Fuel Oil Combustion Problems Alken Murray-Books Download

FUEL OIL COMBUSTION PROBLEMS Alken Murray
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low melting point form which is adsorbed on,refractories causing spalling It also builds up. on superheater tubes causing corrosion and,forming rock hard deposits that are extremely. difficult to remove Fluxing of the deposit will,occur as sodium gradually reacts with it to. convert it to sodium vanadyl vanadate Na2O,V2O4 5V2O5 which results in a high corrosion. rate on the superheater tubes Another,corrosion causing daughter product of.
vanadium pentoxide is orthovanadate 3NiO,V2O5 Deposits in the superheater area can. build up to a point where they bridge the,screen and superheater tubes and. substantially cut down on boiler draft If,excess air can be kept to a minimum through. improved atomization provided boiler design,does not require 15 or more excess air. vanadium oxidation can be kept to the,tetraoxide V2O4 and trioxide V2O3 forms.
These two forms have melting points of,3570 3580 F They will not fuse and adhere. to boiler metal even in the combustion zone,because temperatures there are below the. melting point, Sodium in the fuel reacts with sulfur trioxide and the vanadium oxides to form relatively low. melting point salts such as sodium vanadyl vanadate etc These can cause corrosion in. superheat areas and at the cold end sodium acid sulfates Sodium can be removed from the. fuel oil to a large extent by water washing with approximately 5 of water followed by. centrifuging to remove the water The cost of such a procedure makes it uneconomical except. for marine installations although it is common practice in gas turbine operations using high. sodium vanadium fuel,Manual EF PDF p 6,HOW ALKEN EVEN FLO FORMULAS SOLVE THE PROBLEMS. Pre treatment is essential to maintaining fuel system cleanliness and providing an even flow of. homogeneous fuel to the burners for maximum combustion efficiency Different Alken. Even Flo formulas either emulsify and disperse water or demulsify and separate water. depending on the requirements of the fuel system and the fireside problems experienced. Demulsification is practical only in above ground storage where there is an acceptable. means of disposing of the water which may contain 20 ppm to 40 ppm of oil If the oil. concentration is above 25 ppm it may be bioremediated with a suitable Alken Clear Flo. formula Water separation is desirable where sodium is the major factor in fireside deposits A. major portion of sodium present in the oil as sodium chloride can be removed in this manner. very much like water washing of fuel oil Sodium acid sulfate deposits may be reduced in this. manner depending upon the amount of water in the fuel. Bacteria grow at the interface between oil and water Both water and oil are necessary for their. growth and survival Whether the water is separated and removed from the oil or is emulsified. and uniformly dispersed the interfaces at which bacteria can grow into slime masses are. eliminated, Surfactants present in Alken Even Flo formulas form protective films on submerged tank.
surfaces and help to control corrosion caused by water and acid compounds in the oil. Dispersing agents help to stabilize the heavy hydrocarbons so that they do not settle in. the tank but pass through the system with the fuel as it is used Existing accumulations will be. gradually removed The rate of removal and dosage required depend on the amount of. accumulation present the tolerance of the strainers and burners for the presence of dispersed. sludge components and the rate of oil turnover the frequency with which the tank is filled and. Stratification and oxidation are inhibited by Alken Even Flo helping to maintain the even. flow of homogeneous fuel to the burner This means that preheat temperatures based on. viscosity can be maintained at a constant level for good atomization The physical action. of the treatment on the surface tension of the fuel promotes good atomization into the desired. particle size of 100 to 150 microns Particles of that size gasify with sufficient speed to. minimize coke formation by thermal cracking of the oil The reduction in coke allows fewer. sticky residues to build up on the fireside where they might act as accumulators for other oil ash. constituents or as catalysts for converting sulfur dioxide to the trioxide Higher dew points are. thus maintained and cold end corrosion is minimized The lower excess air levels that can. be maintained also reduce formation of sulfur trioxide and vanadium pentoxide vanadium. trioxide and tetroxide are formed at the lower excess air level and hard vanadium pentoxide. slag is minimized,Manual EF PDF p 7,Summary of Alken Even Flo s Benefits. Prevents buildup of sludge and water in tanks and,Controls corrosion in tanks and lines. Eliminates preheater clogging,Burner and strainer cleaning are greatly reduced. Homogenizes fuel for best atomization and,combustion. Corrosive sulfur trioxide is reduced,Keeps deposits dry and powdery for easy removal.
by blowing,Reduces particulate emission,Reduces slagging. Reduces plumes and acid smut,Maximizes utilization of total fuel heat content. Saves fuel oil,Manual EF PDF p 8,ESTABLISHING AN ALKEN EVEN FLO TREATMENT PROGRAM. A complete engineering survey of the fuel oil system and boiler operations should be made with. respect to fuel handling and use fireside conditions and flue gas emissions Boiler firesides. should be inspected if possible and the extent of any accumulations noted Oil tanks should. be checked using a Bacon Bomb Sampler to determine existing accumulations if any of sludge. and water Samples should be taken at the tank bottom at 8 to 12 off the tank bottom and at. 36 to 48 off the tank bottom Drainage facilities for possible use of demulsifying formulations. should be noted Analyses of deposits occurring in unit should be obtained if available or. collect samples of deposits for analysis Carbon dioxide CO2 oxygen O2 and carbon. monoxide CO determinations should be run or values should be obtained from recorded data. at typical load conditions Averages for a period of three months prior to the use of treatment. should be obtained Also if seasonal variations affect operating conditions an average should. be obtained for the same three month period the preceding year If plant charts are available. the following data should be averaged out for the same period as above. High Load Low Load,Pounds per hour Pounds per hour. Hours per day Hours per day,Air or O2 Air or O2, Air temp at preheater inlet F Air temp at preheater inlet F.
Air temp at preheater outlet F Air temp at preheater outlet F. Flue gas temp at preheater outlet F Flue gas temp at preheater outlet F. Stack temperature F Stack temperature F, Superheater temperature F Superheater temperature F. Blowdown volume Blowdown volume, The information collected in this survey of the plant forms the basis for selection of the. appropriate formulation of Alken Even Flo,Manual EF PDF p 9. HOW TO APPLY ALKEN EVEN FLO,Alken Even Flo formulas should be added to the. system either prior to each fuel delivery on a shot. basis or continuously to the fuel by means of a, chemical proportioning pump during the fuel delivery.
The pump should be actuated by means of a sensor,placed in the fill line to the storage tank. Alken oil soluble metallics such as Alken 935 and,944 can be added as above or preferably metered. into the fuel oil line ahead of the burners by means of a. chemical proportioning pump,The dosages indicated in the Product Information. Bulletins are for normal usage Other dosages may be. necessary Low rates of oil turnover high water, contamination extremely unstable blends etc require. higher than normal dosages Double the normal,dosage is recommended initially with adjustments.
based on results obtained,EVALUATION OF RESULTS, A complete heat balance on the boilers is not necessary Steam produced per pound ton or. barrel of oil used making allowance for oil gravity and taking into consideration the difference in. operating efficiency at various loads as indicated by the information requested above as well as. allowing for the relatively small effect of blowdown with and without treatment will provide a. fairly accurate measure of fuel savings However operation at low load for long periods or any. major changes in operating conditions can affect the results obtained substantially Such. changes therefore should be recorded for consideration in treatment evaluation. In furnace operations etc where a product other than steam is produced by direct or indirect. firing the quantity of product produced such as in a cement plant should be used as the. measure of treatment effectiveness All factors affecting the operations must of course be.


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