,Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 4. Case Law 4, The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures 5. Professional Standards 5,The Americans with Disabilities Act 6. Recent Awards for Discriminatory Employment Practices 7. CONTENT VALIDITY AND JOB ANALYSIS 7,Chapter 2 THE JOB ANALYSIS PROCESS 8. Chapter 3 COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION 12,Archival Research 12. Job Audits 12,Committee Based Data Collection 15,Work Observation Data Collection 15. Chapter 4 DEVELOPING TASK AND KSAPC STATEMENTS 17,TASK STATEMENTS 17. Example Task Statements 17,KSAPC STATEMENTS 20,Knowledge 22. Example Knowledge Statements 22,Example Skills Statements 22. Abilities 23,Example Ability Statements 23,Example KSAPC Statements 23. Personal Characteristics Willingness 24,Example Personal Characteristics Statements 24. Job Analysis Finalization Meeting 25,Chapter 5 GATHERING JOB ANALYSIS RATINGS 26. JOB ANALYSIS SURVEY JAS 26,RATING TASK STATEMENTS 28. Importance 29,Frequency 30,RATING KSAPC STATEMENTS 31. Importance 32,Expected at Entry 33,Relationship to Job Performance 33. COMMITTEE BASED CONSENSUS 33,Chapter 6 ANALYZING JOB ANALYSIS SURVEY DATA 35. Cut off Scores for Task 35,Example Importance Scale Ratings for Task 36. Cut off Scores for KSAPC 37,Example Importance Scale Ratings for KSAPC 38. Example Expected at Entry Scale Ratings 38,Chapter 7 LINKING TASK AND KSAPC STATEMENTS 40. Chapter 8 DEVELOPING AN EXAMINATION PLAN 42,Weighting 42. SME Input Method 42,Choosing a Selection Plan 43,Written Examinations 43. Structured Interview 44,Performance Simulation Test Work Sample Test 44. Training and Experience Evaluations 45,EXAMINATION SELECTION MATRIX 46. References 47,Exercises 48,Exercise 1 Legal Court Case Exercise 48. Exercise 2 Small Group Exercise Job Analysis Preparation 49. Exercise 3 Writing Good Task Statements 52,Exercise 4 Write Task Statements 53. Exercise 5 Writing Good KSAPC Statements 54,Exercise 6 Write KSAPC Statements 55. Exercise 7 Review 56,Exercise 8 Evaluate Job Analysis Data 58. Exercise 9 Job Analysis Results 60, Exercise 10 Selection Options Matrix Group Exercise 62. Appendices 63, Appendix 1 Job Analysis Internet and Literature Review 63. Appendix 2 Job Analysis Checklist 64, Appendix 3 Action Verbs for Writing Task Statements 66. Appendix 4 Job Audit Interview Form 69, Appendix 5 Guidelines for Committee Based Job Analysis 85. Appendix 6 Work Observation Method 86,Appendix 7 Job Analysis Survey 95. Appendix 8 Selection Options Matrix 108, Appendix 9 Checklist for Validity Verification of a Job Analysis. Study to Determine Adequacy of Documentation 109,Appendix 10 Online Survey Tools 112. Describe the importance of job analysis its legal implications for selection and its. application to the content validation approach for developing employment selection. instruments,Chapter 1 WHAT IS A JOB ANALYSIS, While a simple job description or class specification contains information about the. primary duties and requirements for a job a job analysis is typically thought of as a. comprehensive rigorous approach to highlighting ALL important aspects of a job A. job analysis may be defined in a number of ways and in fact it may take several forms. Several professional definitions have been included below. A detailed statement of work behaviors and other information relevant to the job. Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection, A purposeful systematic process for collecting information on the important. work related aspects of the job Gatewood Field 2001. The systematic study of a job or job family Specifically it is the collection of. information about tasks and observable work behaviors that are performed on a. job and that can be verified either directly or indirectly by inference Harvey. While these definitions vary in detail and level of specificity they share a commonality. in their emphasis of systematically collecting analyzing and evaluating the important. aspects of a job The primary goal is to describe worker behavior in performing the job. along with the essential requirements of the job in great detail. Just as job analysis can take on many forms the methods and activities of data. collection vary widely and come from a variety of sources including archives. observations job audits and workshops By quantifying information evaluating and. comparing its relative importance the job analysis process can be used to make. important employment decisions, While there are many methods of conducting job analyses the information contained in. this course satisfies the legal requirements and the principles promoted through the. Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures and satisfies their. recommendations for the choice and use of content valid selection instruments. WHY CONDUCT A JOB ANALYSIS, Collecting job analysis data guarantees that an organization has the most reliable and. up to date information about a job from which to make and legally defend important. employment and management decisions,Meet Legal and Professional Standards. Laws legal precedent and governmental agencies all acknowledge the importance of. validating the use of selection instruments A thorough job analysis is recognized as. evidence to document the content validation process By adhering to the principles of. the Uniform Guidelines and the requirements of relevant case law job analyses enable. organizations to make valid and cost effective employment related decisions while. helping to avoid adverse impact,Select the Best Qualified Candidates. By using selection instruments that accurately measure critical characteristics of the. job employment decisions can be made with confidence Selection procedures. derived from a job analysis are designed to identify the most qualified candidates for a. position in that they capture the elements of the job that best discriminate top. performers from marginal ones, Use Job Analysis to Make Employment and Management Decisions. Recruitment, Including critical tasks and the knowledge skills abilities and personal characteristics. KSAPCs in your recruitment material will increase job relatedness and will give a. more accurate representation of the essential responsibilities. Knowing which job elements are required by candidates at the time of hire separates. qualified from non qualified applicants, Basing selection instruments on the critical KSAPCs ensure that the most important. qualities of the job are measured,Performance evaluations. The essential job elements can be used as the basis for performance evaluations and. can be tailored to assess both new and experienced staff. Much of what employees need to know to perform successfully on the job is learned. after they are hired Training is the process by which such learning takes place Job. analysis sets the foundation for training needs analyses. Workforce planning, Anticipated organizational demands create a need to effectively manage and base. employment decisions on job elements,Workplace accommodation. The essential functions of a job must be identified to determine accommodations that. may be required by persons with disabilities, The Appeals Division of the California State Personnel Board responds to alleged. violations of law or rule brought by employees applicants and members of the public. by reviewing allegations of unfairness in the selection process That Division is. responsible for investigating the job relatedness of existing employment practices. therefore relies heavily upon the information provided through job analyses. Departments can help verify the legal defensibility of the selection processes by. providing documentation that their job analyses followed professionally accepted. principles and methods of assessment,LEGAL BACKGROUND. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 addresses Equal Employment Opportunity and. specifically prohibits making any employment related decisions based on an. employee s race color religion sex or national origin The Act further prohibits the. use of a selection procedure that results in adverse impact unless the employer can. demonstrate the job relatedness of such a procedure. Several pivotal court decisions have had an impact on the employee selection process. In the 1971 Supreme Court case of Griggs v Duke Power Company African. American employees charged that their preclusion from promotional opportunities was. based on their lack of a high school diploma and their performance on an intelligence. test both of which were unrelated to any aspect of the job The Court ruled that. employment selection instruments had to be job related The Court further ruled that. employers could not use arbitrary practices that resulted in adverse impact even in the. absence of intent, In the 1975 Supreme Court decision in Albemarle Paper Company v Moody African. American employees claimed that their collective bargaining agreement held them. locked into lower paid job classifications The Court ruled that selection instruments. must be predictive of or significantly correlated with important elements of work. behavior which comprise or are relevant to the job or jobs which candidates are being. evaluated The Court found that the Defendant s validation study could not stand. without a job analysis, In the 1983 case of Kirkland v New York State Department of Correctional. Services the court ruled that identifying critical tasks and skills as well as the. competency required to fulfill the various aspects of the position was an essential part. of job analyses They concluded that the foundation of a content valid examination is. the job analysis, The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures. The Uniform Guidelines were developed by the Department of Labor the Equal. Employment Opportunity Commission the Civil Service Commission and the. Department of Justice in 1978 Their purpose was to promote a uniform set of. principles to help employers comply with Federal laws that prohibit discrimination To. that end the Uniform Guidelines established procedures for the proper validation and. use of selection procedures, The Uniform Guidelines requirements for conducting job analyses include identifying. the critical work behaviors or tasks and KSAPCs that comprise successful performance. of the job Only those tasks and KSAPCs deemed important should be used as the. basis of selection, The Uniform Guidelines provide a framework for the proper use of selection. instruments While they do not require that employers conduct validation studies in the. absence of evidence of adverse impact they do advocate the use of valid selection. procedures,Professional Standards, The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing 1999 developed by the. American Psychological Association American Educational Research Association and. the National Council on Measurement in Education and the Principles for the. Validation and use of Personnel Selection Procedures 2003 developed by the. Society of Industrial Organizational Psychology advocate the use of Job Analyses and. provide assessment professionals with guidelines for the evaluation development and. use of testing instruments, Although not legislation or law the Standards and Principles are referenced in a. number of judicial decisions and have been identified by the courts as a source of. technical information that are given deference in litigation concerning employment. The Americans with Disabilities Act, The passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act ADA in 1990 further emphasized. the importance of conducting job analyses The ADA requires employers to evaluate. candidates capabilities to perform the essential functions of the job The ADA. considers the preparation of a written description job analysis of the essential. functions before advertising or interviewing applicants as evidence of those essential. Recent Awards for Discriminatory Employment Practices. The penalty for disregarding the validation requirements for selection instruments can. be costly Recent jury awards based on discriminatory employment practices include. the following,Employer Award Basis of,discrimination. Shony s Restaurants 132 million Race,Seattle City Light 1 4 million Race. Vacation Sales Associates 7 7 million Age and gender. C H Robinson Worldwide 15 million Gender,Stanford University 545 000 Gender 1 person. Federal Express 50 million Race,CONTENT VALIDITY AND JOB ANALYSIS. In psychological and employee testing validity is defined as the extent to which a test. instrument measures what it purports to measure There are multiple methods for. establishing validity but job analysis is primarily connected to the content validation. Content Validity is the extent to which a measurement reflects the specific intended. domain of content In the case of employment the content is the job as exemplified by. the job analysis Content validity requires that the important tasks and the KSAPCs. required to perform those tasks are identified and that they comprise a representative. sample of the behaviors measured on the selection instruments used. Describe the step by step process for conducting a job analysis in compliance with. the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures and State Personnel. Board SPB requirements,Chapter 2 THE JOB ANALYSIS PROCESS. The specific procedures used for each phase of a job analysis may vary depending on. the circumstances The following steps are usually included in the job analysis. Step 1 Determine the scope of the job analysis in accordance with the. department s requirements goals and resources Factors affecting the procedures to. be used in the job analysis may include, Number of incumbents working in the job classification in question. Geographical locations of worksites for a specific job classification. Number and criticality of vacant positions to be filled. Number of subject matter experts SMEs available to assist in the process. Deadlines to complete the processes of advertising testing and hiring for. vacant positions, Step 2 Determine the procedures to be used for the job analysis The conclusions. regarding the scope of the job analysis may affect the way of carrying out any of the. required steps of the process, Step 3 Draft preliminary Task and KSAPC statements by collecting information. currently available regarding the position or job in question This may include the. position description class specifications recruitment information past job analyses. current exams and website information e g O Net opm gov job analysis net. Refer to Appendix 1 for a list of resources for drafting task and KSAPC statements. Step 4 Identify subject matter experts SMEs who will participate in the job. analysis and function as job content experts SMEs used in the job analysis process. should include top performing job incumbents as well as first level supervisors or. hiring managers Additionally previous employees or trainers may be appropriate A. good SME has direct knowledge of the job and knows what is required to succeed in. Step 5 Conduct job audits which are vital to the job analysis process and can be. conducted in many different ways depending on the nature of the job Field jobs for. example lend themselves to job observations and can be conducted at the worksite. Valuable information can be obtained by simply observing the employees while. performing their job duties Job observations can be supplemented with job interviews. using structured or open ended questionnaires For certain jobs such as jobs. requiring working at a desk job observations may not be suitable and it is best to ask. SMEs questions about the job under consideration These interviews can be. conducted either face to face or via phone A predetermined list of questions is helpful. in achieving consistency of the information being solicited and in keeping SMEs. Step 6 Edit previously drafted Task and KSAPC statements after all job related. information is identified and compiled and make certain that there is at least one. KSAPC for each task statement, Step 7 Finalize Task and KSAPC statements and have a second SME panel. review them Such a review increases the accuracy of the statements and adds. validity to the job analysis process The finalized lists of both task and KSAPC. statements should be comprehensive and include all important aspects of the job. Step 8 Organize the task and KSAPC statements into logical content area or. domains Examples of content areas may include oral and written communication. program management problem solving decision making training and supervision. Step 9 Obtain SME ratings regarding task and KSAPC statements and compile. the resulting lists of job tasks and KSAPCs into a Job Analysis Survey JAS The JAS. is then administered to SMEs requiring them to individually rate the job tasks and. KSAPCs For each task SMEs are asked to rate 1 how important the task is to. successful job performance and 2 how frequently the task is performed In a similar. vein SMEs rate KSAPC statements in terms of 1 how important the KSAPC is to. successful job performance 2 whether the KSAPC is required at entry i e on the. first day of the job and prior to receiving any additional training and 3 whether more. possession of the KSAPC leads to better job performance. After SME ratings are obtained establish cut off criteria to determine all tasks and. KSAPCs necessary to successfully perform the job In addition identify the tasks and. KSAPCs with ratings that did not meet the cut off criteria These statements cannot. be used for the purpose of developing selection instruments but may be useful for. other purposes e g training needs analyses, Step 10 Link critical Task and KSAPC statements and instruct SMEs to come to a. consensus on which individual KSAPCs can be linked to one or more tasks This step. helps to ensure that only KSAPCs that relate directly to performing the job will be used. in the choice and implementation of selection instruments. Step 11 Select employment selection method s by establishing which. assessment methodology would be the most effective way to measure each retained. KSAPC It is possible to measure a KSAPC using a variety of methods For example. a person s ability to review information and take appropriate action may be measured. using a written test i e a multiple choice test a structured interview or a job. simulation activity among other methods Use an examination selection matrix to. determine the best method to test for the essential KSAPCs. Step 12 Create an examination outline determining content areas and using SME. evaluations to decide what percentage of the selection instrument should be devoted.
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