004 43 2008,Composer Y V Prokop, These lecture notes contain brief information on personal computers Windows. XP operating system Microsoft Word text processor and theoretical data and. examples of projects in Builder for calculation of complex mathematical. formulas and solving problems with branching These lecture notes will be useful for. students of the Academy of Telecommunications who are studying in English fixing. theoretical material preparation for laboratory works and practical occupations in. the discipline of Computer science in the first module. It is intended for the acquisition of skills for operation on a personal computer. and programming by students of the academy studying in English with the purpose. of further usage of these skills in daily present and future professional work Also it. will be further useful for users of personal computers wishing to learn programming. in the C Builder environment, The lecture notes have been approved by the sub faculty IT meeting. Minutes from,The head of the chair Leonov Y G, The lecture notes are considered and approved by the faculty of Informational. Networks meeting,Minutes from,The dean of the faculty Strelkovskaya I V. Introduction 4, Lecture 1 Introduction Personal computer Microsoft Windows Microsoft Word 7. Personal computer 7,Number systems 11,Microsoft Windows 14. Microsoft Word Text Processor 20, Lecture 2 Introduction to programming C Builder IDE 44. Introduction to Borland C Builder IDE 45,Variables and Data Types 50. Input Output 56, Lecture 3 Arithmetic expressions in C Programs with linear structure 59. Math Functions 59,Console application 63, Lecture 4 Conditions If and switch conditional statements 72. Conditions 72,If statement 73,The switch statement 79. Application 1 Description of Microsoft Word Standard and Formatting Toolbars 85. Application 2 Precedence of operators 88,Application 3 The list of reserved words 89. Application 4 Vocabulary 90, Application 5 The list of functions and instructions 93. Introduction,Structure of the module, The discipline of Computer science is studied in I II semesters and is intended. for the training of students for the professional use of personal computers. The purpose of the Computer science course is to form knowledge and skills in. areas such as,architecture of a personal computer,operation in Windows operating system. algorithmization of computing processes,compilation of programs on C programming language. acquaintance to object oriented programming on an example of solution of the. elementary tasks in C Builder programming environment. The course program consists of four modules, module 1 The main data on a personal computer and about the organization. of computing processes, module 2 Programming of tasks with loops and arrays. module 3 Programming of tasks with the structured data. module 4 Programming of tasks with lists and files Bases of object oriented. programming, According to the curriculum the structure of the module is as following. Type of activity Hours,Lectures 8,Exercises 16,Laboratory Training 16. Total Classwork Hours 40,Individual Work and Self study 27. The subject schedule of lectures, Lecture 1 Introduction Personal computer Microsoft Windows Microsoft. Lecture 2 Introduction to programming C Builder IDE. Lecture 3 Arithmetic expressions in C Programs with linear structure. Lecture 4 Conditions If and switch conditional statements. The list of exercises in module 1, 1 Binary octal and hexadecimal number systems Windows operating system. 2 Mathematical expressions Programs with linear structure. 3 Console Conditions,4 Programs with if and switch statements. The list of laboratory trainings in module 1, 1 Operation with files and folders in Microsoft Windows Text document. 2 Creation and formatting the text in Microsoft Word processor. 3 Tables creation and processing in Microsoft Word Graphic images and. formula editor in Word, 4 Introduction to Borland C Builder IDE project form components. properties and events, 5 Mathematical expressions Programs with linear structure. 6 Console application,7 Programs with branching,8 Programs with the operator of variants. The list of knowledge and skills with which the student should start learning. a contents of the given module, The study of computer science is based on the school course of computer. science students should own knowledge in size of school course of computer science. according to the program of the Ministry of Education and is based on school. courses of mathematics and the discipline of Higher mathematics functions. formulas of conversion a factorial numbers an integral a matrix operations with. matrixes etc,Literature,2 Builder 6,2006 2007 1184. 4 Builder 5, 7 The cplusplus com tutorial http www cplusplus com. Guidelines to self study of the student, For self study and execution of individual tasks 27 hours are given to the. student It is recommended to arrange this time as follows. Type of activity Hours,Studying of lectures 4,Learning of an additional material to lectures 4. Preparation for exercises 4,Preparation for laboratory works 9. Execution of the complex individual task on a theme Compilation. of algorithms and programs with linear and branching structure. Lecture 1 Introduction Personal computer,Microsoft Windows Microsoft Word. Personal computer, Computers consist of hardware and software components. Hardware is the physical equipment integrated circuit boards disk drives. terminals the screen and keyboard together tape drives printers and plotters. Software is the programs that instruct the hardware to do something. Every computer has the following general structure fig 1 1. Fig 1 1 General structure of computer,Fig 1 2 Personal computer. Hardware with desktop case,Hardware is all of the electronic equipment that. a computer includes If you can touch it pick it up or move it around it is hardware. A computer consists of a system unit and external devices such as a monitor. keyboard mouse printer etc fig 1 2,There are 8 basic parts to a computer. 1 Case houses all of the important computer components If it stands up tall it is. a tower case fig 1 3 If it sits flat it is a desktop case fig 1 2. 2 Power Supply is a case that holds a transformer voltage control and a cooling. fan and supplies power to the rest of the computer. 3 Mainboard motherboard is a large Printed Circuit. Board PCB with fixed components and sockets that accept. smaller PCBs and other components hosting,The microprocessor or Central Processing Unit. CPU with its own heat sink and cooling fan,Small PCBs with fast Random Access Memory. Interface boards PCBs for Hard Disk HD Drives, Floppy Disk Drives FDD Compact Disk CD Drives and Fig 1 3 Tower case. external peripherals the connectors on the back of the base. unit are integral parts of the interface boards for external peripherals. 4 CPU central processing unit is the brain of the computer Every. instruction given to the computer passes through the electronic circuits of the CPU. When you program a computer to add two numbers together the arithmetic is. performed in the CPU When you want something sorted the CPU controls the task. from start to finish The type of CPU in a computer determines how fast the computer. can operate A CPU generates a lot of heat so there is usually a small fan nearby to. cool it down, 5 Memory Each program you run is loaded into RAM random access. memory However when the computer is switched off all of this information. disappears RAM is also referred to as thinking memory If computer has more RAM. it works thinks faster, 6 Video Card video display controller produces the output for the computer. display This will either be built into the motherboard or attached in its own separate. slot PCI PCI E or AGP in the form of a Graphics Card. 7 Hard Disk HDD stores all the information in a computer even when it is. switched off, 8 CD or DVD Drive A CD ROM can only read information from the disk. Many computers have a CD RW RW stands for ReWrite instead of a CD ROM. CD RW allows you to write information to the disk as well as read from it Also new. computers may have a DVD Digital Video Disk drive instead of a CD ROM or. CD RW A DVD holds much more information, In fig 1 4 you can see how components are placed inside a system unit. Fig 1 4 System unit Components inside a computer,The computer can also contain. Sound cards enable computers to output sound to audio devices as well as. accept input from a microphone Most modern computers have sound cards built in to. the motherboard though it is common for a user to install a separate sound card as an. Networking connects the computer to the internet and or other computers. modem for dial up connections The modem is an expansion card that. allows computers to communicate with each other A modem plugs the computer in. to a phone or cable line so that information can be transferred between computers. network card for DSL Cable internet and or connecting to other. Input devices, There are several ways to get new information or input into a computer The. two most common ways are the keyboard and the mouse The keyboard has keys for. characters letters numbers and punctuation marks and special commands Pressing. the keys tells the computer what to do or what to write The mouse allows you to. move the cursor around on screen By clicking on the buttons on the mouse you give. the computer directions on what to do There are other devices similar to a mouse that. can be used in its place A trackball has the ball on top and you move it with your. finger A touchpad allows you to move your finger across a pressure sensitive pad. and press to click, Other types of input devices allow you to put images into the computer A. scanner copies a picture or document into the computer There are several types of. scanners and some look very different but most look like a flat tray with a glass pane. and a lid to cover it You can input photographs into a computer with a digital. Output Devices, Output devices display information in a way that you can understand The most. common output device is a monitor It houses the computer screen The monitor. allows you to see what you and the computer are doing together. Speakers are output devices that allow you to hear sound from your computer. Computer speakers are like stereo speakers, A printer is another common part of a computer system It takes what you see. on the computer screen and prints it on paper There are three types of printers An. inkjet printer uses inks to print It is the most common printer used with home. computers and it can print in either black and white and or color Laser printers run. much faster because they use lasers to print Laser printers are mostly used in. businesses Black and white laser printers are the most common but some print in. color too Also there is an old type of printer called the matrix printer Basically. they are used in cash registers for printing receipts tickets etc. Ports are on the outside of the computer case where you plug in hardware On. the inside of the case they are connected to expansion cards The keyboard mouse. monitor and printer all plug into ports There are also extra ports to plug in extra. hardware like joysticks gamepads scanners digital cameras and the like The ports. are controlled by their expansion cards which are plugged into the motherboard and. are connected to other components by cables which are long flat bands that contain. electrical wiring,System bus, All communication between the individual major components is via the system. bus The bus is merely a cable which is capable of carrying signals representing data. from one place to another, When data must be sent from memory to a printer then it will be sent via the. system bus The control signals that are necessary to access memory and to activate. the printer are also sent by the CPU via the system bus. A crucial component of a computer is the BIOS Basic Input Output System. chip In very simple terms the BIOS chip wakes up the computer when you turn it on. and reminds it what parts it has and what they do, The fundamental unit of data storage in a computer is called a bit or binary. digit A bit is similar to a two way switch Just like a switch has two states off or on. a bit also has two states 0 or 1 Often these two states represent the values false or. true and are implemented inside a computer by using a low voltage value or a high. voltage value Since bits provide the foundation for all data storage it is not. surprising that the binary number system is very important to computers. By themselves bits are not very interesting or useful In order to store more. complex forms of data bits are joined together into larger groups known as bytes. Every byte is made up of eight bits and can store one character symbol Integer. numbers can be stored in 2 or 4 bytes The word computer occupies 8 bytes. We can assign particular patterns of bits to represent common symbols such as. letters punctuation marks and numerals One very common representation of these. symbols is ASCII the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The main memory of a computer RAM is composed of millions of storage. cells similar to the one illustrated in fig 1 5 The size of the storage cells is known as. the word size for the computer In some computers the word size is one byte while in. other computers the word size is two four or even eight bytes Each storage cell in. the main memory has a particular address which the computer can use for storing or. retrieving data This arrangement of cells is somewhat similar to a computer. spreadsheet where each box of the spreadsheet can hold various data Just like the. boxes of the spreadsheet are identified by a row and column combination. e g A2 C4 etc the cells of a computer s main memory are identified by a. particular address e g Cell 1 Cell 2 etc The addresses begin at 0 and increases by. 1 until the end of the main memory is reached,Fig 1 5 Model of computer memory. Because computers have such large amounts of RAM the size of the main. memory is usually measured in megabytes MB rather than just bytes One megabyte. is equal to 220 bytes or 1 048 578 bytes Some other common measures for quantities. of bytes are listed in the table 1 1,Table 1 1 Measures for quantities of bytes. Kilobyte KB 1024 or 210 bytes 1 024 bytes Thousands of bytes. Megabyte MB 1024 or 2 bytes 1 048 578 bytes Millions of bytes. Gigabyte GB 1024 or 2 bytes 1 073 741 824 bytes Billions of bytes. Terabyte TB 10244 or 240 bytes 1 099 511 627 776 bytes Trillions of bytes. Number systems, With digital devices it is necessary to deal with various types of information It. is mostly the binary information such as whether the device is switched on or off the. device is serviceable or not The information can be presented in the form of a text It. is necessary to encode characters of the alphabet by means of binary levels of a. signal Often the information can represent numbers Numbers can be presented in. various number systems Number systems may be positional or not positional. Not positional systems are such number systems in which each character saves. the value irrespective its position among other characters representing a number An. example of a not positional number system is the Roman system. The number system is named positional if the same digit has various values. determined as a position of digit in the sequence of digits representing a number An. example of a positional number system is the decimal system used in a daily life. The quantity p of the various digits used in the positional system defines the. name of a number system and is called a base number p. In the decimal system ten digits are used 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 This system. has the basis number ten, Any number N in a positional number system with the basis p can be presented. in the form of a polynomial from,N anpn an 1pn 1 a1p a0 a 1p 1 a 2p 2. Here N number aj coefficients digits of number p a base number p 1 It is. accepted to represent numbers in the form of a sequence of digits. N anan 1 a1a0, In the COMPUTER positional number systems without decimal basis are. applied binary octal and hexadecimal table 1 2,Table 1 2 The Most important number systems. Binary Octal Decimal Hexadecimal, base number 2 base number 8 base number 10 base number 16. 0 0 000 0 0 0000,1 1 001 1 1 0001,2 010 2 2 0010,3 011 3 3 0011. 4 100 4 4 0100,5 101 5 5 0101,6 110 6 6 0110,7 111 7 7 0111. The binary number system uses two digits 0 and 1 In binary system any. number can be presented in the form of,N bnbn 1 b1b0. where bi are 0 or 1, The octal number system uses eight digits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 For. representation of one digit in the octal system three binary bits triad are used. The hexadecimal number system uses 16 digits The first ten digits of this. system are designated by digits from 0 up to 9 and six uppercase Latin characters. A B C D E F For the representation of one digit in the hexadecimal number. system table 1 2 four binary bits tetrad are used, The translation of numbers from one number system to another. The translation of numbers to the decimal system is carried out by a. compilation of a power series with the basis of that system from which the number is. translated Then the value of the sum is added up,Examples 1. 1 Translate 10101101 1012 10 n s, 10101101 1012 1 27 0 26 1 25 0 24 1 23 1 22 0 21 1 20 1 2 1 0 2 2 1 2 3. 2 Translate 703 048 10 n s,703 048 7 82 0 81 3 80 0 8 1 4 8 2 451 062510. 3 Translate B2E 416 10 n s,B2E 416 11 162 2 161 14 160 4 16 1 2862 2510. The translation of the integer decimal numbers to the not decimal number. system is carried out by a sequential division of a decimal number by the basis of that. system in which it is translated until it will turn out to be the quotient smaller than. basis The number in the new system is written in the form of the rests of division. beginning from the last,Examples 2,1 Translate 18110 8 n s. Result 18110 2658,2 To translate 62210 16 n s,Result 62210 26E16. For the translation of octal or a hex number to the binary form it is enough. to substitute each digit of this number with an appropriate three bit binary number. triad Tab 1 2 or four digit binary number tetrad Tab 1 2 thus discard. unnecessary zero in seniors and low order digits,Translate 305 48 2 n s. 1 Translate 7B2 E16 2 n s, In order to transition from the binary to the octal hexadecimal system do. the following move from a point to the left and to the right divide binary number. into groups on three four bits supplementing if necessary in the zero extreme left. and right groups Then a triad tetrad will be substituted in the corresponding octal. hexadecimal digit,Translate 1101111001 11012 8 n s. To translate11111111011 1001112 16 n s, Translation from the octal in hexadecimal system is also carried out through. the binary system by means of triads and tetrads,Translate 175 248 16 n s. Result 175 248 7D 516,Binary arithmetic, Rules of arithmetic operations above binary numbers are set by table 1 3 binary. additions subtraction and multiplying,Table 1 3 Binary arithmetic. The table of binary The Table of binary The Table of binary. addition subtraction multiplying,0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0,1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0,1 1 10 10 1 1 1 1 1. At addition of binary numbers each pair of digits is added Thus it is necessary to. consider that 1 1 results in zero in the given bit and 1 is carried in previous bit. Add binary numbers,X 1101 Y 101,Result 1101 101 10010. X 1101 Y 101 Z 111,Result 1101 101 111 11001, The subtraction of binary numbers in the given bit 1 of high bit is engaged if. necessary This borrowed unit is equal to two units in a given bit. Binary numbers X 10010 and Y 101 are set Calculate X Y. Result 10010 101 1101,Microsoft Windows, Software is the program that controls everything the computer does for you. The software makes the computer run and determines whether the computer acts as a. text processor graphic artist office manager or performs any of the hundreds of. tasks that a computer can do for you,There are two types of software. Application software programs designed to perform specific tasks that are. transparent to the user,System software programs that support the. execution and development of other programs Two, major types of system software are operating systems. and translation systems,An operating system oversees and directs the. processing of all programs fig 1 6 It provides basic. functions for computer such as, Fig 1 6 Operating system Controls hardware printer monitor etc. Runs programs,Organizes information, The most famous operating system is Microsoft Windows Other operating. systems are Unix Linux for network OS 2 Macintosh etc. A translation system is a set of programs used to develop software A key. component of a translation system is a translator Some types of translators are. Compiler converts from one language to another,Linker combines resources. Examples Microsoft Visual C CBuilder g Code Warrior They. perform compilation linking and other activities, When you turn a computer on it will go through a process called booting That. is short for bootstrapping When you press the On switch a small program called a. bootstrap loader runs This program in turn loads the operating system which. controls your PC s functions This process is in effect the computer pulling itself. up by its own bootstraps, During bootup you will normally see a black screen with text summaries as the. system checks itself over After about a half of a minute you will see the Windows. startup screen displayed and then Windows itself will start Then you will be. presented with the Windows Desktop your working and playing environment. Microsoft Windows has Graphical User Interface GUI We use a mouse to. operate it, The mouse allows you to choose commands on menus and toolbars as well as. select objects on the screen As you move the mouse a cursor moves on the screen. The cursor can take different shapes and is sometimes called an arrow of pointer. When you use a mouse you first point the cursor to some object then use the mouse. button Some mouse terms are,Click press and release the left mouse button. Click and Drag press the left mouse button and hold it down while you move. it over a text or an object If an instruction says to drag it assumes that you hold. down the left mouse button while you are dragging, Double click quickly press and release the left mouse button twice. Right click press and release the right mouse button. Waiting cursor when you see an hour glass it means you should wait while. your computer completes a task, Sometimes you will see an instruction like this Ctrl click That means to. hold down the Ctrl key while you click with the mouse You can see a similar. instruction with the Shift and Alt keys, If you see a command that instructs to choose or select an item it means that. you should point and click,Introducing the Desktop. The Windows Desktop is a metaphor for your real world desk although it is. more like an office top than a desktop The Desktop is highly customizable so no. two Windows Desktops look exactly the same For example you can see something.
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