Homeostasis Negative Feedback Loop-Books Download

Homeostasis Negative Feedback Loop
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Avenues of attack Why an immune system,Attack from outside. Points of entry lots of organisms want you for lunch. digestive system animals are a tasty nutrient vitamin packed meal. cells are packages of macromolecules,What s in your. respiratory system no cell wall,traded mobility for susceptibility. urogenital tract animals must defend themselves against invaders. break in skin HIV flu cold measles chicken pox SARS. Routes of attack bacteria,pneumonia meningitis tuberculosis. circulatory system fungi,yeast Athlete s foot,lymph system protists.
amoeba Lyme disease malaria,Attack from inside,defend against abnormal body cells cancers. Production transport of leukocytes, Lymph system Traps foreign invaders Development of Red White blood cells. Red blood cells inflammatory,lymph vessels,intertwined amongst blood vessels. develop into short lived phagocytes,lymph node macrophages 60 70 WBC. Lines of defense 1st line External defense,1st line Barriers Physical chemical.
broad external defense,walls moats defenses,skin mucus membranes non specific defense. 2nd line Non specific patrol,broad internal defense external barrier. patrolling soldiers,epithelial cells mucus,leukocytes phagocytic WBC. macrophages membranes,3rd line Immune system skin,specific acquired immunity respiratory system. spies Bacteria insects,inherit resistance digestive system.
lymphocytes antibodies Vertebrates, B cells T cells uro genital tract Lining of trachea. acquire immunity ciliated cells mucus,secreting cells. 1st line Chemical barriers on,2nd line Internal broad range patrol. epithelium,Skin mucous membrane secretions leukocytes. Innate general defense,pH 3 5 rapid response,washing action Patrolling cells proteins.
traps microbes,attack invaders that penetrate,saliva body s outer. anti bacterial lick your wounds barriers,stomach acid. pH 2 leukocytes, anti microbial proteins phagocytic white blood cells. lysozyme enzyme complement system,digests bacterial cell walls. anti microbial proteins,inflammatory response,Leukocytes Phagocytic WBCs Phagocytes.
Attracted by chemical,signals released by damaged cells. enter infected tissue engulf ingest microbes,Neutrophils. most abundant WBC 70,3 day lifespan,Macrophages,big eater long lived. Natural Killer Cells,destroy virus infected cells macrophage yeast. cancer cells,Destroying cells gone bad Inflammatory response.
Natural Killer Cells perforate cells Damage to tissue triggers. release perforin protein local non specific,inflammatory response. insert into membrane of target cell release histamines. forms pore allowing fluid to prostaglandins, flow into cell natural killer cell vesicle capillaries dilate. more permeable leaky,cell ruptures lysis increase blood supply. apoptosis perforin delivers WBC RBC platelets,cell clotting factors. fight pathogens,clot formation,perforin cell,membrane accounts for swelling redness.
punctures heat of inflammation infection,cell membrane virus infected cell. Inflammatory response Fever, Reaction to tissue damage When a local response is not enough. Pin or splinter,Blood clot systemic response to infection. activated macrophages release interleukin 1, Bacteria triggers hypothalamus in brain to readjust body thermostat to raise. body temperature,Chemical higher temperature helps defense.
alarm signals inhibits bacterial growth,stimulates phagocytosis. Phagocytes speeds up repair of tissues,causes liver spleen to store. iron reducing blood iron levels,bacteria need large amounts. of iron to grow,Blood vessel, 3rd line Acquired active Immunity How are invaders recognized Antigens. Specific defense Antigens, lymphocytes proteins that serve as cellular name tags.
foreign antigens cause response from WBCs, B lymphocytes B cells viruses bacteria protozoa parasitic worms fungi toxins. T lymphocytes T cells non pathogens pollen transplanted tissue. antibodies B cells T cells respond to different antigens. immunoglobulins B cells recognize intact antigens,pathogens in blood lymph. Responds to,T cells recognize antigen fragments, antigens pathogens which have already infected cells. specific pathogens,specific toxins,abnormal body cells. cancer self foreign,B cells Antibodies, Humoral response in fluid Proteins that bind to a specific antigen Y.
defense against attackers circulating multi chain proteins produced by B cells. freely in blood lymph binding region matches molecular shape of antigens. Specific response each antibody is unique specific Y. millions of antibodies respond to millions of foreign antigens. produce specific antibodies,tagging handcuffs, against specific antigen this is foreign gotcha antigen antigen. Types of B cells binding site on,plasma cells,immediate production of antibodies variable. rapid response short term release binding region Y. memory cells,long term immunity,each B cell,has 100 000. antigen receptors,Structure of antibodies Y,How antibodies work. antigen binding site,s s variable region,chain s s chain.
s s light chains,s s chains,invading pathogens,tagged with antibodies. B cell antigen binding antigen binding,membrane site site. macrophage,heavy chains eating tagged invaders,10 to 17 days for full response. B cell immune response,Y Y Vaccinations,Y Immune system exposed. to harmless version of pathogen,invader in blood lymph Y.
stimulates B cell system to produce,foreign antigen. B cells antibodies,memory cells,Y antibodies to pathogen. active immunity, captured recognition rapid response on future exposure. invaders Y,creates immunity,Y Y Y without getting,macrophage Y. Most successful,Y Y YY Y Y,against viruses,plasma cells 1000s of clone cells.
release antibodies,What if the attacker gets past the B. cells in the blood actually infects Cell mediated response. some of your cells immune response to infected cells. viruses bacteria parasites pathogens within,You need trained assassins to kill cells. off these infected cells defense against non self cells. cancer transplant cells,Types of T cells,Attack helper T cells. of the alerts immune system,Killer T cells killer cytotoxic T cells. attack infected body cells, How are cells tagged with antigens How do T cells know a cell is infected.
Major histocompatibility MHC proteins Infected cells digest pathogens MHC. antigen glycoproteins proteins bind carry pieces to cell surface. MHC proteins constantly carry bits of cellular material antigen presenting cells APC. from the cytosol to the cell surface,alerts Helper T cells. snapshot of what is going on inside cell, give the surface of cells a unique label or fingerprint infected MHC proteins displaying. cell foreign antigens,T cell T cell,MHC proteins T cell. displaying self antigens antigen receptors,T cell response Attack of the Killer T cells. infected cell,recognition T cell Destroys infected body cells.
helper binds to target cell,killer T cells secretes perforin protein. interleukin 1 helper punctures cell membrane of infected cell vesicle. T cell stimulate Killer T cell,Killer T cell,B cells binds to. APC antibodies,activated T cell infected cell,macrophage Y. clones cell,helper perforin,Y Y Y punctures cell,cell membrane membrane.

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