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Ergonomic Hazards in General Industry
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This page intentionally blank,OSHAcademy Course 153 Study Guide. Ergonomic Hazards in General Industry,Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc. No portion of this text may be reprinted for other than personal use Any commercial use of. this document is strictly forbidden, Contact OSHAcademy to arrange for use as a training document. This study guide is designed to be reviewed off line as a tool for preparation to successfully. complete OSHAcademy Course 153, Read each module answer the quiz questions and submit the quiz questions online through. the course webpage You can print the post quiz response screen which will contain the correct. answers to the questions, The final exam will consist of questions developed from the course content and module quizzes.
We hope you enjoy the course and if you have any questions feel free to email or call. OSHAcademy,15220 NW Greenbrier Parkway Suite 230,Beaverton Oregon 97006. www oshatrain org,instructor oshatrain org,1 888 668 9079. Disclaimer, This document does not constitute legal advice Consult with your own company counsel for advice on compliance with all applicable state and. federal regulations Neither Geigle Safety Group Inc nor any of its employees subcontractors consultants committees or other assignees. make any warranty or representation either express or implied with respect to the accuracy completeness or usefulness of the information. contained herein or assume any liability or responsibility for any use or the results of such use of any information or process disclosed in this. publication GEIGLE SAFETY GROUP INC DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY. WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE Taking actions suggested in this document does not guarantee. that an employer employee operator or contractor will be in compliance with applicable regulations Ultimately every company is responsible. for determining the applicability of the information in this document to its own operations Each employer s safety management system will be. different Mapping safety and environmental management policies procedures or operations using this document does not guarantee. compliance regulatory requirements,Revised February 6 2019. This page intentionally blank,Course 153,Modules and Learning Objectives 1.
Course Introduction 2,The High Costs of MSDs 2,Module 1 Identifying Ergonomic Hazards 3. What is Ergonomics 3,Risk Factors Inherent in the Worker 4. Risk Factors Inherent in the Task 5,Risk Factors Inherent in the Environment 8. Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders MSDs 9,MSD Injuries and Disorders 10. Lower Back 10,Shoulder 11,Arms Hands and Wrists 11.
Module 2 Controlling Ergonomic Hazards 13,Engineering Controls 14. Engineering Control Improvement Options 15,Material Handling 15. Storage and Retrieval of Materials 16,Tools and Equipment Selection 16. Handles 17,Triggers 17,Course 153,Fixtures 17,Vibration Hazards 18. Administrative Controls 18,Good Housekeeping 19,Maintenance 20.
Exercise and Stretching 20,Cooperation 20,Safe Lifting Techniques 20. Personal Protective Equipment 22,Back Belts 23,Prioritize Your Work 23. Additional Resources 25,Course 153,Modules and Learning Objectives. Module 1 Identifying Ergonomic Hazards,Learning objectives in this module include. Define ergonomics and the risks inherent with the worker task and environment. Discuss risk factors in the worker including age gender physical activity strength and. anthropometry scientific study of the measurements proportions of the human. Discuss risk factors in the task including force vibration repetition recovery time. duration twisting and posture, Discuss risk factors in the environment including illumination sound temperature and.
psychosocial, Define and give examples of work related musculoskeletal disorders MDSs. Module 2 Controlling Ergonomic Hazards,Learning objectives in this module include. Describe the Hierarchy of Controls and how it relates to ergonomics improvement. Define and give examples of ergonomics engineering controls. Define and give examples of ergonomics administrative controls. Define and give examples of ergonomics personal protective equipment. Describe safe lifting techniques, Describe the steps in prioritizing making ergonomic improvements. Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc Page 1 of Error Bookmark not defined. Course 153,Course Introduction, There are many types of musculoskeletal disorders MSDs including back pain carpal tunnel. syndrome tendinitis rotator cuff syndrome sprains and strains These illnesses and injuries. affect one or more parts of the musculoskeletal system They include sprains strains. inflammation degeneration tears pinched nerves or blood vessels bone splintering and stress. fractures Symptoms include discomfort pain fatigue swelling stiffness or numbness and. The High Costs of MSDs, MSDs account for 34 percent of all lost workday injuries and illnesses.
Employers report nearly 600 000 MSDs requiring time away from work every year. MSDs account for 1 of every 3 spent for workers compensation. MSDs each year account for more than 15 billion to 20 billion in workers. compensation costs Total direct costs add up to as much as 50 billion annually. On average it takes workers 28 days to recover from carpal tunnel syndrome longer. than the time needed to recover from amputation or fractures. Workers with severe injuries can face permanent disability that prevents them from. returning to their jobs or handling simple everyday tasks. In this course we ll look at practical ideas to help reduce the risk of repetitive stress injury in. common general industry tasks like manual material handling. Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc Page 2 of Error Bookmark not defined. Course 153,Module 1 Identifying Ergonomic Hazards,What is Ergonomics. Ergonomics means finding ways to work easier and just as productive The goal of the science of. ergonomics is to find a best fit between the worker and job conditions Ergonomics tries to. come up with solutions to make sure workers stay safe comfortable and productive. Ergonomics also means working smarter not harder It looks at the following risk factor. categories to see how the job can best fit the worker. Risk factors inherent in the worker Physical psychological and non work related. activities may present unique risk factors, Risk factors inherent in the task Work procedures equipment and workstation design. may introduce risk factors, Risk factors inherent in the environment Physical and psychosocial climate may. introduce risk factors, Ergonomic hazards can cause painful and disabling injuries to joints and muscles in some. general industry jobs especially manual material handling According to the Occupational. Safety and Health Administration OSHA ergonomic hazards are the most frequently occurring. health hazards in all industries and the cause of most injuries. In a recent survey 40 percent of construction workers said working hurt is a major problem. Working hurt reduces productivity but continuing to work hurt can result in disabling injuries. that end a career Many laborers retire by age 55 because they just can t do the work anymore. Many can t enjoy their retirement because of their disabilities. Quiz Instructions, After each section there is a quiz question Make sure to read the material in each section to.
discover the correct answer to these questions Circle the correct answer When you are. finished go online to take the final exam This exam is open book so you can use this study. Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc Page 3 of Error Bookmark not defined. Course 153, 1 Which of the following is NOT one of the general risk factor categories. a Factors inherent in the worker,b Factors inherent in the regulations. c Factors inherent in the task,d Factors inherent in the environment. Risk Factors Inherent in the Worker, Each worker s ability to respond to external demands of a task is different and unique Studies. show that stereotyping or making general assumptions about an employee s ability based on. any one of the factors listed below is not correct The studies described below emphasize the. fact that you can t group workers into general categories Everyone is unique and work needs. to be designed to match each employee s unique abilities The only way to really know what. employees are capable of doing is to interview and evaluate them based on the inherent. factors listed below, Age By the age of 35 most people have had their first episode of back pain The prevalence of.
ergonomic injuries increases as people enter their working years Musculoskeletal impairments. are among the most prevalent and symptomatic health problems of middle and old age. However remember don t assume all middle and old age workers have the same health. Gender Whether the gender difference seen in some studies of various MSDs is due to. physiological differences or differences in exposure is unclear One study concluded that the. lack of workplace accommodation to the range of workers height and reach may in part. account for the apparent gender differences Again base your determinations on what the. worker is capable of doing not what gender they are. Physical activity Some physical activity may cause injury However the lack of physical activity. may increase susceptibility to injury We can define fitness as combinations of strength. endurance flexibility musculoskeletal timing and coordination There is clear evidence that. stretching exercises do have a positive effect on the reduction of Musculoskeletal Disorders. MSDs We ll discuss MSDs in more detail in section 7. Strength A worker s strength is important but not necessarily the key Heavy work stresses. the heart and lungs which may result in rapid fatigue general or localized The probability of. injury increases as muscles weaken Consequently demanding repetitive or static muscular. Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc Page 4 of Error Bookmark not defined. Course 153, work requires energy not necessarily strength You may be strong but not have sufficient. energy to do the task, Anthropometry Designing for only the average person causes problems for everyone else. Anthropometry is the science of studying the difference in body size and proportions by. measuring various body characteristics including weight physical range of mobility and body. dimensions This information is then used by designers to engineer tools equipment furniture. and workstations for maximum efficiency for each individual worker. The basic ergonomic strategy is to design work based on each worker s unique abilities and not. their membership in a general group Judgment should not be based solely on any one of the. above factors For instance don t assume that all old workers have the same abilities or. ergonomic issues It is important to design work based on the unique factors inherent in each. individual rather than designing work based on generalities. 2 By what age do most people have their first episode of back pain. Risk Factors Inherent in the Task, In addition to considering the worker attributes that may increase the risk of injury we must. also analyze the risk factors the work task itself brings to the job We look at the task variables. in the workplace that may increase or decrease the risk of cumulative trauma disorders CTDs. depending on its design and location, In large measure work processes are determined by the factors below. Force Forcefulness is the amount of physical effort required by the person to do a task and or. maintain control of tools and equipment Examples of work activities that exert force on the. body include lifting lowering pushing pulling pinching pounding hitting and jumping. Vibration Duration of exposure to vibration plays a large role in the effects of vibration forces. There are two basic types of vibration that can result in MSDs. Segmental vibration Segmental Vibration affects a part or segment of the body such. as the hands and arms When handling vibrating tools such as a jack hammer for a. Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc Page 5 of Error Bookmark not defined. Course 153, prolonged duration vascular insufficiency in the hand and fingers can also result in.
interference with sensory receptor feedback If a worker can t feel the grip properly. he or she may compensate by applying more force than is necessary to hold and handle. an object Segmental vibration has also been linked to carpal tunnel syndrome. Whole body vibration When the whole body is subjected to vibration most commonly. experienced by truck drivers there is an enhanced risk of injury especially to the lower. 3 Which disorder had been linked to segmental vibration. a Carpal tunnel syndrome,b Low back injury,c Neck injuries. d Benoid s syndrome, Repetition Repetition is a measure of how frequently we complete the same motion or. exertion during a task Managers and office workers can suffer from repetitive motion injuries. especially at the wrist from using a mouse and continual typing The severity of repetitive. motion injuries depends on,the frequency of repetition. speed of the movement or action,the number of muscle groups involved and. the required force during movement, Food processors repeatedly handling products while working on conveyor lines suffer from.
repetitive motion issues The more the joint departs from the neutral position the greater the. likelihood of injury, Recovery time Recovery time is a measure of the rest or low stress activity period available to. the muscle group between similar exertions Recovery time is important in preventing muscle. fatigue because oxygen and metabolites are allowed to rejuvenate while uric acid and other. waste products are removed from the muscle group Recovery time needed will lengthen as the. duration of the task increases, Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc Page 6 of Error Bookmark not defined. Course 153, Duration Duration is a measure of length of time of exposure to a risk factor Of course the. assumption is that the longer the duration of exposure the greater the risk of injury Duration. may be measured in seconds minutes hours days weeks months and even years Food. processors handling products while working on conveyor lines may suffer from injuries due to. the duration long hours of work, As with most individual risk factors duration must be considered along with other people task. and environmental risk factors such as the physical conditioning of the worker posture force. weight temperature stress etc, 4 Which of the following is NOT a factor influencing the risk from repetition during a.
a Frequency,b Speed of movement,c Force required during movement. d The length of the muscle group, Twisting Twisting in the middle of a lift greatly amplifies the forces on the lower back The. point at which twisting is most likely to cause an injury when lifting objects is in the middle of. the lift Material handling and brickwork are good examples of tasks that require twisting. Posture Posture is the position of the body while performing work activities Awkward posture. is a deviation from the ideal working posture of arms at the side of the torso elbows bent with. the wrists straight Awkward postures typically include reaching behind twisting working. overhead kneeling forward or backward bending and squatting If the posture is awkward. during work there is an increased risk for injury, Listed below are some specific postures and examples of tasks that may be associated with. increased risk of injury, Extending or flexing the wrist up and down regularly is associated with a greater risk of. carpal tunnel syndrome Examples Painting and playing the drums. Bending the hand toward the little finger regularly greater than 20 degrees increases the. risk of pain and other issues Examples Lifting boxes and working with heavy tools like. Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc Page 7 of Error Bookmark not defined. Course 153, Raising the arms which flexes the shoulders greater than 60 degrees for more than one.
hour a day increases the risk of acute neck and shoulder pain Example Lifting objects. over the head, Hands working at or above shoulder level can result in increased risk of tendinitis and. various shoulder problems Example Cleaning the top surfaces on machinery. The greater the angle of the neck moves forward backward or side to side the more. quickly neck and shoulder pain results Example Sports holding phone with shoulder. Bending at the lower back while working increases the likelihood of low back disorders. Examples Laying carpet and cleaning furniture, 5 When does twisting greatly amplify the forces on the lower back during a lift. a During the start of the lift,b During the middle of the lift. c At the end of the lift,d At all points of the lift. Risk Factors Inherent in the Environment, Environmental risk factors refer to the physical and psychosocial climate in the workplace.
These include, Illumination Inadequate light can increase the number of attempts in completing a. Sound Sound can be an irritant causing increased stress. Humidity Humidity has an impact on worker endurance which affects the duration with. which work can be conducted safely, Temperature Be it too hot or too cold in combination with any one of the above risk. factors may also increase the potential for MSDs to develop. Psychosocial Psychosocial work demands in terms of job control psychological. demands social support and job dissatisfaction all can influence the rate at which. employees are injured If your employer forces employees to work fast not safe the. likelihood of MSDs increases, Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc Page 8 of Error Bookmark not defined. Course 153, 6 How can the psychosocial environment influence ergonomic hazards. a MSDs increase when employees are happy,b It can cause poor attitudes and low morale.
c It causes employees to work in cold environments. d Demands to work fast can increase MSDs,Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders MSDs. MSDs occur when the physical capabilities of the worker do not match the physical. requirements of the job They are caused by job activities and conditions like lifting heavy. objects repetitive motions and work in confined areas. MSDs are injuries and disorders of the soft tissues muscles tendons ligaments joints. and cartilage and nervous system, They can affect nearly all tissues including the nerves and tendon sheaths and most. frequently involve the arms and back, MSDs are the leading cause of disability for people in their working years. Complaints about back knee and shoulder upper arm are common among general. industry workers performing manual material handling. Studies indicate upper limb and shoulder MSDs were related to manual handling work. repetitiveness psychosocial demands job dissatisfaction gender and physical unfitness. Workers have an increased risk of these injuries in the following instances. when carrying heavy loads,twisting hands or wrist,stretching to work overhead. Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc Page 9 of Error Bookmark not defined.

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