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Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 2 of 12. Background hormones and other drugs to in vitro fertilization opera. Ethnopharmacological surveys have been found to be tions 15 In 2010 the World Health Organization. one of the most reliable tools for the discovery of the WHO estimated that about 48 5 million couples world. natural and semi synthetic drug In fact herbals and wide were infertile and 1 9 of women aged 20 44 who. other natural products including their chemical deriv wanted a child were unable to have their first live birth. atives represented about 50 of all currently utilized In addition 10 5 of women who had previously given. medications worldwide 1 The usage of plants King birth were unable to have another baby after five years. dom by human beings as a source of medicines of trying This may raise the question about the used. started from the immemorial time for treatment pro measures that caused this high percentage 14 16 17. tection and prevention of various illnesses Till recent In the West Bank area the infertility rate among men. time herbals are considered one of the most import and women is relatively high with a rate of about 15 in. ant branches of traditional medicine In fact this kind 2016 according to World Health Organization the. of medicine plays until now an important role in Sixty ninth World Health Assembly report 18. health care systems especially in rural areas in devel The treatment of infertility in males and females. oped and developing countries 2 6 In fact trad are varying in their associated risks intensity and in. itional medicine is considered a very important vasiveness which depend on the duration cause age. branch of pharmacy and medicine and besides that and personal preferences Meanwhile the physical fi. the used plants in this medicine are considered major nancial and time commitment is the required factors. sources for the investigation of pharmacologically ac for infertility treatment The infertility treatments can. tive drugs in the pharmaceutical industry In addition range from medication therapy to induce ovulation to. the global public interests are in continuous growing invasive manipulation of eggs and sperm outside of. toward the use of this type of medicine In fact about the body 19 As well as all the infertility treatments. 80 of people in rural areas of developing countries are very expensive many of poor patients or patients. utilized traditional medicine since it is available who believe in alternative medicine or others people. cheap and has a variety of health benefits 7 9 which their previous infertility treatments had failed. In Palestine and other countries traditional healers are all of those are seeking for the alternative herbal. well known by different names such as traditional med medicine to solve this problem 20. ical practitioners traditional doctors people s doctors Throughout this ethnopharmacological survey the. healers practitioners of Arabian traditional medicine current study aimed to collect information about herbal. Arabian therapists therapists in prophet medicine and remedies used by local rural traditional healers in 9 re. Islamic practitioner healers 10 gions of the occupied West Bank Area of Palestine. According to the World Health Organization and the which used in the treatment of infertility in males and. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Repro females The collected data including the plant s names. ductive Technology infertility is a disorder of the repro used parts methods of preparations and route of. ductive system which is defined by the failure to achieve administrations. a clinical pregnancy after one year or more of regular. unprotected sexual intercourse 11 Materials and methods. Recently a huge number of factors caused an increase Study areas. in infertility levels among males and females especially Palestine has been the battleground of the great powers. in developed countries These factors include the in and civilizations in the region throughout its history. creased use of contraceptives rising maternal age smok which occurred due to its specific location at the cross. ing alcohol genetic factors pesticides narcotics rates roads of Africa Asia and Europe Conquerors of the re. of abortion and critical economic situations Besides gion included Egypt Assyria Macedonia Rome. that an increase in male impotency could be due to the Byzantium Arabia and Turkey Settlement in the area is. psychogenic factors vascular disturbances neurogenic believed to date back to about 8000 B C E to the village. disorders endocrine system disturbances and drug treat of Jericho in the West Bank West Bank area is one of. ment 12 13 This health care problem can lead to the important parts of historical Palestine Holy Land. serious psychological disorders severe stressful and de which considered holy by Jews Christians and Muslims. pressing life for parents In fact this global problem Part of the significance of the land stems from the reli. ranked in the fourth position after the death of the gious significance of Jerusalem the historical region of. mother the death of father and unfaithfulness of partner Jesus ministry the holiest city to Judaism and the site. 14 Accordingly the treatment of infertility has become of the Isra and Mi raj event in Islam Accordingly this. a large pharmaceutical and medical industries issues ar region represents a very important source of information. ranging from manufacturing and prescribing fertility for the field of ethnomedicine Due to specific geographical. Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 3 of 12. location and climatic conditions mostly Mediterra, nean West Bank area of Palestine is a suitable place. for growing a huge variety of herbals Nowadays of, about 2700 plant species which have been identified in. this country 21, The West Bank is an area of extensive wild biodiver. sity farming and valuable rangelands, Its central mountain chain endowed with a mild cli. mate is grooved by deep valleys rich in natural re. sources and stretches into rolling hills that plunge. further east into the Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea. which considered the lowest point on earth and has a. worldwide attraction 22 Due to its distinctive geo. graphical location climatic diversity historical profile. and religious variables all these factors affected posi. tively and enriched the diversity of ethnomedicine in this. small area of the world 23,Data collection from traditional healers.
Ethnopharmacological data about herbal remedies used. in the treatment of infertility in males and females were. collected through open ended semi structured inter. views with 51 traditional healers informants during. fieldwork The interviews were conducted in the Arabic. language which is the native language of the informants. This survey was conducted between June and August Fig 1 Map of the West Bank Palestine showing all surveyed areas. 2017 During the transect walks plants were collected. under the supervision of the traditional healers Plant. voucher specimens were collected and deposited at the of Nablus Jenin Tulkarem Qalqilya Ramallah Jericho. Natural products Laboratory An Najah National Uni Jerusalem Bethlehem and Hebron regions in the West. versity for identification Plant names have been checked Bank Palestine These traditional healers were well. and updated with the online website www theplantlist known in the various Palestinian communities and herb. org of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew accessed on 3 alists which utilized herbal products to treat infertility. July 2017 Areas visited included some rural regions of The plant s vernacular names methods of preparation. the West Bank Palestine including rural areas of Nab and administration of these herbal remedies were col. lus Jenin Tulkarem Qalqilya Ramallah Jericho lected throughout these interviewees Social demo. Jerusalem Bethlehem and Hebron regions Fig 1 graphic factors are presented in Table 1. The study protocol and the informed consent, forms were approved by the Institutional Review Data analysis. Board IRB at An Najah National University Ar The Choice Value CV method is a valuable assessment. chived number 9th June 2017 The study was con tool to measure related plant species for the treatment. ducted in accordance with the requirements of the of infertility in males and females 24. declarations of Helsinki World Medical Association The CV is calculated as in the following equation. 2008 Harmonization ICH1996 Guidelines the,current Good Clinical Practice GPC Guidelines Pcs. CVspecies x 100,EME 1997 and the International Conference and Sc. written informed consent for participation in the, study was obtained from all informants Pcs percent of informants that cited certain plant. To protect the interest of traditional healers they were in species for the treatment of infertility in males and. formed by the researchers in details about the current study females. and its purposes also they were not offered any incentives Sc is the total number of species mentioned for the. and they were able to withdraw from this study at any time treatment of disease by all informants Choice values are. The survey was carried out by using interviews among ranked from 0 to 100 with 100 indicating complete pref. 51 traditional healers N 51 from different rural areas erence and fewer alternatives. Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 4 of 12. Table 1 Social demographic factors related to the informants. Variable Number of folkloric healers N 51,Male 23 45 1 45 1.
Female 28 54 9 54 9,Education level,Uneducated 52 9 52 9. Elementary school 25 5 25 5,Secondary school 21 6 21 6. Bethlehem region rural areas 9 17 6,Hebron region rural areas 7 13 7. Jenin region rural areas 3 5 9,Jericho region rural areas 16 31 4. Jerusalem region rural areas 5 9 8,Nablus region rural areas 3 5 9.
Qalqilya region rural areas 3 5 9,Ramallah region rural areas 3 5 9. Tulkarem rural areas 2 3 9,Age mean SD years 53 5 19 6. Years of experience as a healer,Between 1 and 10 years 1 2 0. Between 11 and 20 years 8 15 7,Between 21 and 30 years 7 13 7. Between 31 and 40 years 27 52 9,Between 41 and 50 years 6 11 8.
More than 51 years 2 3 9, The sources of traditional healer acquired knowledge. Ancestors 48 94 1,Books and magazines 2 3 9,Internet 1 2 0. The frequency of citation FC for all plants species in comprised 45 1 of the males and 54 9 females The. this study was calculated by using the following formula majority of traditional healers were uneducated 52 9. 25 while the elementary and secondary schools education. levels represented 25 5 and 21 6 respectively Table 1. The highest percent of informants was from Jericho. FC Number of times a particular species was mentioned rural area followed by Bethlehem and Hebron which. by traditional healers a total number of occasions that represented 17 6 and 13 7 In addition the majority of. all species were mentionedj x 100 them 52 9 had experienced between 31 and 40 years. as well as the most important thing in this survey 94 1. of these traditional healers acquired their knowledge. Results from their ancestors,Social demographic informant s details. The results of social and demographic factors of infor. mants showed that the percentage of female healers is Results and discussion. slightly higher than males and most of them were un The results of the present study showed that a total of. educated Precisely the selected 51 traditional healers 31 plants from 24 families used for the treatment of in. from various rural areas of West Bank Palestine fertility in females meanwhile 24 plants from 20 families. Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 5 of 12. Table 2 The used herbals for the treatment of infertility in females the plant s parts used Frequency of Citation FC Choice values. modes of administration and methods of preparation. Scientific Local names English Family Voucher Part used and mode of preparation Method of Number FC CV. names names number preparation of, Ceratonia Locust Leguminosae Pharm Pollen grains About 0 2 g of the Powder 50 98 04 3 16. siliqua L bean PCT 584 pollen grains inhaled 2 h before. sexual intercourse, Anastatica Rose of Brassicaceae Pharm Fruits Soak 50 g of the crushed fruits Infusion 45 88 24 2 85.
hierochuntica Jericho or PCT 156 in 500 ml water 100 ml of this. L Dinosaur infusion is to be given once daily for,plant 7 days after the finishing of. Parietaria Spreading Urticaceae Pharm Leaves Boil about 15 g of the leaves Decoction 43 84 31 2 72. judaica L pellitory or PCT in 150 ml water About 50 ml of this. Pellitory of 1790 decoction is to be given orally before. the wall each meal, Saussurea Costus or Compositae Pharm Roots Boil about 50 g of roots in 250 Decoction 41 80 39 2 59. costus Falc kuth PCT ml water for 15 min This decoction is. Lipsch 2800 to be given three times a day after, Peganum Syrian Rue Nitrariaceae Pharm Fruits Boil 10 g of the fruits in 500 ml Decoction 39 76 47 2 47. harmala L PCT water and used intensively as vaginal. 1801 douche, Phoenix Date or Arecaceae Pharm Fruits Take two of Date fruits and Decoction 34 66 67 2 15. dactylifera L date palm PCT boil them in water about 50 ml and. 1842 the produced solution is to be mixed,with equal quantities of Olive oil and.
Honey This mixture to be taken early,morning once daily. Ankyropetalum Anchor Caryophyllaceae Pharm Flowers Steep 1 g of the flowers in Infusion 25 49 02 1 58. gypsophiloides capillary PCT 172 50 ml of fresh Donkey s milk for 6 h. Fenzl This infusion is to be given once, Trigonella Fenugreek Leguminosae Pharm Seeds Mix 50 ml of the oil of the Paste 25 49 02 1 58. foenum PCT seeds with equal amounts of royal, graecum L 2778 jelly One tablespoon of this mixture. is to be given once daily before,sexual intercourse. Viscum Red berry Santalaceae Pharm Leaves About 5 g of dried and Powder 25 49 02 1 58. cruciatum mistletoe PCT ground leaves are to be given orally. Sieber ex Boiss 2662 twice daily with a cup of water. Cheilocostus Crepe Costaceae Pharm Rhizomes Powdered rhizomes mixed Paste 25 49 02 1 58. speciosus ginger PCT with equal amounts of Royal Jelly. J Koenig 2799 This mixture is to be given before,C D Specht meals three times daily.
Nigella sativa L Black Ranunculaceae Pharm Seeds Boil 30 g of the seeds with Decoction 24 47 06 1 52. cumin PCT 100 ml water This decoction is to be,2797 orally given before sexual intercourse. Artemisia Judean Compositae Pharm Flowers Boil 50 g of the flowers in Decoction 24 47 06 1 52. judaica L wormwood PCT 238 500 ml water and used as vaginal. douche before sexual intercourse, Conium Hemlock Apiaceae Pharm Fruits Steep 0 5 g of the flowers with Infusion 22 43 14 1 39. maculatum L PCT 657 500 ml water for 5 h About 20 ml of. this infusion is to be given orally,three times a day. Ficus carica L Common Moraceae Pharm Leaves Boil the fresh leaves about Decoction 21 41 18 1 33. fig PCT 50 g with water and the produced,1028 decoction is mixed with few drops of. the Wolf bile and used as vaginal, Prunus St Lucie Rosaceae Pharm Seeds Steep about 50 g of the seeds Infusion 21 41 18 1 33.
Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 6 of 12. Table 2 The used herbals for the treatment of infertility in females the plant s parts used Frequency of Citation FC Choice values. modes of administration and methods of preparation Continued. Scientific Local names English Family Voucher Part used and mode of preparation Method of Number FC CV. names names number preparation of, mahaleb L cherry PCT in 100 ml goat milk for three hours. 2798 This infusion is to be given after each, Ferula orientalis Samaria Apiaceae Pharm Fruits About 20 g of the powdered Infusion 20 39 22 1 27. L giant PCT seeds soaked one night in olive oil,fennel 1020 The produced mixture is to be given. three times daily during the,menstrual period, Juglans regia L Persian Juglandaceae Pharm Bark Boil 200 g from the ground bark Decoction 20 39 22 1 27. walnut PCT in 800 ml water for 30 min 400 ml of,English 2714 this decoction is to be used as.
walnut vaginal douche twice daily, Sesamum Sesame Pedaliaceae Pharm Seeds Handful of grounded seeds is Powder 19 37 25 1 20. indicum L PCT to be eaten once daily, Quercus Palestine Fagaceae Pharm Bark Steep 100 g from the bark in Infusion 19 37 25 1 20. coccifera L oak PCT 500 ml water for 20 min 250 ml of. 1978 this decoction is to be used as,vaginal douche twice daily. Convallaria Lily of the Asparagaceae Pharm Flowers Soak 10 g of the flowers in Infusion 19 37 25 1 20. majalis L Valley PCT 500 ml of the horse milk or donkey. 2796 milk for 3 h This infusion is to be,given orally three times daily after. the menstrual period, Alchemilla Common Rosaceae Pharm Leaves Steep about 30 g of the Infusion 18 35 29 1 14.
vulgaris L lady s PCT leaves in 150 ml water for two hours. mantle 2801 This infusion is to be given after each. Salvia fruticosa Sage Lamiaceae Pharm Fruits About 50 g of the crushed Infusion 17 33 33 1 08. Mill PCT fruits soaked one night in water The,2117 produced infusion used as vaginal. douche twice daily, Chrozophora Dyer s Euphorbiaceae Pharm Leaves About 10 g of grounded Paste 17 33 33 1 08. tinctoria L croton or PCT 611 leaves mixed with 10 ml Cow s bile. A Juss turnsole to produce a thick solution This,mixture diluted with water which. used as vaginal douche once daily,before bedtime, Clematis Fragrant Ranunculaceae Pharm Flowers Soak about 10 g of the Infusion 17 33 33 1 08. flammula L virgin s PCT 631 flowers in 50 ml of water for 12 h. bower This infusion is to be given five times,a day after meals.
Juniperus Syrian Cupressaceae Pharm Fruits Soak 200 g in 800 ml water Infusion 13 25 49 0 82. drupacea juniper PCT About 450 ml of this decoction is to. Labill 1296 be given orally twice daily before, Origanum Jordan Lamiaceae Pharm Flowers Boil about 100 g of the Decoction 13 25 49 0 82. jordanicum Thyme PCT flowers in 500 ml water for 25 min. Danin Kunne 1729 This decoction is to be given five. times a day after meals, Ricinus Castor Euphorbiaceae Pharm Seeds One Castor seed soaked one Infusion 13 25 49 0 82. communis L PCT night in 200 ml water The produced,2742 infusion used as vaginal douche. before intercourse, Quercus Aleppo Fagaceae Pharm Bark Boil 150 g from the ground bark Decoction 13 25 49 0 82. infectoria Oak PCT in 200 ml water for 20 min 50 ml of. subsp veneris 1977 this decoction is to be used as. A Kern Meikle vaginal douche twice daily, Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 7 of 12.
Table 2 The used herbals for the treatment of infertility in females the plant s parts used Frequency of Citation FC Choice values. modes of administration and methods of preparation Continued. Scientific Local names English Family Voucher Part used and mode of preparation Method of Number FC CV. names names number preparation of, Rosmarinus Rosemary Lamiaceae Pharm Leaves Boil about 50 g of the leaves Decoction 11 21 57 0 70. officinalis L PCT in 500 ml water for 10 min 100 ml. 2732 from this decoction is to be used as,vaginal douche before each sexual. intercourse, Syzygium Clove Myrtaceae Pharm Flowers buds Steep one gram of the Infusion 9 17 65 0 57. aromaticum PCT buds in100 ml hot water for 12 h,L Merr 2767 The produced infusion is to be used. L M Perry as vaginal douche before sexual,intercourse.
Crocus sativus Saffron Iridaceae Pharm Flowers Boil about 2 g of the flowers Decoction 4 7 84 0 25. L PCT in one cup of milk for 10 min Gives,2733 50 ml of this decoction orally every. day during the menstrual period, used for the treatment of infertility in males in West infertility in males such as low sperm accounts sex. Bank area of Palestine as shown in Tables 2 and 3 ual asthenia erectile dysfunction the absence of li. Infusions and decoctions were the most frequently bido and other psychological and physiological. used methods of preparation for treatment of infertility disorders 29. in females as presented in Fig 2 Meanwhile decoctions Concerning the fertility in females it may be affected. and infusions were the most frequently used methods of by many factors including various physiological diseases. preparation for treatment of infertility in males as pre and disorders malnutrition and malformations of the. sented in Fig 3 uterus 14, Flowers fruits leaves and seeds were reported to be Usually the selection of herbs and remedies by trad. the most frequently used parts of plants for the treat itional healers is based on their experience and informa. ment of infertility in females constituting about 65 of tion that have been inherited from their ancestors As. the parts used This was followed by bark roots rhi shown in Table 1 the majority of the informants trad. zomes and pollen grains as shown in Fig 4 itional healers were females and most of them were. Correspondingly seeds roots leaves and pollen grains uneducated people This result may be due to the Pales. were reported to be the most frequent parts used of tinian culture where parents try to transfer the acquired. plants in the treatment of infertility in males constitut knowledge to their children In addition the reason why. ing about 88 of the parts used This was followed by the majority of them were uneducated may be due to. fruits flowers and bulbs as can be seen in Fig 5 the bad economic situation in this country so many of. The utilization of herbals in the treatment of vari them consider this tradition as a source of economic in. ous physiological disorders and diseases goes back to come Accordingly the results may be of scientific value. several millennia and more than 60 of the world s and good credibility in some way since these informants. population especially in the rural areas of develop may be struggling to find the best results in order to. ing countries utilized plants and other natural maintain their clients The same table also showed that. products for pharmaceutical and medical aims In high percentages of the informants were from the rural. addition about 25 of modern medications are de area of Jericho This region is considered a very old his. rived from herbal products and nowadays the use of torical profile as well as it considered the oldest city and. natural herbal products has shown an increase in the lowest area in the entire world. both developed and developing countries 26 27 The results of the current study showed that the Pales. For huge numbers of childless people infertility dis tinian ethnopharmacology is rich in herbal remedies used. ease considered a personal social and psychological in the treatment of infertility in males and in females. problem which equitably distributed between males In fact a huge number of plants families 44 families. and females Hence since ancient times herbal rem were reported to be effective in the treatment of this dis. edies are considered one of the most available order However different plants species were used to treat. methods in the treatment of this disorder 28 Re infertility in females and males as reported in Tables 2 and. cently various isolated natural compounds or crude 3 In addition Table 4 showed the highest FC and CV. plants extracts are widely used in the treatment of values for the herbal remedies used in the treatment of. Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 8 of 12. Table 3 The used herbals for the treatment of infertility in males the plant s parts used Frequency of Citations FC Choice values. modes of administration and methods of preparation. Scientific Local names English Family Voucher Part used and mode of preparation Method of Citations FC CV. names names numbers preparation, Ferula Hermon Apiaceae Pharm Roots About 50 g of the roasted seeds Infusion 49 96 08 4 00. hermonis ferula PCT soaked in 330 ml water for 12 h The. Boiss 1018 produced infusion is to be given twice, Phlomis Short Lamiaceae Pharm Leaves Boil about 50 g of leaves in 750 Decoction 45 88 24 3 68.
brachyodon toothed PCT ml water for 5 min 150 ml of this. Boiss phlomis 1832 decoction is to be given orally before. Zohary ex each meal, Phoenix Date or Arecaceae Pharm Pollen grains About 1 g of the Date Paste 44 86 27 3 59. dactylifera L Date Palm PCT trees pollen grains mixed with one 1 g. 1842 of royal jelly This paste to be given 2 h,before each sexual intercourse. Luffa Sponge Cucurbitaceae Pharm Fruits About 5 ml of fruits juice to be Juice 40 78 43 3 27. cylindrica L gourd or PCT given twice daily for two weeks. M Roem Egyptian 2806, Adonis Summer Ranunculaceae Pharm Leaves Soak 5 g of the leaves in 400 ml Infusion 35 68 63 2 86. aestivalis L pheasant s PCT 23 water for 12 h and drink once daily. Ferula Common Apiaceae Pharm Rhizomes Mix 200 g of the rhizomes Paste 31 60 78 2 53. communis L giant PCT with 200 g of dried locust insect and. fennel 1016 150 ml of olive oil About 50 g of the,produced paste is to be given orally. two times daily, Myristica Nutmeg Myristicaceae Pharm Seeds Two drops of the oil of the Oil 26 50 98 2 12.
fragrans PCT seeds are to be given with one cup of. Houtt 2716 the Camel milk before sexual,intercourse. Pinus Aleppo Pinaceae Pharm Leaves Boil about 100 g from the Decoction 24 47 06 1 96. halepensis pine PCT leaves in 100 ml water 50 ml from this. Mill 1863 decoction is to be given 6 times daily, Eruca sativa Arugula Brassicaceae Pharm Seeds Boil 50 g of the seeds in 100 ml Decoction 24 47 06 1 96. Mill PCT water for 10 min About 20 ml of this,2786 decoction is to be given orally four. times daily, Cnicus St Compositae Pharm Roots Boil 100 g from fresh roots in Decoction 23 45 10 1 88. benedictus L Benedict s PCT 639 330 ml water for 10 min 100 ml of this. thistle decoction is to be given orally three,times daily after meals.
Mandragora Mandrake Solanaceae Pharm Roots Mix equal amounts of the roots Paste 23 45 10 1 88. officinalis Mill or Satan s PCT powder with honey 30 g of this paste. apple 1509 is to be taken orally twice daily, Lepidium Cress Brassicaceae Pharm Seeds Boil 100 g of the seeds in 500 ml Decoction 22 43 14 1 80. sativum L PCT water for 15 min About 100 ml of this. 2802 decoction is to be given orally once a, Rumex Knotweed Polygonaceae Pharm Leaves Fresh leaves juice is given four Juice 22 43 14 1 80. cyprius Murb PCT times daily about 30 ml each time. Zingiber Ginger Zingiberaceae Pharm Rhizomes Mix 75 g of the roasted Paste 21 41 18 1 72. officinale PCT rhizomes with 50 g of honey One, Roscoe 2724 tablespoon of this paste is to be given. for patient one hour before sexual,intercourse, Raphanus Cultivated Brassicaceae Pharm Seeds Mix equal amounts of the Paste 20 39 22 1 63. raphanistrum radish PCT crushed seeds and honey One. subsp sativus 2770 tablespoon of this paste is to be given. Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 9 of 12. Table 3 The used herbals for the treatment of infertility in males the plant s parts used Frequency of Citations FC Choice values. modes of administration and methods of preparation Continued. Scientific Local names English Family Voucher Part used and mode of preparation Method of Citations FC CV. names names numbers preparation,L Domin once daily.
Cucurbita Atlantic Cucurbitaceae Pharm Seeds Boil 100 g of the crushed seeds Decoction 20 39 22 1 63. maxima giant PCT in 350 ml water and drink this,Duchesne pumpkin 2762 decoction once daily. Portulaca Common Portulacaceae Pharm Leaves Soak about 150 g of the Infusion 19 37 25 1 55. oleracea L purslane PCT crushed leaves in 500 ml water This. 1935 infusion is to be given after each meal, Allium cepa L Common Amaryllidaceae Pharm Bulb Mix 20 ml of onion juice with 5 Juice 18 35 29 1 47. onion PCT ml apple vinegar This mixture is to be,2703 given once daily in the early morning. Ziziphus Sidr Rhamnaceae Pharm Flowers Boil 1 g of the flowers in 100 Decoction 17 33 33 1 39. spina christi PCT ml water and drink this decoction. L Desf 2693 once daily, Urtica urens Small Urticaceae Pharm Pollen grains Boil 10 g of the Decoction 13 25 49 1 06. L nettle PCT powdered pollen grains in 50 ml water. 2562 for 10 min The produce decoction is,to be mixed with royal jelly equal.
amounts and given orally before,sexual intercourse. Lens culinaris Lentil Leguminosae Pharm Seeds Boil 100 g of the ground seeds Decoction 13 25 49 1 06. Medik PCT in 200 ml water and 50 ml olive oil for,2805 20 min 100 ml of this decoction is to. be given twice daily, Cyperus Nut grass Cyperaceae Pharm Roots Soak 100 g of the roots in 800 Infusion 11 21 57 0 90. esculentus L or earth PCT ml of water for one night The. almond 2803 produced infusion is to be given 3 5,times a day. Hordeum Wild Poaceae Pharm Seeds Boil 100 g of the crushed seeds Decoction 10 19 61 0 82. spontaneum barley PCT in 100 ml water and drink twice daily. K Koch 1211 after meals, Anacardium Cashew Anacardiaceae Pharm Seeds Steep 50 g of the grounded Infusion 5 9 80 0 41ii.
occidentale L PCT seeds in 100 ml water for 6 h About. 2804 20 ml from this infusion is to be given,three times a day. This plant should not be used according to Species at Risk of Extinction https portals iucn org library efiles documents PP 003 En pdf. Fig 2 Frequency of herbal remedies preparation methods which Fig 3 Frequency of herbal remedies preparation methods which. used for the treatment of infertility in females used for the treatment of infertility in males. Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 10 of 12. Table 4 The most cited herbal remedies used in the treatments. of infertility in females and males,Infertility Herbal remedies. Males Ferula hermonis Phlomis Phoenix dactylifera, roots infusion brachyodon leaves pollen grains paste. Female Ceratonia siliqua Anastatica Parietaria Judaica. pollen grains hierochuntica fruits leaves decoction. powder infusion, In comparison with other regional ethnopharmacologi. cal surveys about herbal remedies used for the treatment. Fig 4 Frequency of parts used from the utilized plants in the of infertility Palestine is considered the richest region. treatments of infertility in females in the West Bank with these remedies. In fact 11 13 and 23 plants used in the treatment of infer. tility in males and females were reported in the Lebanese. infertility among females and males in the West Bank area Jordanian and Egyptian folk medicine respectively 30 32. of Palestine Table 2 showed that the highest Frequency of Citations. Moreover in the case of infertility in females Table 2 of herbal remedies which used in case of infertility in. showed that 31 herbal remedies were used in the treat males were 96 08 for Ferula hermonis roots 88 24 for. ment of this disorder and most of them were obtained Phlomis brachyodon leaves and 86 27 for Phoenix dac. from fruits and flowers while the most used method of tylifera pollen grains. preparation was an infusion The same table also showed Throughout literature review in the neighboring. that the highest Frequency of Citation FC of herbal countries as Lebanon and Jordan Ferula hermonis. remedies in case of female infertility was 98 04 for was found to be used in case of infertility in males. pollen grains from Ceratonia siliqua 88 24 for Anasta 33 35. tica hierochuntica fruits and 84 31 for Parietaria juda Moreover Hadidi et al and by Zanoli et al investigated. ica leaves Moreover Table 3 showed that 24 plants the potential positive effect of F hermonis on male s infer. prescribed by traditional healers in the West Bank area tility Both groups of the study concluded that the acute. of Palestine for the treatment of infertility in males and use of F hermonis cause an increase in male fertility while. most of them obtained from the plant s seeds whereas the prolonged use of this plant may lead to fertility distur. as the most used method of preparations were decoc bances Moreover the study conducted by Zanoli et al. tions Meanwhile the highest Frequency of Citation FC showed a reduction in body weight and in weights of tes. of herbal remedies in case of infertility in males were tes and other sex accessory organs 36 37 Another study. 96 08 for Ferula hermonis roots 88 24 for Phlomis that was conducted by Homady et al confirmed the. brachyodon leaves and 86 27 for Phoenix dactylifera aphrodisiac effect of Ferula hermonis in male and female. pollen grains mice after intragastric application of 3 mg kg day of this. plant extract for 6 weeks 38,Meanwhile Phlomis brachyodon did not mention in.
any folk medicine for the treatment of male s infertility. also its pharmacological effect not verified yet More. over the pollen grains of Phoenix dactylifera has been. used in the treatment of infertility in males in the folk. medicine of several Arabian countries 39 40,Another study that was conducted by Bahmanpour et. al and Abedi et al demonstrated that Phoenix dactyli. fera pollen grains extract can improve sperm parameters. and reproductive system in adult male rats 41 42, However to the best of our knowledge no sufficient sci. entific studies were conducted in order to prove the. safety of consumption of pollen grains of Phoenix dacty. Fig 5 Frequency of parts used from the utilized plants in the. lifera plant except that one which was conducted by. treatments of infertility in males in the West Bank. Sadiq et al 43, Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 11 of 12. Moreover the highest Frequency of Citation FC rem Funding. edies which used in case of infertility in female were None. 98 04 for pollen grains from Ceratonia siliqua 88 24. Availability of data and materials, for Anastatica hierochuntica fruits and 84 31 for Parie The datasets used and or analyzed during the current study available from. taria judaica leaves the corresponding author on reasonable request. To the best of the authors knowledge it has not been. reported in previous studies about folk medicine Ethics approval and consent to participate. The aims of this study protocols and the informed consent forms were. evidence based uses and toxicity of the pollen grains of approved by the Institutional Review Board IRB at An Najah National Uni. Ceratonia siliqua the fruits of Anastatica hierochuntica versity IRB archived number 9th June 2017 This study was carried out ac. and the leaves of Parietaria judaica in the treatment of cording to the requirements of the declarations of Helsinki Written informed. consent for participation in the study was obtained from all informants. infertility in females and this study will be the first one. Concerning the used preparation methods infusions Consent for publication. and decoctions were the most frequently used methods Not Applicable. of preparation for treatment of infertility in females and. males Figs 2 and 3 However these two methods are Competing interests. The authors declare that they have no financial and or non financial compet. considered harsh methods and may negatively affect the ing interests. efficacy and the final organoleptic properties of the ob. tained extracts Therefore it would be interesting to as Received 6 June 2018 Accepted 24 July 2019. sess the efficacy and the organoleptic properties of the. most cited plants after being extracted by using the References. friendliest extraction methods such as the cold press and 1 Atanasov AG Waltenberger B Pferschy Wenzig E M Linder T Wawrosch C. critical fluid extractors Concerning the difference be Uhrin P Temml V Wang L Schwaiger S Heiss EH Discovery and resupply of. pharmacologically active plant derived natural products a review. tween herbal remedies that were advised for male and Biotechnol Adv 2015 33 1582 614. female this may be due to the difference between gen 2 Sofowora A Ogunbodede E Onayade A The role and place of medicinal. ders in term of physiology and types and level of hor plants in the strategies for disease prevention Afr J Tradit Complement. Altern Med 2013 10 210 29, mones as well as due to the phytochemical constituents 3 Towns AM Eyi SM van Andel T Traditional medicine and childcare in.
that should affect this physiology and hormonal level Western Africa mothers knowledge folk illnesses and patterns of. The limitations of the current study are pharmaco healthcare seeking behavior PLoS One 2014 9 e105972. 4 Licata M Tuttolomondo T Leto C Virga G Bonsangue G Cammalleri I. logical toxicological and clinical studies to confirm the Gennaro MC La Bella S A survey of wild plant species for food use in Sicily. most cited plant s mechanism of actions safety and Italy results of a 3 year study in four regional parks J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. pharmacological efficacy Such studies usually include a 2016 12 12. 5 Hosseinzadeh S Jafarikukhdan A Hosseini A Armand R The application of. complete chemical analysis for identification of their dif medicinal plants in traditional and modern medicine a review of Thymus. ferent chemical constituents especially those responsible vulgaris Int J Clin Med 2015 6 635 43. for their pharmacological actions 6 Jaradat N Adwan L K aibni S Shraim N Zaid AN Chemical composition. anthelmintic antibacterial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential. oil BMC Complement Altern Med 2016 16 418, Conclusion 7 Abdullahi AA Trends and challenges of traditional medicine in Africa Afr J. Tradit Complement Altern Med 2011 8 115 23, Throughout history males and females have tried to en. 8 WHO Traditional medicine strategy 2014 2023 Geneva World Health. hance or control their fertility with various levels of soci Organization 2013. etal support This study showed that the ethnomedicine 9 Moore N Hamza N Berke B Umar A News from Tartary an. ethnopharmacological approach to drug and therapeutic discovery Br J. in the West Bank area of Palestine is rich with plants. Clin Pharmacol 2017 83 33 7, which used for the treatment of infertility in males and 10 Sofowora A Research on medicinal plants and traditional medicine in. females in comparison with the neighboring countries Africa J Altern Complement Med 1996 2 365 72. 11 Sullivan EA Zegers Hochschild F Mansour R Ishihara O de Mouzon J. Some of the plants found in this study are also used for. Nygren K Adamson G International Committee for Monitoring Assisted. treating infertility problems elsewhere while others are Reproductive Technologies ICMART world report assisted reproductive. being reported for the first time Also it s worthy to take technology 2004 Hum Reprod 2013 28 1375 90. 12 Kumar N Singh AK Trends of male factor infertility an important cause of. in considerations that these plants had not been evalu. infertility a review of literature J Hum Reprod Sci 2015 8 191 6. ated clinically to approve its safety and efficacy 13 Eniola OW Adetola AA Abayomi BT A review of female infertility. important etiological factors and management J Microbiol Biotechnol. Acknowledgments Res 2017 2 379 85, The authors are thankful for the kind help of traditional healers in the study 14 Mascarenhas MN Flaxman SR Boerma T Vanderpoel S Stevens GA. area and for An Najah National University for its support National regional and global trends in infertility prevalence since 1990 a. systematic analysis of 277 health surveys PLoS Med 2012 9 e1001356. Authors contributions 15 Brezina PR Yunus FN Zhao Y Effects of pharmaceutical medications on. NJ and ANZ conceived designed the current study and analyzed the data male fertility J Reprod Infertil 2012 13 3 9. obtained This paper was drafted by NJ The authors read and approved the 16 Hindin MJ Tun alp Gerdts C Gipson JD Say L Monitoring adolescent. final manuscript sexual and reproductive health Bull World Health Organ 2016 94 159 66. Jaradat and Zaid BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 19 194 Page 12 of 12. 17 Worldwide infertility rates unchanged in 20 years says World Health 40 Abdelouahhab Z Arias Jimenez E Date palm cultivation Rome Food and. Organisation http www bionews org uk page 232839 asp Agriculture Organization FAO 1999. 18 Health conditions in the occupied Palestinian territory including east 41 Bahmanpour S Talaei T Vojdani Z Panjehshahin M Poostpasand A Zareei. Jerusalem and in the occupied Syrian Golan http apps who int gb S Ghaeminia M Effect of Phoenix dactylifera pollen on sperm parameters. ebwha pdf files WHA69 A69 INF6 en pdf and reproductive system of adult male rats Iran J Med Sci 2015 31 1 5. 19 Hrometz SL Gates VA Review of available infertility treatments Drugs 42 Abedi A Parviz M Karimian S Sadeghipour RH The effect of aqueous. Today 2009 45 275 91 extract of Phoenix dactylifera pollen grain on sexual behavior of male rats. 20 Rayner J A McLachlan HL Forster DA Cramer R Australian women s use of J Phys Pharm Adv 2012 2 235 42. complementary and alternative medicines to enhance fertility exploring the 43 Sadiq I Izuagie T Shuaibu M Dogoyaro A Garba A Abubakar S The. experiences of women and practitioners BMC Complement Altern Med nutritional evaluation and medicinal value of date palm Phoenix dactylifera. 2009 9 52 Int J Mod Chem 2013 4 147 54, 21 Jaradat NA Ayesh OI Anderson C Ethnopharmacological survey about.
medicinal plants utilized by herbalists and traditional practitioner healers for. treatments of diarrhea in the West Bank Palestine J Ethnopharmacol 2016. Publisher s Note, Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in. published maps and institutional affiliations, 22 Jaradat NA Al Ramahi R Zaid AN Ayesh OI Eid AM Ethnopharmacological. survey of herbal remedies used for treatment of various types of cancer and. their methods of preparations in the West Bank Palestine BMC. Complement Altern Med 2016 16 93, 23 Jaradat NA Zaid AN Al Ramahi R Alqub MA Hussein F Hamdan Z Mustafa. M Qneibi M Ali I Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants. practiced by traditional healers and herbalists for treatment of some. urological diseases in the West Bank Palestine BMC Complement Altern. Med 2017 17 255, 24 Bolson M Hefler SR Dall EI Chaves O Junior AG Junior ELC Ethno medicinal. study of plants used for treatment of human ailments with residents of the. surrounding region of forest fragments of Paran Brazil J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 161 1 10, 25 Dey AK Rashid MMO Millat MS Rashid MM Ethnobotanical survey of.
medicinal plants used by traditional health practitioners and indigenous. people in different districts of Chittagong division Bangladesh Int J Pharm. Sci 2014 3 01 7, 26 Barker JC Guerra C Gonzalez Vargas MJ Hoeft KS An ethnographic study of. salt use and humoral concepts in a Latino farm worker community in. California s Central Valley J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2017 13 11 6. 27 Thomford NE Dzobo K Chopera D Wonkam A Skelton M Blackhurst D. Chirikure S Dandara C Pharmacogenomics implications of using herbal. medicinal plants on African populations in health transition. Pharmaceuticals 2015 8 637 63, 28 Nantia E Moundipa P Monsees T Carreau S Medicinal plants as. potential male anti infertility agents a review Basic Clin Androl 2009. 29 Kandeel FR Koussa VK Swerdloff RS Male sexual function and its disorders. physiology pathophysiology clinical investigation and treatment Endocr. Rev 2001 22 342 88, 30 Baydoun S Chalak L Dalleh H Arnold N Ethnopharmacological survey of. medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by the communities of Mount. Hermon Lebanon J Ethnopharmacol 2015 173 139 56, 31 Al Quran S Taxonomical and pharmacological survey of therapeutic plants. in Jordan J Nat Prod 2008 1 10 26, 32 Haggag M Herbal medicine in Egypt Iran J Pharm Res 2010 3 5 6.
33 Otoom S Al Safi S Kerem Z Alkofahi A The use of medicinal herbs by. diabetic Jordanian patients J Herb Pharmacother 2006 6 31 41. 34 Zanoli P Rivasi M Zavatti M Brusiani F Vezzalini F Baraldi M Activity of. single components of Ferula hermonis on male rat sexual behavior Int J. Impot Res 2005 17 513 8, 35 El Thaher T Matalka K Taha H Badwan A Ferula harmonis zallouh and. enhancing erectile function in rats efficacy and toxicity study Int J Impot. Res 2001 13 247 52, 36 Hadidi K Aburjai T Battah A A comparative study of Ferula hermonis root. extracts and sildenafil on copulatory behaviour of male rats Fitoterapia. 2003 74 242 6, 37 Zanoli P Benelli A Rivasi M Baraldi C Vezzalini F Baraldi M Opposite effect. of acute and subchronic treatments with Ferula hermonis on copulatory. behavior of male rats Int J Impot Res 2003 15 450 5. 38 Homady MH Khleifat KM Tarawneh KA Al Raheil IA Reproductive toxicity. and infertility effect of Ferula hormonis extracts in mice Theriogenology. 2002 57 2247 56, 39 El Neweshy M El Maddawy Z El Sayed Y Therapeutic effects of date palm. Phoenix dactylifera L pollen extract on cadmium induced testicular toxicity.

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