systematically linked to the expressiveness of textile materials and clothing form A basic. course in fashion design aesthetics that introduces also this perspective must in addition to. teaching the laws of spatial form and visual expressions introduce the aesthetics of act design. in some form i e how we implicitly or explicitly express acts of use in the process of designing a. garment This is still a matter of understanding the intrinsic relationships between abstract form. and concrete expression but from a somewhat different perspective It is a complementary shift. in basic methodology from design by drawing to design by act defining. The main objective of the project reported on here was to introduce interaction design methods in. fashion design teaching to make act design explicit throughout the different stages of the design. process in a systematic manner to develop a general workshop curriculum in experimental. fashion design focusing on the expressiveness of wearing and use. The basic working assumption hypothesis of the project was that learning fashion design. aesthetics through workshop exercises in experimental interaction design. Would give students a broader conceptual perspective on the expressiveness of clothing. Would give students concepts and methods to work more systematically with fashion. design in a context of wearing and use,1 2 Review of relevant literature. The world s fashion schools and departments of today are fairly equally divided in the sense of. either belonging to and or grown from technological colleges e g the fashion design departments. at Fashion Institute of Technology New York Hong Kong Polytechnic Hong Kong Manchester. Metropolitan University Manchester Moscow State University of Design and Technology. Moscow or fine art schools e g Art Academy Vilnius Central St Martins College of Fashion. London La Cambre Paris Parsons New York In additions to this twofold background there are. also some few examples of fashion departments that stem from home economics e g Bunka. College of Fashion Tokyo Buffalo Sate College Buffalo Looking at these different. backgrounds it is also here we find the difference in training and integrating aesthetics into the. education the general conclusion being that aesthetics is in the first category of schools taught. mainly as a subject of its own often under the title fashion concept or fashion sketching In. the second category of schools aesthetics is most frequently taught as a fundamental course in a. kind of Bauhaus tradition Wingler 1969 Naylor 1985 as well as integrated in the continued. supervision of the artistic design projects that dominate the curricula In the third category of. schools aesthetics and artistic training are even less present in teachings as subjects such as. fashion sketching is predominantly about representation and the time is devoted to collection. composition and design method, Although there is a lot written about fashion from various perspectives e g Breward 2003. Carter 2003 Frings 1999 Johnson Torntore Eicher 2003 the literature on teaching methods. in fashion design is not extensive In basic textbooks such as Jenkyn Jones 2002 McKelvey. Munslow 2003 design aesthetics is also not a basic issue as such rather its main emphasis is. analytic systematic and concerned with the sequential structure of a thought professional design. process Instead in a kind of tacit inspired manner cf Polanyi 1967 these still rare. contributions to fashion design method make even less of an attempt to articulate and grasp the. ambiguous concept of aesthetics and furthermore also creativity as an essential element of such. a process In fact the overall structure of contemporary fashion design methodology is stating the. obvious as e g Tate 1999 that most designers try to fit their garment into the general fashion. climate where climate is a combination of the economic condition of the country current. technology developments and current retail trends timing the fit in a general fashion trend and. aesthetics the silhouette are elevated as essential qualities of a designer however not critically. integrated into any methodology, In industrial design there has been extensive development of design methodology and theories. about the design process cf Jones 1992 There are attempts to transfer this type of. methodology to the area of fashion design cf Lamb Kallal 1992 Regan Kincade Sheldon. 1998 but very little is done to build a specific methodological foundation for the fashion design. process except for explicitly business oriented models e g Carr 1992 Burns 1997 Jarnow. Dickerson 1997 In fact the overall structure of contemporary fashion design methodology has. taken its bearing in the direction of the early design management discourse cf Carr 1997 Tate. 1999 Potter 1980 Easey 1995 without the integration of a creative design methodology in. itself a methodology of which there are just few accounts e g Sinha 2002 Lacroix 1996. Mulvagh 1998 lacking a necessary theoretical level in order to make them generic models. The interaction design methodology used in project exercises is in one way or another related to. the aesthetic turn in interaction design i e a rather recent more systematic focus on interaction. design aesthetics cf Dunne Gaver 1999 Djajadiningrat Gaver Fres 2000 L wgren. Stolterman 2004 Halln s Redstr m 2002 2006 Graves Petersen Iversen Krogh. Ludvigsen 2004 Discussions and results related to theoretical foundations of fashion design. aesthetics have also clear connections with the notion of embodied interaction cf Dourish. In design education as well as in art education different forms of active learning are standard. procedure learning practical work by practical training in combination with theoretical studies. What perhaps is a bit specific here is that learning objectives to develop a certain perspective on. design aesthetics are somewhat theoretical in nature cf Stolterman 1994 The idea of using. design methods as tools in practical workshop training to reach given objectives is in some. sense similar to what we do when in learning mathematics or music composition we use generic. design methods to develop an understanding of and feeling for certain mathematical and. compositional perspectives cf Stohr 1933 In classical composition training there is for. example a long tradition in using specific methods of counter point cf Jeppesen Haydon. 1939 to develop understanding for a polyphonic perspective on music composition Cf model. based learning e g Clement 2000 From a constructivist point of view the design methods we. use in workshop training could perhaps be seen as forms of construction students uses in learning. 1 3 Questions critical factors, The basic project hypothesis is founded on somewhat general observations concerning a double. perspective on fashion design aesthetics to express garment and to express wearing A critical. issue was to make this concrete and precise enough in terms of more specific learning teaching. To find appropriate theoretical foundations for workshop design. To find relevant general and workshop specific learning outcome to guide. implementation, In order for workshop training to be successful students and teachers need to have a clear idea of. what it is we they train and what it is we they train for The main critical factor here was to make. this distinct enough as a foundation for introducing new methods and perspectives in fashion. design education through workshop exercises What is it that we train to understand the. workings of the exercise What is it we train for to understand learning outcome. 1 4 Importance of the project,Importance of the project is twofold. i Wearing expression is of focal interest in fashion design The importance of interaction design. methodology in this context lies in the introduction of an explicit design aesthetic perspective on. wearing and use in fashion design teaching and thereby in broadening the design aesthetic. foundation for practice to introduce expressional methods and techniques that relate to the acts of. ii The basic issue in learning the fundamentals of design aesthetics is to see and understand the. link between design techniques and design expression to learn and understand the craft of. design in combination with training in critical reflection Design methods serve a double purpose. As tools for training systematic design work, By providing a conceptual framework for critical reflection on design work. Here the importance of the project lies in its contribution to the development of fashion design. methodology with focus on educational training,2 1 Students. The aim of the project was to develop design aesthetics at Bachelor and Master level fashion. design education Methods developed in the project are also intended for critical seminar. reflections at doctoral level education, Educational programs Bachelor Master and Doctoral programs in fashion design at The. Swedish School of Textiles University College of Bor s 10 students are enrolled each year at. Bachelor level At Master level a total of 10 students in fashion and textile design are enrolled. each year Main focus of the project was on education at Bachelor and Master level Education at. Doctoral level is carried out in cooperation with G teborg University and Chalmers University of. Technology where students receive their degrees Courses included in project exercises range. from introductory courses at Bachelor level to advanced Master level courses and seminar. courses at Doctoral level All educational exercises in the project were done in forms of. workshops including related critical seminar discussions. Students In 2005 2006 there were 100 women at Bachelor and Master level normally very. few men attend fashion design education at our school At doctoral level 5 out of 6 doctoral. students in design at our school are women Age of students was 22 33 average age 25. Students have in general about one or two years fashion design training before starting their. Bachelor education at our school Except for exchange students most students at Bachelor level. came from Sweden At the Master level some 30 of the students came from other countries. 2 2 Innovation project work, Methodologically the project was based on the idea to work out a proper foundation for a general. workshop program on basis of test workshops that would run in two series during two years. Each test workshop was so to speak based on an assumption that a certain type of workshop. practice would provide relevant learning practice in relation to a given outcome As such the. workshops were meant to explore the assumption and open up for reflection and critical. discussion providing material for the development of theoretical foundations and educational. methods The pedagogical program resulting from this is a first suggestion and further evaluation. reformulation etc need more time,2 2 1 Project group and work plan. The project group consisted of five lecturers and four students three senior lecturers interaction. design fashion design and textiles design two lecturers PhD students fashion design. textiles interaction design and four students two Master students in fashion design and two. Bachelor students in fashion design, The project group worked as a fully integrated working group and has been intact during the two. years of project work Main project work has been done in four sub groups. Methods and workshops collecting relevant design methods defining and organizing the. test workshops, Evaluation and examination defining basic design briefs defining forms of evaluation. and examination for test workshops, Documentation sound and video recordings of student interviews and workshops. Reflection and development of educational models and methods. The whole project group met regularly for discussions and overall planning All project members. took in different constellations part in the actual test workshops supervising students heading. critical seminar discussions documenting workshops introducing design methods and design. General work plan, Spring 2005 Development of curriculum for experimental workshop. Autumn 2005 Test workshops series I with student groups from BA level year 1 and 2. from BA year 3 MA year 1 and PhD level Study travels Documentation work. editing interview and video material and first formulation of pedagogical models. Spring 2006 Test workshops series II with student groups from BA level year 1 and 2. from BA year 3 MA year 1 and PhD level Documentation work editing interview. and video material and revision and development of initial pedagogical models. Autumn 2006 Design of final workshop curriculum dissemination of results. Comment on work plan We were able to roughly follow the basic work plan The test. workshops were all integrated as part of the regular curriculum at our school and we had to. reschedule the test workshop program a couple of times due to problems with overall planning. Some workshops worked very well others not so well but important information came any way. out of the workshops that failed in various ways The design of a test workshop implicitly. refers to a certain pedagogical context i e a context in which workshop introduction workshop. supervision workshop examination and evaluation all make sense and provide the intended. learning environment We learned a lot about the meaning of this for specific workshops that. failed to work in the context of a given regular course. We initially prepared for two series of regular test workshops with six in each series This turned. out to be a bit too optimistic Planning implementation documentation reflection was much. more work than we had planned for In the end we did six regular test workshops plus several. reference workshops The main deviation from the basic work plan concerns the main results i e. the design of a final workshop curriculum Although we have collected a rather large supply of. methods easily adaptable for workshops in fashion design and also have a gained good working. knowledge about the actual workshop design the main result of project is not a completed. workshop curriculum but rather theoretical foundations and general models for teaching learning. fashion design aesthetics with focus on use and wearing. 2 2 2 Development and design of a test workshop program. Workshop design All workshops aim at exploring models and methods for training interaction. design as part of the fashion design process to define wearing intentions WI through wearing. expressions WE to relate wearing intention and wearing expression to each other by designing. a garment and defining intended wearing expressions i e to express a relation WI WE. To focus workshop training on different phases of the design process we used the three logical. stages in the design process as described by Jones ref divergence de structuring the brief. transformation making the design patterns convergence designing the acts Each workshop. will be an exercise in working through one stage in the design process For each such exercise. there will be specific input and output formats typically output from a divergence. workshop will work as input for a transformation workshop etc The basic outline for a. workshop is set by applying a specific interaction design method to a given input providing. training to work with a fashion design problem in some stage of the design process from the. perspective of act design, First step in designing the workshop program was to interpret the basic working hypothesis see. above 2 2 in terms of general learning outcome, General learning outcome Students will be able to explicitly see analyze and express design. fashion in terms of wearing and use in a systematical manner. Comment on learning outcome What is important here is the duality between analysis and. design wearing and use are not seen from a sociological ethnological etc perspective but from. the perspective of design aesthetics It is a matter of learning the practice of fashion design. aesthetic with a systematic focus on expressiveness in wearing and use. Specific learning outcome Each workshop is based on a given interaction design method that. focus on the relation WI WE for a specific phase of the design process In each case this is. interpreted in terms of specific learning outcome that all support specific aspects of the given. general learning outcome, I Workshop I and V Students will be able to see analyze and express design the. user through in terms of wearing intentions wearing expressions in relation to a given. II Workshop II Students will be able to see analyze and express design the user. through in terms of wearing intentions wearing expressions in relation to a given. III Workshop IIIa Students will be able to see analyze and express design use. wearing in a given brief, IV Workshop IIIb Students will be able to see analyze and express design wearing. expressions in relation to given wearing intentions. V Workshop IV Students will be able to see analyze and express design wearing. expression style in relation to given wearing intentions. Test workshops are defined in terms of Period when Class Groups students number of. groups Design brief Stage design process phase Method interaction design method of the. workshop Workshop input output initial information and workshop outcome. Evaluation Examination forms for critical reflection and workshop dissemination. 2 2 3 Workshops and seminars, Test workshops Six different test workshops were held within the project workshops I IIIa V. and II during 2005 and IIIb and IV during 2006 We discuss one example below See appendix 1. for descriptions of all six workshops,Workshop I Learning outcome I. Period Two weeks 26 September 7 October 2005, Class Groups Fashion Design BA Year I 10 students 3 groups. Design brief To design a colorful headgear,Stage Divergence. Method Cultural probes Gaver Dunne Pacenti 1999, A probe is a thing we use in investigations to gather information A cultural probe is. consequently a thing we use to gather information about cultural phenomena Here it is something. we send out to collect information about WI WE relations in everyday life. AIM To paint a picture sketching expressions of garment in use in everyday life To provide. initial inspiration that open up the design brief,We start with a given design brief. Design a cultural probe kit that is appropriate for collecting expressional information. about activities strongly connected to the given brief. Try to find appropriate locations to place the probes. Place the probes, Supervise discretely until it is time to collect the probes. Collect the probes, Sum up and present the material collected by the probes. Workshop input output The design brief A culture board presenting the information collected by. the probes, Evaluation Examination Halfway and at the end of the workshop Evaluation with focus on. intentions and expressions in work methods and presentations is done by two groups of outsiders. that have not been briefed about the workshop nor about the project itself a sort of blind. Implementation The workshop started with a general introduction where workshop method and. design brief were given to students together with a brief description and explanation of project. aim and intended learning outcome See appendix 1 Each group was given a probe kit. consisting of a digital camera a notebook post it notes and a set of fiber tipped pens First task. for the student groups was to design instructions on how to use the kit They were then asked to. give the kit to someone they thought interesting in relation to the brief together with instructions. on how to use it After return of the kit the task was for each group to analyze and present the. information to paint the picture of a user of a colorful headgear The workshop was carried out. according to plans with evaluation as a reflective and critical seminar discussion on aims and. methods All groups were given supervision during the workshop by members of the project. Outcome Students demonstrated that given learning outcome was reached but learning was also. clearly only implicit That students were able to to see analyze and express design the user. through in terms of wearing intentions wearing expressions in relation to a given brief using. cultural probes as a method of design brief exploration was something we as teachers could. observe but the meaning of this was not something the students could grasp and explain. explicitly Understanding methods and perspective needs a theoretical foundation that was. lacking the level of abstraction was too high on introduction given at the beginning of the. Reference workshops In order to get a broader background for evaluation we carried out several. reference workshops also involving guest lecturers. Functional clothes A workshop on functional wear was done with Master students during. two days in December 2005 Lecturers and organizers were Sirpa Morsky International. coordinator and clothing design H me Polytechnic Finland Jane McCann Director. smart clothes and wearable technology University of Wales Newport Marion Ellwanger. professor in textile design at our school The aim of the workshop was to train for a clear. understanding of all the elements which are to be considered in the design research and. development phase of an aesthetically attractive product which satisfies given use. requirements, Interaction design reference workshop To get a broader perspective on the particular. interaction design methods chosen for our test workshops we organized a reference. workshop with interaction design students at the IT University in G teborg in the autumn. 2005 The workshop was done in November with 30 Master students divided in 6 groups. Interaction methods were chosen from test workshops II and III A course in design. methods is included in the interaction design curriculum and it was easy for students to. understand the workshop exercise and also to explain and motivate the outcome of the. exercise Supervision was done by members of our project group in cooperation with. teachers from the IT University, Project course at the G teborg IT University As part of our project 6 fashion design. students participated in an interaction design project course at the IT University in. G teborg during 2005 They worked together with interaction design students in three. groups on projects connecting fashion and interaction design. Workshop at Unga Klara A workshop at Unga Klara Stockholm s City Theater in. autumn 2006 on exploring wearing expressions through smart textiles design The. workshop demonstrated how a focus on materials can display the double perspective of. fashion design aesthetics, Seminars development of models and methods Work on the development of theoretical. models and educational methods was done during the whole project We organized a series of. seminars to present and discuss ideas and results and also two larger workshops with invited. Seminars Suggestion and results from the project were presented and discussed at the. regular design seminars at our school continuously during the project. Workshop on interaction design aesthetics A workshop to discuss issues in interaction. design aesthetics was organized in January 2006 at our school with guests from rhus. University Institute of Design Ume University School of Arts and Communication. Malm University and Chalmers University of Technology. Workshop on fashion design teaching To sum up our project we organized a workshop on. fashion design teaching at our school in November 2006 For this workshop we invited. guests from University of Applied Sciences and Arts Hannover Professor Martina. Glomb Danmarks Designskole Copenhagen Senior lectures Ann Merete Ohrt and Peter. Dammand Beckmans College of Design Stockholm Senior lecturers Lena Kvarnstr m. and Marie Louise Nordin Fashion Institute of Technology New York Senior lecturer. Sass Brown Faculty of Textile Technology University of Zagreb Professor Tonci. Vladislac London College of Fashion Senior lecturer Alison James and HDK Steneby. Senior lecturers Ebba Johansson Eva Alfredsson Together with members of our faculty. we were 25 participants in the workshop discussing general issues in fashion design. teaching Workshops on fashion design teaching are not that common and we feel that the. project gave us an opportunity to open up for a new type of discussion and cooperation. between design schools with fashion on their program. 2 2 4 Reflection and documentation, Documentation To be able to evaluate outcome of workshops we interviewed all participating. students on how they picture and understand the fashion design process and about their level of. practical and theoretical knowledge about design methods All interviews were recorded. All test workshops including critical evaluation examination discussions were documented on. Workshop evaluation was then done in closed seminars within the project group Video material. from workshops was used as reference material in these seminars most project members were. participating in workshops so the video material was not first hand material. Study tours In november 2005 the project group went to Berlin for a study visit at Universit t. der K nste visiting Professor Barbara Tietze and also to visit Berlin as a center for experimental. art and design in Europe This included a visit to the Photo museum in Berlin with its large. Helmut Newton Newton collection We also made study visits to the design school in Kolding. Denmark and to the design schools in Eindhoven during the Dutch Design Week 2006. Fashion shows During the project we systematically documented photo and video. documentation various student fashion shows Besides the graduation show at our school we. documented the annual KappAhl Design Award show in Stockholm Mittelmoda in Gorizia. Italy the annual Designers Nest competition at CPH Vision Fashion Fair in Copenhagen and the. Concours international des Jeunes Cr ateurs de Mode in Paris with fashion students from all over. the world In 2005 160 students from 16 countries participated in the competition and we were. very happy to see one of our project group members Maria Nordstr m winning the prize for. the best Swedish contribution In Paris we could document also preparations and testing which. gave an unique opportunity to see and reflect on fashion student work from all over the world. Documentation of fashion shows and study tours has been used in the project as reference. materials both with respect to discussions about level of student work and with respect to. discussions about fashion design presentation in a learning teaching perspective the role of the. cat wake the role of fashion photography with respect to wearing expression as a basic parameter. in fashion design aesthetics, Evaluation Workshop evaluation focused on two main issues. The way in which the workshop explores the given assumption learning outcome. How the workshop displays possible lack of general training in design methodology and. understanding of theoretical conceptual foundations. The different forms of evaluation examination integrated in test workshops served a double. To involve students in a critical evaluation of the workshop. To test different forms of workshop evaluation examination. Note that regular student valuations in relation to given course were not part of this. The main results of the project consist of theoretical models together with reflections on methods. for workshop examination and evaluation It also includes systematic photo and video. documentation as well as initial development of models and methods for using photo and video. as tools for critical reflection in fashion design education. 3 1 Conceptual framework and theoretical models, The lack of sufficiently precise and elementary concepts to define and explain the interaction. design interpretation of to see analyze and express design fashion as foundation for. exercises and training was evident from test workshop evaluations The what is it we train and. what is it we train for was simply not clear and elementary enough To raise the level of. reflection in workshop exercises we need a basic conceptual framework in which we can define. and explain fashion design practice from the perspective of interaction design in a systematic. manner With respect to theoretical foundations the main results of the project relate to. A more in depth exploration of the notions of wearing intentions and wearing. expressions as foundation for a definition of what it is we design in the fashion design. process from an interaction design perspective This is then one way of explaining. fashion design from the perspective of wearing and use. A system for classifying the form of an initial workshop brief modeling to see analyze. and express design as a foundation for the development of workshop exercises. 3 1 1 Wearing intentions and wearing expressions, In what follows a garment is a construction of some sort intended for wearing We consider two. basic aspects of this, Wearing intentions WI why we wear the garment why we intent to use it More. generally what we do wearing the garment, Wearing expression WE how we wear the garment how it expresses us More generally. what the garment does as we wear it, Cf the distinction between real represented and used garment in Barthes 1990. Both WI and WE refers to some given garment X We may then view fashion design as a process. of defining that garment which WI and WE refers to and thereby relate WI and WE to each. other We so to speak express the relation WI WE in the process of designing It is not trousers. coats etc we design We express relations WALKING PROTECTING DANCING GLOWING. etc Form as a central aesthetical concept will here refer to the way in which the garment X. relates WI and WE to each other, What we do in the fashion design from an interaction design perspective is to express wearing. intentions by through wearing expressions i e we interpret the relation WI WE by designing. the garment as expressional material something we use to express wearing intentions. This is to view fashion design as an interaction design problem in order to make the aesthetics of. wearing explicit as a design aesthetical problem we do not only design garments but also its. intended use in the fashion design process, Generic analysis A Given a garment B Explain what it is by defining WI and WE C. Describe its interaction form, Generic design A Given WI and WE B Define an interaction form C Define the garment. The equation A BC BC A then describes the relation between analysis and design. WI defines in some sense me whereas WE defines a garment We can given WI and WE ask. What the garment does with me WE WI,What we do with the garment WI WE. WI and WE introduce two basic design variables and the recursion equations. express the relation WI WE i e what it is we do as we design the garment which WE and WI. refers to We define the garment by defining what it does with a wearer Simultaneously we. define a wearer by defining what she he does with the garment To design street wear fashion for. teenagers for example means to define what in a specific case street wear fashion do with. teenagers as well as what teenagers does with street wear fashion. 3 1 2 Interaction analysis in fashion design teaching. The pedagogical program sketched here is based on the idea to relate exercises workshops etc to. a certain fashion design diagram Each part of the diagram it has eight elementary components. introduces a particular perspective on saying that fashion design means expressing wearing. intentions through wearing expressions We learn to see analyze and express design fashion in. terms of wearing and use in a systematical manner by training us to see and express a fixed set of. elementary perspectives of the relation WI WE, WI WE can be an abstraction or something concretely given and it is the garment X that relates. the abstract and the concrete instance to each other Given abstractions WI and WE we define in. the process of designing the garment X that WI and WE refers to and given a garment X we can. by use derive concrete WI and WE by wearing X Viewing basic possibilities in this we can. draw a diagram over different ways in which the garment X relates WI and WE to each other. In the diagram we find eight different triangles which we can use as a conceptual framework for. exercises to train students in working with different basic aspects of the fashion design process. from an interaction design perspective with basic focus on design aesthetics. 1 WE X WI WI X WE, To see analyze and express design fashion in terms of wearing and use means here. Analysis Given a garment X to define WI and WE such that WE X WI. Design To solve WE X WI by defining X for given WE and WI. From the perspective of analysis WE X WI is a form of equality the given garment X. introduce Consider some garment X for instance a suit X strict in some sense What is it we. ask and answer by producing equalities WE WI i e WE WI such that WE X WI This. means we look for wearing expressions WE and wearing intentions WI such that WE is what the. suit does to us where us is what we do wearing some given garment Say WI working at. the bank and WE making reliable Such a series of pairs WE WI is then one way to. characterize X in terms of wearing and use, From the perspective of design WE X WI is the basic design rationale i e that which. motivates essential design choices it is a design brief form we instantiate by defining WE and. WI If we on the other hand start with for example WI working at the bank and WE. making reliable the process of designing X will be a process of solving proving that X makes. us working at the bank reliable,2 WE WE X WE X WI, To see analyze and express design fashion in terms of wearing and use means here. Analysis Given a garment X to define WE WE and WI such that. WE WE X WE X WI, Design To solve WE WE X WE X WI by defining X for given WE WE and. 3 2 Workshop models, Each triangle in the diagram is a learning objectives outcome classifyer i e defining and. classifying the what of a workshop exercise The interaction design methods give us methods to. solve the equations associated with given triangles i e the how of a workshop exercise The. diagram provides in this sense a systematic foundation for learning objectives and learning. outcome The duality in reading an equation in terms of analysis or in terms of design will also. provide a model for explaining what it means to turn analysis into design and vice versa Some. workshops are analytical in nature while others are typically design oriented connecting two. workshop exercises can then be used for explicit training in turning one perspective. analysis design in to the other, Consider Workshop I V One way to understand this workshop is in terms of the equation. WE X WI seen from an analytical perspective a colorful headgear is given and we use. cultural probes to get inspiration information for defining WI and WE such that WE X WI. We can then bracket X and use resulting WE and WI in a design brief WI X WE To solve this. we can in a workshop exercise for example use the method of counterexamples See Appendix 1. Workshop IIIa to explore the boundaries of the design space given by WI X WE. 3 3 Examination and evaluation, The main outcome of examination evaluation experiments is a better understanding of how to. integrate critical discussions and reflection into workshop exercises By varying. examination evaluation methods students will train to focus and reflect on different aspects of the. design process A blind review demonstrates explicitly that design presentation design. communication is an integrated and important part of the process When examination evaluation. is based on students reviewing each others work they will in a natural manner rediscover the. divergence phase of the process i e see possibilities solutions more questions and different. ways of understanding the brief,3 4 Documentation work. We have a rather large library of photo and video documentation from the project. Vide documentation of all workshop exercises except parts of workshop IV. Video and photo documentation of study trips and student fashion shows. A side effect of our documentation work has been introduction of photo and video documentation. as a natural component in the fashion program to facilitate learning through critical discussions. This has become an integrated and very concrete part of the development of theoretical models. and a pedagogical program and we view this as a very important project result Photo and video. are powerful and flexible tools for representing WI and WE in seminar discussions.
Abstract: Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) are useful tools for modeling ecological predictions and aiding resource- management decision-making. We provide practical guidelines for developing, testing, and revising BBNs. Primary steps in this process include creating influence diagrams of the hypothesized "causal web" of key factors affecting a
APPLICANTS WITH MULTIPLE ADMISSIONS - UDSM 9/8/19 5 of 175 UDSM # Firstname Othernames Surname SexOlevel Index Programme Name Campus Location 51ADAM KIJULY MCHEMBA M S0153/0001/2013 Bachelor of Social WorkA: JKN Mlimani Mlimani - (DSM)
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Introduzione Il sistema linfatico supporta le funzioni del sistema cardiovascolare e del sistema immunitario Il sistema linfatico consiste di parti semi- indipendenti: una rete di vasi linfatici organi linfatici distribuiti per tutto il corpo I vasi linfatici trasportano liquidi che sono fuoriusciti dal sistema cardiovascolare