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2 G Lomolino et al International Dairy Journal 100 2020 104557. Taking into account that texture in general and ice crystals size 2 2 Production process. in particular are crucial elements of ice cream quality different. methods of analysis have been developed to control these charac For each formulation 4 batches were prepared and for each. teristics Sensory analysis texture analysis and many microscopy batch 20 L of ice cream mix were processed The raw materials in. methods are often used in industrial laboratories for quality control powder form were weighed and mixed together coconut oil solid. Microscopy techniques used to analyse ice cream texture have at room temperature was added after melting using a microwave. the advantage of being reasonably fast and providing much infor The ingredients were mixed with water until they became appar. mation on ice crystal characteristics However some of these mi ently homogeneous All the ice creams were manufactured using a. croscopy techniques are destructive the sample is melted and the Bravo Trittico model 305 Executive EVO Pastry and Gelato Ice. image does not represent all the frozen system texture morphology Cream Machine The Big Ice Box Co Glaslough Ireland with the. Electron microscope analysis provides a lot of information on ice same operating conditions Each ice cream mix was pasteurised at. cream texture but the instrumentation is very expensive and 85 C for 5 s and homogenised at pressures of 17 2 MPa and 3 5 MPa. sample preparation takes a rather long time A valid alternative is in the rst and second stages respectively The mix was then left to. offered by the cold stage microscope similar to that discussed by cool and ripen at 4 C for 24 h Then the ice cream was remixed to. Caillet et al 2003 which allows ice cream crystals to be analysed emulsify the two phases aqueous and lipid that had separated. under frozen conditions In fact direct observation at low tem over 24 h at 4 C The ice cream then was frozen at 5 0 5 C. peratures allows the sample to be kept under conditions similar to sample was subjected to a 20 min of continuous whipping Then. reality and minimises the artefacts that can be generated in all the ice cream samples of about 100 g were extruded into plastic. other microscopy methods In the operation conditions of the cold cups hardened at 30 C for 24 h and afterward stored at 20 C. stage microscope it is possible to study distribution and ice crystal. size of ice cream and the evolution of the ice crystals during storage 2 3 Ice crystal size by cold stage microscope. In considering the importance of ice crystals in conferring. structural and texture characteristics to ice cream in this research A light microscope Olympus BH 2 Tokyo Japan and MicrO. the dimensions of the crystals in ve ice cream formulations pro ptik s Thermal Stage MTS120 apparatus Amsterdam The. duced directly on an artisanal level was studied Three formulations Netherlands were used to study ice crystals and observe their. were prepared with proteins of animal origin while the other two morphology at the thermal condition of the product The micro. were prepared with plant Solanum tuberosum proteins and inulin scope slide was kept in the cold stage an isolated chamber with a. heat exchanger that can be set in high heating freezing rates or be. 2 Material and methods constant The microscope cold stage has a temperature range. of 20 C to 120 C The MTS120 stages supplied with high pre. 2 1 Ice cream recipes cision MTDC600 programmable temperature controller with res. olution and accuracy of 0 1 C, Five ice cream recipes were formulated and divided into two In particular a sample of ice cream was removed from the freezer. groups three recipes containing animal proteins milk proteins 19 1 C All the procedures performed for the study of ice. called traditional ice cream and two recipes called vegan ice crystals were conducted in a cold chamber at 20 C and all ma. cream containing plant proteins and polysaccharides potato terials and solvents were kept at the same temperature to avoid. proteins and inulin respectively Table 1 thermal shocks Ice cream sample was obtained 2 cm from the sur. Traditional ice cream mixes all contained 10 coconut oil 12 face by removing the upper part of the frozen product In this inner. sucrose Daila Zuccheri Osio Sotto Italy 3 2 dehydrated glucose part of the ice cream 10 mg of product was collected with a metal. syrup Glucidex DE38 Roquette France 11 low fat milk powder scoop and spread on the slide surface of the cold stage microscope. Milch Gmbh Germany except for sample 3 in which functional Sample was covered with a cover slip and a drop of butanol. milk protein concentrate 11 Havero 6115 Hoogwegt Arnhem at 20 C was added to avoid condensation A camera was used to. The Netherlands was added these proteins represent the milk capture images at about 100 magni cation with some modi. protein fraction that does not pass through the ultra ltration cation as a function of ice crystal size For each sample a variable. membrane during processing the resulting protein concentrate is number of photos were taken 28e35 pictures and for each picture. dried to a well dissolving powder varying in protein content up to about 40 ice crystals were measured ImageJ image analysis soft. 85 as reported in the information sheet Cremodan SE30 0 65 ware was used to count ice crystals and measure their size by. Danisco Paris France was added as stabiliser this is a mixture of considering the maximum distance between parallel tangents to. mono and diglycerides of E471 fatty acids carob seed E410 sodium the projection area of the particle this parameter was chosen. alginate E401 guar gum E412 and carrageenan E407 because of the irregular shape of the ice crystals. Vegan ice cream mixes all contained the same ingredients as. above with the exception of 11 inulin Orafti GR Beneo Gmbh 2 4 Overrun determinations. Mannheim Germany and 11 protein from S tuberosum Solanic. 300 Avebe Groningen The Netherlands instead of milk proteins Overrun OR was determined according to the method. Table 1 described by Marshall et al 2003 A known volume of ice cream. Water was added to the percentage needed to reach 100 w v mix and frozen ice cream were weighed and overrun calculated. for each recipe according to the formula, weight of a volume of the ice cream mix weight of the same volume of ice cream. Overrun 100 1,weight of the same volume of ice cream. G Lomolino et al International Dairy Journal 100 2020 104557 3. Ingredients used in the traditional and vegan recipes of ice cream and resulting. Ingredients Traditional recipes Vegan recipes,8 Recipe 1 Recipe 2 Recipe 3 Recipe 4 Recipe 5. Temperature C,Sucrose 12 12 12 12 12,Glucose syrup 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2.
Coconut oil 10 10 10 10 10,12 Powder skimmed 11 11. Cremodan SE 0 65 0 65 0 65 0 65,stabiliser,Functional milk 11. 16 protein,Potato protein 11,18 Inulin 11, 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 H2O 63 8 63 15 63 15 63 15 63 15. Overrun 62 0 2 0b 86 0 2 0a 84 7 3 8a 24 3 2 3c 26 7 4 2c. The quantities of ingredients are expressed in Overrun values were based on. three different samples and data are presented as mean SD values followed by the. Fig 1 Temperature uctuation of the ice cream as a function of time although the test same letter are not signi cantly different p 0 05 as measured by the Tukey s. was carried out for 14 days the graph shows only a part of the temperature alternation multiple range test. 2 5 Melting test a higher OR 84 and 83 respectively followed by sample 1 with. 62 OR and nally samples 4 and 5 with a low OR value 24 and. To study the melting ice cream behaviour rst dripping time and 26 respectively In the rst two samples the presence of. melting rate were considered as proposed by Soukoulis et al 2008 powdered milk and in sample 3 the functional dairy proteins. with some modi cations The ice cream sample 100 2 g slightly concentrate promote foam formation in fact milk proteins and. varied in terms of dimension from one ice cream to another was put functional dairy proteins concentrate show important functional. on a wire screen mesh and allowed to melt at 22 0 5 C in a characteristics in forming foam due to their amphiphilic character. thermostat PID System Thermovetro Grandola ed Uniti Italy All Singh 2009 so increasing the volume and expansion of the ice. samples were kept at 19 1 C until tested The time required for cream The higher expansion of samples 2 and 3 might be due to the. the dripping of the rst drop of melted ice cream was recorded The presence of milk proteins milk powder and functional milk pro. weight of the material passed through the screen was recorded at teins concentrate and Cremodan SE30 a mixture rich in poly. 5 min time intervals for 60 min The weight of the drained sample saccharides such as guar gum Goff et al 1999 which is. was measured to calculate the percentage of melted ice cream after responsible for the further increase in OR and in fact creates an. 60 min at room temperature Finally a graph was drawn taking into excellent dispersion of air in the mixture and a stable OR The lack. consideration time expressed in minutes on the abscissa and of milk proteins and their effect on OR values is particularly evident. quantity of drained ice cream expressed in grams on the ordinate in samples 4 and 5 in which neither the presence of S tuberosum. proteins with their rheological characteristics in particular as. 2 6 Thermal stress foaming agents Lomolino Vincenzi Gazzola Crapisi Curioni. 2015 and polysaccharides present in the stabiliser could not. Ice cream samples were placed at 18 C and a data logger RC reach the OR values observed in samples 1 2 or 3 Table 1 It could. 5 Elitech London UK was set to check the data of the thermal therefore be stated that the OR is favoured by milk proteins. stress as reported in the graph of Fig 1 especially in presence of the polysaccharides guar gum carra. The cold room was connected to an adjustable thermostat ITC geenan etc of the stabiliser CremodanSE30 added to the. 310T B 230 V Inkbird Shenzen China for both temperature and formulations. time Then a temperature cycle of 18 C for 6 h then 6 C for 6 h. was set and the cycle repeated for 14 days 3 2 Ice crystal analysis. 2 7 Statistical analysis To study ice cream characteristics and its changes induced by. temperature the 5 samples were subjected to thermal uctuation. All statistical analysis was carried out using Origin 2018 for 14 days Samples subjected to this treatment should behave. Graphing Analysis Statgraphic Centurion XVII software and differently depending on their composition and formulation Ice. Excel Each recipe was produced 4 times so for each ice cream crystals size and shape and melting dynamics represent crucial. recipe there were 4 batches 4 batches 5 recipes For each batch aspects in studying the consequences of thermal stress undergone. 3 replicates were considered in this way for each recipe 12 data by ice cream. sets were statistically processed by descriptive and inferential tests Fig 2 shows the pictures of the 5 samples before samples 1e5. Tukey test p 0 05 and for melting test a non linear regression and after samples 1se5s thermal stress treatment As shown in. model was performed Fig 2 ice crystals of the ve samples apparently differ in size both. when they are prepared with different ingredients and before and. 3 Result and discussion after thermal stress It is well known that ice cream icy phase. represented by ice crystals is in uenced by recrystallisation phe. 3 1 Ice cream composition and overrun nomena that depend on formulation characteristics freezing pro. cess and storage conditions Donhowe Hartel 1996a b Large. As shown in Table 1 the different ice cream composition affects crystals are perceived as rough particles on the palate and nega. the product expansion values in terms of OR samples 2 and 3 show tively affecting sensorial texture of ice cream Goff et al 2013. 4 G Lomolino et al International Dairy Journal 100 2020 104557. Fig 2 Cold stage microscope ice cream pictures comparison of the samples before samples 1e5 and after samples 1se5s thermal stress. G Lomolino et al International Dairy Journal 100 2020 104557 5. Fig 3 shows the results of descriptive statistical analysis by box average crystal size which increased about 8 times the median. plot as shown in Fig 3A samples differ from each other in terms of value is much lower 123 mm than the mean while the rank is. mean median and rank width In particular sample 3 presents a particularly large 136 mm These results highlight that sample 1. mean value 27 33 mm median 26 mm and rank 41 mm lower without stabiliser with its polysaccharide component designed to. than the other samples statistically showing the small size and the stabilise and improve the characteristics of ice cream could be. uniformity of the ice crystals On the other hand samples 1 and 5 damaged if subjected to thermal stress losing the regularity of the. show higher mean and median values 43 5 and 43 respectively for crystals and dramatically increasing in size In contrast sample 3s. sample 1 42 9 and 42 respectively for sample 5 In all cases with maintained its structure in terms of size and uniformity of ice. exception of sample 3 ranks are rather large and show a non crystals the mean value increased only 1 7 times compared with. uniformity in crystal size The presence of stabiliser Cremodan the same original sample the median value is very close to the. SE30 and milk proteins in sample 3 allowed the development of mean and the rank remained low 74 mm Samples 2s and sample. uniform and small crystals in contrast to sample 1 in which the 5s are very similar to each other in terms of mean median and rank. absence of stabiliser favoured the heterogeneous development of values Even if their formulation is different ice crystals change in. the icy phase This feature is also observed in samples 4 and 5 in terms of average size the average is about twice as high as the. which the absence of milk proteins favours the heterogeneous original samples and shape. growth of ice crystals Fig 3A After thermal stress the ice crystals Samples containing milk proteins both in form of powdered. of the ve samples change their size and shape Fig 3B In milk sample 2 and concentrated milk protein sample 3 and. particular sample 1s underwent great changes in terms of the sample 4 in which potato proteins are present in combination with. Fig 3 Box plot analyses on the ve ice cream formulations before A and after B thermal stress Data refer to the ice crystals size calculated values are from the raw data The box. represents 25 e75 and contains the median line and the mean the range within 1 5IQR is given by the bar outliers are denoted by. 6 G Lomolino et al International Dairy Journal 100 2020 104557. the polysaccharide rich stabiliser Cremodan SE30 show crystals ve samples before and after thermal stress were placed on a. size smaller than samples 1 and 5 Fig 3A Some studies Regand grating at 22 C for 60 min As shown in Fig 4 sample 1 without. Goff 2003 showed that stabilisers in general have cryoprotective stabiliser Cremodan SE30 after 60 min at 22 C is completely. characteristics very important during ice cream storage period or destructured and the remainder represents the 20 of the initial. when product is subjected to thermal uctuations weight Even sample 1s is collapsed but probably due to the. In this study the thermal stress undergone by the ve samples structure that was generated inside after thermal stress retained. may have generated this physical process characterised by large of 55 of its weight In contrast samples 2 2s 3 and 3s after. crystals growth at the expense of the smaller ones due to differ 60 min at 22 C maintain almost the original parallelepiped shape. ence in equilibrium temperature caused by the contribution of and their weight is 84e89 initial weight in almost all cases Once. surface energy Donhowe Hartel 1996b Donhowe and Hartel again polysaccharides present in carob our sodium alginate guar. 1996b observed that recrystallisation phenomenon was fav gum and carrageenan that constitute the stabiliser mixer Cremo. oured by the increase in temperature uctuation as in the case of dan SE30 in combination interaction with milk proteins milk. the ve formulations in this study The extent of recrystallisation powder sample 2 and milk protein concentrate sample 3 allowed. during storage or temperature uctuation is affected by the the formation of an internal network that favoured maintenance of. formulation Regand Goff 2003 It was observed that stabiliser the structure and shape of the ice cream a large part of its initial. characteristics and composition impact recrystallisation phenom weight and reduced melting phenomenon In sample 4 potato. enon with a reduction of crystal growth Regand and Goff 2003 protein did not guarantee maintenance of the initial sample shape. attributed the stabiliser mechanism to the increase in viscosity of their interaction with the Cremodan SE30 polysaccharides is not. the unfrozen phase which decreases the mobility of water mole strong enough to preserve the internal network structure and the. cules Polysaccharides such as locust bean gum and carrageenan shape is modi ed maintaining 75 sample 4 and 78 sample 4s. present in the Cremodan SE30 used in samples 2e5 form gel like of initial weight. structures delaying water mobility through steric hindrance due In sample 5 however even in presence of the stabiliser Cre. to the ability to bind it during ice cream storage or thermal uc modan SE30 the absence of proteins does not allow structure and. tuations as in this case In particular the carrageenan present in shape maintenance the ice cream was almost collapsed and rep. Cremodan SE30 was more effective in delaying recrystallisation resented about 60 of the initial weight in both sample 5 and. and cryoprotective activity in presence of caseins with which it sample 5s In sample 5 inulin does not completely guarantee the. interacts forming a strong gel network Bahramparvar Tehrani maintenance of the initial shape and does not inhibit melting As. 2011 In particular the protein polysaccharide interaction that reported by some authors Akin Akin Kirmaci 2007 inulin is. occurs in presence of carrageenan promotes an increase in the able to bind water making it immobilised and unable to move. viscosity of liquid phase Camacho Martinez Navarrete Chiralt freely among other molecules of ice cream mixture delaying. 1998 Thus the reduced growth of ice crystals observed in pres melting in this study inulin acts as a stabiliser in a rather limited. ence of the stabiliser CremodanSE30 with its polysaccharides and way The melting study was carried out by evaluating the time of. especially carrageenan is due to the increase in viscosity and to the latency before rst drop formation of each sample as an indicator. strong network type or gel like structure Regand Goff 2006 of structure stability Fig 4 shows once again the unstable structure. that reduces the mobility of water around ice crystals In contrast of sample 1 in fact dripping starts after about 10 min at 22 C. as reported by Gaukel Leiter and Spie 2014 k carrageenan Samples 4 and 5 seem to have a better network structure than. shows a signi cant decrease of recrystallisation phenomenon when sample 1 due to the presence of the stabiliser Cremodan SE30 and. it is present at low concentration perhaps because of the interac to a lesser extent inulin dripping of the samples begins after about. tion of the polysaccharide with the ice crystal surface 20 min Samples 2 and 3 are much more stable due to their more. However in all ve samples subjected to thermal stress structured internal matrix dripping began after about 45 min. recrystallisation phenomenon and ice crystal size increasing occurs During the melting process water from melted ice diffuses in the. to a different extent depending on the sample formulation In fact unfrozen uid viscous phase and this diluted solution which is. as suggested by Regand and Goff 2003 the ability to bind water by formed ows downwards through the structural elements fat. the different stabilisers and interactions that they establish with globules air cells remaining ice crystals polysaccharides and the. other components in the formation of gel like structure is reduced net work within the product Marshall et al 2003 Soukoulis et al. during temperature uctuation with consequent increase of water 2008 These elements constitute a resistance factor to uid ow. mobility around crystals and destabilisation of the ice cream during ice cream melting Therefore when ice cream presents a. structure As observed in the ve samples the phenomenon of well structured system due to formulation components that in. recrystallisation is particularly present in the sample without sta crease viscosity or form an internal network matrix dripping will. biliser Cremodan SE30 sample 1 and the mean crystal size has be delayed and melted uid will be reduced Fig 4 as in case of. very high values in samples 2 4 and 5 the presence of stabiliser samples 2 2s 3 and 3s. Cremodan SE30 seems to control ice crystal dimension both with Another element that affects dripping is ice crystal size the. or without proteins with which the polysaccharides interact In larger they are as in the case of samples 1 and 1s the more the. sample 3 the possible interaction between carrageenan of the phenomenon will be favoured This may be due to liquid ow path. stabiliser and caseins in the concentrated milk proteins ensures a of melted ice cream Muse Hartel 2004 When small crystals are. high cryoprotective effect and reduced crystal size growth present as in sample 3 the path of liquid phase during melting is. Soukoulis et al 2008 more tortuous uid must pass through more obstacles repre. sented by small ice crystals Therefore melting measured as drip. 3 3 Melting and dripping ping is reduced in the presence of many small crystals In the case. of the ve samples the formulation components interactions and. Since the physical structure of ice cream and its formulation ice crystals dimensions could contribute in a different extent to. affect melting process the melting dynamics of the ve ice cream their melting It is interesting to observe the ve samples after. samples were studied by observing the macroscopic shape modi thermal stress samples 1se5s subjected to melting and evaluation. cation and by quantifying the melted uid released over time The of the beginning of dripping As shown in Fig 4 they maintained. G Lomolino et al International Dairy Journal 100 2020 104557 7. Fig 4 Dripping and melting test comparison of the ve ice cream formulations before and after thermal stress Graphs show the time elapsed between the start of the melting test. and the rst drop of melted material All values were based on three different samples and data are presented as means SD different letters indicate signi cant differences. p 0 05 as measured by the Tukey s multiple range test Percentage gures are the residual weight of ice creams after 60 min of melting test. 8 G Lomolino et al International Dairy Journal 100 2020 104557. Weight of dripped material g,Weight of dripped material g. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60,Time of dripping min Time of dripping min.
Fig 5 Melting curves of the ve ice cream samples before a and after b thermal stress samples are 1 and 1s 2 and 2s 3 and 3s 4 and 4s 5 and 5s The test. was carried out for 60 min and data collected every 5 min by weighing the melted material polynomial model parameters are reported in Table 2. Parameter values of the polynomial model that ts melting data of the 5 ice cream. 4 Conclusion,formulations a, The 5 ice cream formulations analysed by cold stage microscope. Parameter Samples, before and after thermal stress used to simulate the prolonged. Unstressed Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 stored conditions show different characteristics in terms of both. Intercept g 2 91 0 07 0 04 0 86 1 71, ice crystal size and dripping and melting behaviour In particular. B1 min 0 61 0 05 0 01 0 44 0 76, B2 min2 0 01 0 001 0 001 0 0005 0 0008 milk proteins in the presence of the hydrocolloids of the stabiliser. R2 0 995 0 999 0 999 0 998 0 995 allowed the optimisation of some characteristics such as the higher. Stressed Sample 1s Sample 2s Sample 3s Sample 4s Sample 5s overrun the small size of ice crystals and melting dynamics Potato. Intercept g 2 5 0 21 0 09 1 12 2 04, proteins in the presence of stabiliser give a certain initial quality to.
B1 min 0 44 0 09 0 009 0 44 0 53,B2 min2 0 004 0 002 0 001 0 0008 0 004. ice cream in terms of ice crystal size even if ice cream does not. R2 0 998 0 998 0 997 0 995 0 991 resist to thermal stress Finally ice creams in which only the protein. a component of milk or only stabiliser is present tend to deconstruct. The polynomial model was Y intercept B1 1 B2 2 The quantities. of melted ice cream expressed in grams were collected and weighed every 5 min during prolonged storage Even if other analytical tests are useful to. for 60 min tests were carried out in triplicate SD 5 study ice cream overall quality the use of cold stage microscope. together with melting test could predict the stability of ice cream. obtained by different formulations, the same behaviour of the unstressed samples with the exception. of sample 1s that starts on average 15 min later than sample 1 Acknowledgements. Melting dynamics of samples was studied weighing the amount. of thawed product from the beginning of dripping of each sample This research was funded by University of Padova grant number. every 5 min for 60 min Fig 5 A and B show the melting curves of BIRD165379 and DOR1847072. the ve samples before and after thermal stress, As shown in Fig 5 melting trend does not occur in a linear. References, manner but follows a squared polynomial model Table 2 even. though the low value of B2 coef cient shows that the curve bends Akin M B Akin M S Kirmaci Z 2007 Effects of inulin and sugar levels on the. slightly The regression coef cient values are very high R2 is over viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria and the physical and sensory char. 99 indicating that the trend and data t the proposed function acteristics in probiotic ice cream Food Chemistry 104 93e99. Bahramparvar M Tehrani M M 2011 Application and functions of stabilizers. The trends of the ve samples do not seem to vary much before and in ice cream Food Reviews International 27 389e407. after thermal stress with the exception of sample 1 that before C Andrieu J Laurent P Rivoire A 2003 Characterization of. Caillet A Cogne, thermal stress presents a curve with a higher trend and a value of ice cream structure by direct optical microscopy In uence of freezing param.
eters LWT Food Science and Technology 36 743e749, B2 higher than the other samples After thermal stress melting. Camacho M M Martinez Navarrete N Chiralt A 1998 In uence of locust. trend of the sample 1s becomes much lower and similar to that of bean gum l carrageenan mixtures on whipping and mechanical properties and. sample 5s The curves of samples 2 and 3 and 2s and 3s are rather stability of dairy creams Food Research International 31 653e658. Donhowe D P Hartel R W 1996a Recrystallization of ice cream during. low and remain unchanged regardless of thermal stress that they. controlled accelerated storage International Dairy Journal 6 1191e1208. have undergone while the curves of samples 4 and 4s are posi Donhowe D P Hartel R W 1996b Recrystallization of ice during bulk storage. tioned at intermediate level and sample 4s is not particularly of ice cream International Dairy Journal 6 1209e1221. affected by thermal stress The observed trends all attributable to Gaukel V Leiter A Spie E L 2014 Synergism of different sh antifreeze. proteins and hydrocolloids on recrystallization inhibition of ice in sucrose so. the same model and typical for each sample con rm what was lutions Journal of Food Engineering 141 44e55. previously observed and discussed on the effect of the different Goff H D Ferdinando D Schorsch C 1999 Fluorescence microscopy to study. compounds present in the 5 formulations and the chemical phys galactomannan structure in frozen sucrose and milk protein solutions Food. Hydrocolloids 13 353e362, ical interaction that could occur in the observed systems Goff H D Hartel R W 2013 Ice cream 7th ed New York NY USA Springer. G Lomolino et al International Dairy Journal 100 2020 104557 9. Lomolino G Vincenzi S Gazzola D Crapisi A Curioni A 2015 Foaming Regand A Goff H D 2006 Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as. properties of potato Solanum tuberosum proteins A study by the gas sparging affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass Journal of Dairy. method Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 475 Science 89 49e57. 75e83 Russell A B Cheney P E Wantling S D 1999 In uence of freezing conditions. Marshall R T Goff H D Hartel R W 2003 Ice cream New York NY USA on ice crystallisation in ice cream Journal of Food Engineering 39 2 179e191. Aspen Publishers https doi org 10 1016 S0260 8774 98 00161 7 ISSN 0260 8774. Miller Livney T Hartel R W 1997 Ice recrystallization in ice cream In Singh H 2009 Protein interactions and functionality of milk protein products In. teractions between sweeteners and stabilizers Journal of Dairy Science 80 M Corredig Ed Dairy derived ingredients Food and nutraceutical uses pp. 447e456 644e674 Cambridge UK Woodhead Publishing, Muse M R Hartel R W 2004 Ice cream structural elements that affect Soukoulis C Chandrinos I Tzia C 2008 Study of the functionality of selected. melting rate and hardness Journal of Dairy Science 87 1e10 hydrocolloids and their blends with k carrageenan on storage quality of vanilla. Regand A Goff H D 2003 Structure and ice recrystallization in frozen sta ice cream LWT Food Science and Technology 41 1816e1827. bilized ice cream model systems Food Hydrocolloids 17 95e102.

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