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Evaluation of Filler Distribution in Particulate
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K Yuliya et al
2 Experimental Procedure
2 1 Materials and Fabrication of Composites
In the present experiment metal matrix composites including various volume fractions of SiC particles were
produced by stir casting method and powder metallurgy technique Set of specimens used in this study is given
in Table 1
For liquid state processing aluminum alloys AK12 AL25 V124 and D16 were used as the matrix material
while SiC particles with volume fraction 5 10 and 15 wt an average size of 28 m were used as the rein
forcement material For solid state processing aluminum alloys D16 and V95 were used as the matrix material
while SiC particles with volume fraction 20 wt were used as the reinforcement material The chemical com
position of matrix alloys is given in Table 2 Powder metallurgy technique includes four steps mixing of metal
powder size 10 m and SiC particles in vibratory agitator mechanical alloying MA in attritor consolidation
and extrusion 5 Also there were some specimens with the same composition but produced by modified tech
nology without mechanical alloying
2 2 Metallography
Analysis of filler distribution is carried out by means of classical and computer quantification metallographic
image analysis methods Samples for metallographic examination were prepared by grinding on Struers equip
ment The microstructure observed by using optical microscope Olympys GX51F
To determine phase fraction can be used different classical methods e g method of Delesse A Rosival
A A Glagolev 6 In the present research is used method of A A Glagolev grid is drawn on the micrograph
and number of dots which include phase is counted Fraction of SiC particles can be calculated from the equa
tion
C A B 1
where C SiC fraction A number of dots which include SiC particles B the total number of dots
The size of micrographs was 270 200 mm distance between gird s lines was 10 mm and consequently
there were 588 dots on micrograph The example of the image analysis by mean of A A Glagolev method is
shown in Figure 1
Since method of A A Glagolev is very laborious 7 only four micrographs of each sample MMC were stu
died If computer quantification metallographic image analysis methods were used efficiency would be in
creased In the present research is used A V Zavodov s program for quantification analysis of material s micro
Table 1 Set of spicemens
Powder metallurgy
Method Stir casting
With MA Without MA
Matrix AL25 AK12 V124 D16 V95 D16 V95 D16
SiC vol 5 10 5 10 15 5 20 20 20 20
Table 2 The chemical composition of matrix alloys Al remained
Matrix alloy The chemical composition
Russian ISO 209 2007 Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Zn Ti Others
AK12 4047 10 13 1 5 0 6 0 5 0 1 0 3 0 1 Zr 0 1
Ni 0 8 1 3
AL25 11 13 0 8 0 2 0 3 0 6 0 8 1 3 0 5 0 05 0 2
Cr 0 2
V124 8 11 0 3 3 4 0 1 0 3 0 15 0 35 0 1 0 3 B 0 01 0 1
D16 2024 0 5 0 5 3 8 4 9 0 3 0 9 1 2 1 8 0 3 0 1 Ni 0 1
V95 7010 0 5 0 5 1 4 2 0 0 2 0 8 1 8 2 8 5 7 0 05 Cr 0 1 0 25
109
K Yuliya et al
structure 5 7 Screenshot of this program is shown in Figure 2 Using this program ten micrographs of each
sample MMC were studied
2 3 Microindentation Hardness Testing
Except metallography in the present research we suggest set hardness distribution in cross section of samples as
an indicator of reinforcement distribution uniformity in the matrix In the experiment the hardness of aluminium
alloy composites were measured by Vickers micro hardness testing machine Emco test Dura Scan 70 8 A se
ries of ten measurements in increments of 0 5 mm is carried out on each sample with load 0 098 N The distribu
tion of points for the measurement is shown in Figure 3
3 Results and Discussion
The image analysis results are given in Table 3 For each sample dispersion of fraction value were found Dis
persion denotes how stretched or squeezed a distribution is The image analysis results are showed that the
Figure 1 A A Glagolev quantification analysis method
Figure 2 Screenshot of A V Zavodov s program for quantification analysis
110
K Yuliya et al
Figure 3 The distribution of points for the hardness measurement
Figure 4 Hardness distribution in cross section fo the samples HV
Table 3 The image analysis results
Dispersion
Sample
Method of A A Glagolev Computer method
AL25 5 SiC 2 03 0 82a
AK12 5 SiC 0 95 1 76
D16 5 SiC 1 06 2 71
AL25 10 SiC 1 82 0 44a
V124 10 SiC 0 55 1 82
V124 15 SiC 2 39 2 40
V95 20 SiC 3 19 3 50
D16 20 SiC 3 46 3 58
V95 20 SiC MA 1 22 9 85b
D16 20 SiC MA 4 32 22 12b
distribution of SiC particles becomes more evenly with decrease of filler fraction It can be seen that method of
A A Gladolev demonstrates a similar results The most uniform distribution is observed in samples with AL25
matrix The worst uniform distribution is observed in samples produced by powder metallurgy technique with
mechanical alloying step
Figure 4 shows hardness distribution of homogeneously and in homogeneously samples Significant variation
of the hardness range in one specimen indicates the presence of particles agglomeration in one part of the sam
ple and lack of particles in the other Sharp clearly visible jumps of hardness are observed in the case of direct
penetration of the indenter into the SiC particle Figure 5 and may be excluded from consideration It can be
seen that hardness distribution do not completely confirmed image analysis results
111
K Yuliya et al
Figure 5 Penetration of the indenter into the SiC particle
4 Conclusion
To conclusion the uniformity of distribution in all samples sufficient to provide desired level of properties The
most uniform distribution is observed in composites produced by stir casting with low filler fraction The worst
uniform distribution is observed in composites produced by powder metallurgy technique with mechanical al
loying step Method of A A Glagolev demonstrates similar results to the computer method but it is very labo
rious Hardness distribution do not completely confirmed image analysis results but it can be used for verifica
tion and validation
References
1 Rabindra B Nihar R M and Sutradhar G 2012 Distribution of SiC Particulates in Stir Cast Aluminum Alloy Met
al Matrix Composites and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineer
ing and Development 2 194 205
2 Chernyshova T A Kurganova Y A Kobeleva L I and Bolotova L K 2012 Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum
Matrix Composites Production Properties and Application UlSTU Ulyanovsk
3 Chernyshova T A Kurganova Y Kobeleva L I Bolotova L K Kalashnikov I E Katin I V Panfilov A V and
Panfilov A A 2007 Composition Materials for Sliding Friction Pairs with Aluminium Alloy Matrix Strengthened by
Particles Konstruktsii iz Kompozitsionnykh Materialov 2 38 43
4 Kurganova Y A Chernyshova T A Kobeleva L I and Kurganov S V 2011 Service Properties of Aluninum
Matrix Precipitation Hardened Composite Materials and the Prospects of Their Use on the Modern Structural Material
Market Russian Metallurgy Metally 7 663 666 http dx doi org 10 1134 S003602951107010X
5 Kurganova Y A and Lopatina Y A 2015 Analysis of Reinforcing Phase Distribution in Aluminum Matrix Compo
site Materials Zagotovit Proizv Mashinostr 4 42 47
6 Saltykov S A 1976 Stereometric Metallography Metallurgy Moscow
7 Lopatina Y A and Kurganova Y A 2014 Methods of Uniform Assessment of Reinforcement Distribution in Parti
culate Reinforced Composite Materials Proceedings of the XXVI International Innovation Focused Conference of
Young Scientists and Students MIKMUS Moscow 17 19 December 2014 213 217
8 Matyunin V M 2005 Mechanical and Technological Tests and Properties of Structural Materials MEI Moscow
112

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