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http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. social educative dynamics into scenic forms it reclaims the narration which comes from its own physiology and not. from the narrative traditions It assimilates the past to its relational system. The present situation is still now uncertain maybe because it is inhibited by the great twentieth century theatre. examples The present theatre is far from the historical dynamics between traditional and new ancient and modern. and it is characterized by two fields of research The first one considers theatre as something to rebuild and discover. something which can realize new structures new art forms and new way to create relationship between actors and. audience outside the institutional places for example in the educative world The second one is about dramaturgy It. is he time to pass over the theatrical text and to look for a new kind of writing It should be more creative come out. directly from the stage and it should pay more attention to the needs of the context Then this dramaturgy can be. considered a new writing because it is created just by the new generations that are involved in the present educative. world Here it is the reason of our choice to study the relationships between the theater and the education inside a. theoretical framework in contemporary scientific research Education to Theatricality. 1 1 Thoughts and Utopia The Theatre of the Twenty First Century. New esthetic researches come from the concept of art as vehicle The twenty first century theatre is characterized by. a lot of particular events for example the idea of theater as vehicle by Grotowski and consequently the birth of. Education to Theatricality This is an element that testimony how much the theatrical art is changing during this new. 1 2 The Birth of Education to Theatricality, New esthetic researches come from the concept of art as vehicle These researches want to create through the theatre. a relationship with humans that must have a value and a sense until reaching a society that needs theatre This. concept comes from the reflections of Appia and Craig who have thought over the scenography of Stanislavskij. Vachtangov Mejerchol d Copeau Chancerel who were interested in the actor s point of view of Brecht a dramatist. and of many others The new theatre wants to regain a human social and cultural complexity of art seen as. expressive communication and human realization Oliva 2011 pp 72 82. This theatre is composed of two dimensions it is focused on the human training and consequently of the actor It. has also the aim to break down the barriers between the stage and the viewers The actor is the center of the. researches of the twenty first century his expressive dimension of making theatre his relationship with the audience. and with other actors This is an actor who uses himself consciously to express something. At the beginning of twenty first century the actors who wanted to join in the local company often decided to attend a. theatre school In fact a lot of the greater theatres have an own school like for example the Art Theatre of Moscow. These schools were linked to a particular teacher but they have not either method or theoretic basis or a pedagogical. plan Their purpose was to break in the future actors to mount shows in a very short time Nevertheless in this theatre. Konstantin Sergeevic Aleks ev Stanislavskij revolutionized the theatrical technics opposing to that idea of actors. training He started from his experience as actor and he inserted a method of experimental research on the actor. developing some ideas of Appia and Craig his predecessors The Stanislavskij System is not just a theory it is a. pedagogical praxis and it is transmission of an experience through the action According to Stanislavskij s idea an. actor has to learn in order to train new actors He has to be able to show the research path that must be personalized. by who wants to undertake the long process of self awareness If somebody saw Stanislavskij s actors from a. distance he could think that they owned mysterious secrets and particular instruments In reality they were just men. characterized by a great morality and who have experienced a particular kind of training which had changed them. Grotowski passed over Stanislavskij s concepts and he underlined the importance of the person s training respect the. theatrical product even if this one has to have an esthetic form because it permit the communication between the. actor and the audience, The meeting between the dramatic art and pedagogy for the first time in history is one of the factors that have. influenced the changing of the theatre during the twentieth century after Grotowski Theatre and pedagogy have. discovered to have the same purposes and the same interests the theatre allows human to emphasize his expressive. skills and to show hid creativity and imagination The attention moves from the performance which was considered. the final purpose of the dramatic experience to the actor as the real protagonist of this dramatic renewal. The Education to Theatricality and the laboratory method the studies the schools of the great pedagogues of the. twentieth century the concept of the theatrical laboratory by Grotowski are an occasion for actors to express. themselves freely The theatre laboratory is called Studio by Stanislavskij Grotowski and Education to Theatricality. and it is born to find a solution for professional problems Now the laboratory is the center of the new theatre. Published by Sciedu Press 87 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. pedagogy which considers the exercises as an active part of the theatre and not only something useful to mount. shows The exercises are an important part of the actor s training of the tren z as Mejerchol d says they are. essential for the performance but they are not a part of it During the Studio time each actor tries to find expressive. e possibilities with body and voice So he can have a lot of chances of expression that he can use in the course of the. performance If we analyze the pedagogical work of the laboratory we can notice that it is strictly linked to a process. stimulated by the pedagogues director who holds it The director spurs up actors that can have always new. experience thanks to exercises and improvisations This technics are the most important part of the whole work they. represent the creative process phase when actors are looking for what they do not know they are useful to replace. creativity to repetition and to create an own tradition At the end of the process the actor has to think over his work. to understand what he has lived and how he has improved his awareness. The laboratory is born just for theatre but then it is become a useful educative instrument above all thanks to. Grotowski s theories In fact it is a well delimitated period of time and a protected place Moreover it has the same. educative aims of the most important pedagogues of the last two century as Froebel Dewey Montessori Ferri re. Clapar de who thought that experience has a training value for the students In the Laboratory the master group. leader does not teach he offers his own technic and professional skills The students if they are conveniently led. can face an individual process and through it they can listen to themselves and discover their limits and their skills. They learn new abilities useful to express their thought and their feelings In the Education to Theatricality the. laboratory is a physic and a mental place where the pupil can develop a work useful to his growth it is a chance to. learn by doing with the belief that the most important aspect of the laboratory is the process and not the end In order. to better understand the changes of the theatre over the last years it is better to consider its single elements instead of. to think it as a great united art and these elements can be considered humble trades. 1 3 Education to Theatricality A Science, Education to Theatricality has a lot of purposes to contribute to the psycho physic well being of each person. particularly it wants to help everyone to realize himself as human being and as social actor it wants to give. everybody the chance to reveal his own diversity and specificity because everybody has a message to convey. through his body and his voice Oliva 2014 pp 1758 1775 The Education to Theatricality wants to stimulate. skills it wants to develop a better awareness of interpersonal relationships it wants also give space to the assignment. meaning process because it considers doing as important as thinking that permit to develop awareness about. personal acts Over the past few years pedagogy inspired from psychology medicine and existential philosophy. has corrected his intellectualism and started to underline the importance to have a vision of the whole human being. who is composed by different components At the same time it emphasizes the inventive possibilities of each person. The dramatic expression as a mean of education is the perfect answer to this new cultural perspective. Education to Theatricality cannot be considered part of just one particular artistic discipline but it must be inserted. into a wide ranging analysis of man and of human being s existence Movement crosses several disciplines because. we start our synthesis from the anthropological concept of art which does not coincide with the realization of an. aesthetic product but with man s need to manifest and represent himself Expressive arts become a vehicle through. which every man finds and defines his own place in the world Art is linked to a process an inner research of. meaning carried out by the person it is tied to the universal Ego of human nature Dramatic expression in fact is a. constant call for every kind of language Spontaneity is not lawlessness or disorder in fact it is necessary to adapt. roles and to build agreements with others to increase our own ego and to tend to a greater awareness. 1 3 1 Theatricality Expressive Arts and Pedagogy, Education to Theatricality reveals many different aims to contribute to the psycho physical and social wellness of. every person in particular it wants to help each person to realize her or himself as an individual and as a social. subject it wants to give the opportunity to everyone to express their specificity and diversity as a bearer of a. message which should be communicated through body and voice it wants to stimulate skills it wants to build a. greater awareness of interpersonal relationships it wants to give space to the process of signification assignment. because it considers action as well as reflection which allow persons to gain awareness of their actions Thanks to. the laboratory model created and developed by Grotowski a new form of theatre begins Its aim is to educate the. person It is a warm and friendly environment in which man is able to enhance his psycho physical well being. through a process that leads him to experience both his own intimacy and external reality without fear to be judged. because the starting point is the respect of the experimentation of creativity and of personality of the other So. theater does not promise to transform a man in a super man but it can be an excellent test can give to everyone the. measure of his personal nature So we do not talk about an actor as an abstract entity but of a person actor. Published by Sciedu Press 88 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. Oliva 1999 p 93 Grotowski s Laboratory is based on the concept of person actor whose finality is precisely to. value and respect personal qualities the idea of object actor is denied the man is no more seen as an object of the. market because which is considered only as an executor of an artistic product The main difference between these. two visions is that in the first the show takes on a value relative to the training process of the performance itself the. product has an importance because it is the fruit of creativity sprung from the relationship of individuals during the. laboratory In the second case instead the artistic production has a value in itself and it is the objective to achieve. The starting point therefore is to keep that natural expression that everyone retains within himself you can define it. pre expressivity a term that is derived by Eugenio Barba s Theater Anthropology director and Italian theatre theorist. as well as a student of Grotowski which studies the human behavior at a biological and sociocultural level in a. situation of representation Oliva 1999 p 90 In the construction of the person actor the purpose is just to. develop the person in its organic structure starting from his or her nature and essence through a work on the Ego. that will allow this person to reach his or her natural physical emotional and intellectual pre expressivity The. spontaneity that man manifests through these components will be addressed towards theatrical methodology so as to. develop individual creativity Man is a relational being therefore it is necessary that he carries out this individual. process within a group The encounter and the comparison with other people allow him to enter in a dimension of. greater understanding of himself and of the others In fact thanks to the verbal and nonverbal responses to the. behavior of others the man increases his knowledge and it is placed in a state of discovery In addition this situation. helps him to be sensitive about the management of space and time In summary pupils are accompanied in the. conquest of their I AM It was necessary to educate the man and not just the actor accompanying him to develop a. strong self awareness through a process of discovery and knowledge that began first of all from the internal. resources of the person The advice was to always start from themselves to established with the partner. authentic and sincere relationships Oliva 2005 p 232 So we confirm once again the convergence between art. and education the relational aspect in fact turns out to be a key factor both in the educational relationship as in. artistic theatrical relationship Like education the theater is a place of encounter the exchange that takes place. between the participants opens the door to so many possibility of discovery It is not possible in fact that an. individual may walk on the same path of someone else because the process in which he is inserted is purely personal. because we find ourselves faced to a modality of education that involves the human being in his complexity and in. his natural expressiveness, It is possible to summarize this idea with the Table 1 Source Oliva 1999 p 98.
Moreover there is another type of relationship in addition to the relation with our Ego with a partner and with the. context it is the continuous dialogue that has always to exist between the artistic discipline and other sciences. In particular theater has to communicate with pedagogy the educational science par excellence that investigates the. person as an educable human being and that bases the educational action on relationship with sociology as a science. that studies man in relation to the society in which he is inserted investigating its influences and characteristics. anthropology because it is a science that studies the human being in his essence and from different points of view. social cultural religious philosophical artistic expressive philosophy as science that raises questions about man. and reflects about sense of life aesthetics field of philosophy that explores the relationship between human being. and beauty by an artistic scientific moral and spiritual point of view psychology as a science that studies the. behavior of man under the psychic mental profile and last but not least all disciplines of expressive arts Thanks to. this interconnected dialogue every man is considered in his whole being. Published by Sciedu Press 89 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. Table 1 I AM s Scheme,BODY SOUL INTELLECT,GESTURES OBSERVATION. VOICE FEELINGS VISUAL MEMORY,WORD EMOTIONAL MEMORY. EXPRESSIVITY,1 3 2 The Laboratory, A fundamental aspect of the laboratory of Education to Theatricality is the personal relationship between the. participants a similar relationship should exist between actors and spectators during the creative project that. concludes the laboratory itself The openness to the other is a feature that deeply belongs to man it is not just a. simple exchange of communication but an experience of affective participation and reciprocity However the desire. to encounter the other should be real and authentic this implies that everyone accepts others as they are The. laboratory therefore is an opportunity to grow to learn by doing with the belief that the most important thing is the. process and not the product the performance or creative project is just the conclusion of a training program The. theatrical activity stimulates the need of an interpersonal knowledge that leads to a relationship in which others are. recognized in their dignity The laboratory offers the opportunity to understand that it is possible to change certain. situations and to change ourselves The laboratory of Education to Theatricality has a great pedagogical value and. offers an important contribution to the educational process because thanks to the personal training everyone can. learn to express what it is screaming inside to understand and control our energy to accept what at first was. suppressed or repressed We should not forget that personality of man depends on the quality of his experiences. which characterize his way of relating or not relating that is his lifestyle Theater and in particular the laboratory. allows to make new experiences and to experiment different and unusual life situations which can contribute to. redefine the Ego but even the world and the others Theater means also see again our past re experience fears relive. certain behavior or situations not to remove them but to realize that now we are stronger and we can recognize our. positivity,1 3 3 Aesthetic, In this context theater becomes a sort of exercise of beauty that allows us consider reality in a different and unusual. way helping us to find something beautiful everywhere Interpret reality using the idea of beauty as a key allow us to. abandon the repetitiveness of experience that inhibits every change and helps to understand the complexity of reality. which is made of beautiful and ugly things Theater can therefore be considered as education to beauty as the. Published by Sciedu Press 90 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. acquisition of a new instrument of judgment as an important chance of socialization as an instrument of change as. a cathartic representation that allows us to think that there is beauty in every human encounter in every interaction. in any environment,1 3 4 Art as a Vehicle, Education to Theatricality which find its psycho pedagogical basis in the concept of art as a vehicle defined by.
Grotowski is education for creativity and it represents a precious opportunity for anyone to affirm their identity. claiming the value of the expressive arts as a vehicle for overcoming the differences and as an actual element of. integration Through art man can tell something about himself and he is the protagonist of this creation It puts him. in touch with himself but at the same time it creates a connection with the space in a temporal dimension The. Education to Theatricality is a vehicle of growth of individual development of self assertion and of acquisition of. new personal skills The expressive arts do not present models in fact every man should be each his own model So. the identity of every person creates a relation through a telling reality action word and gesture become instruments. of investigation of life Performance art becomes a vehicle for self knowledge for the manifestation of his own. creativity, Art as a vehicle generates the idea of an person actor defined performer an actual man of action because he is. dancer musician actor total man which performs a performance giving completely his personality to the audience. His action does not coy a clich it is not a precise and defined action that takes place only and exclusively in the. physical completeness and perfection It conquests its shape depending on the personality of the Ego that does it. because it is intimate and subjective For this reason Education to Theatricality and the laboratory in an experience. that everyone can live even if we talk about disability or diversity. 1 3 5 Interdisciplinary, Education to Theatricality is a science that includes different of disciplines such as pedagogy sociology human. sciences psychology and the performing arts in general The scientific basis of this discipline allows us to apply it in. all possible contexts possible and with any individual because it keep the man as he is in the center of its. pedagogical process One of the fundamental principles of Education to Theatricality is the construction of the actor. person the main aim is the development of creativity and imagination through a scientific training leads by the actor. on himself, This science does not want to transform a man into an actor object molding him to product shows that are prepared. just to be sold but to enhance his individual qualities respecting his personality The final product plays a role linked. to the training process of every man giving a different value to every different personality Fundamental to the. definition of identity and to the development of imagination and creativity is the conservation of the skill of. expression which represents the starting point the key element for comparison with each other. 1 3 6 Difference, When we talk about difference and above all about disability we have to wonder what are the characteristics of a. human being that make him unique Being something important to someone else be in relationship with have a. relationship with someone can definitely restore dignity to the person But before that the essence of man consists. in perceiving their own individuality and identity He must be perceived by himself as the undisputed leader of his. gestures and its actions who can make he choices and changes He should be a creator of reality and above all the. unique artist of his own life The Education to Theatricality promotes a process of awareness of the Ego discovering. the body and its expressive potentialities We can imagine that our body is a factory of information which are. coordinated and modulated by the Ego It can be said that the body exists because the Ego exists The Ego exists. because it synthesizes and unify the bodily activity. And when there is a disability We can say that we have overcome the old physiological and psychological. conception of the body as a given structure regulated by its own laws and the Ego as something totally independent. from the body but that creates a relation with it and uses it to express So we realize that all those definitions about a. disable body cannot exist anymore A man must be able to act to create to define to put himself on the line to. construct his own real identity He must be able to be creative Creativity and imagination are a sort of intermediate. space where there are no models there are no deficit or impairments man as human being is creative. 1 3 7 The Creative Subject, Education to Theatricality is trying to define into strictly scientific terms the process that leads to the development of.
a creative act The creative subject is in fact object of an interdisciplinary debate on the one hand psychologists. Published by Sciedu Press 91 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. and neuroscientists are trying to identify the individual characteristics and the mental processes that determine the. development of creativity on the other hand becomes always stronger the reflection on these issues in artistic and. expressive field and in pedagogy too, Creative man is in truth a category of contemporary thought defined in the second half of the twentieth century In. theater on horseback nineteenth and twentieth century with the directors pedagogues the concept of creative actor. started to be developed and we can speak about the actor as a man who knowingly uses himself to express. Only from the cultural revolution founded on the figure of Jerzy Grotowski in 1960 and with the development of. concepts of art as a vehicle and performer it begins to talk about creative man by nature that uses art or better arts. and expressive language as a vehicle to consciously work on himself Beyond the distinction between of artistic. genres Grotowski redefines the idea of art as a field of research about the essence of human existence Creativity. therefore ceases to be a matter solely for the artists or for the genius and becomes a characteristic of every human. person this idea is also supported by neuroscience for which each person has a creative potential to develop. Art is a great opportunity to develop this potential Precisely for this reason Education to Theatricality focuses on. the creative subject the theater workshop becomes a method of work based not only on the intention to transmit. knowledge but above all on to lead every subject to form himself through a practical experience Through sensory. stimuli through the movement the subject experiences in practice learning by doing and learns or enhances both. cognitive and conative factors that modulate the expression of creativity The first are determined by the ability to. develop different answers to the same situation question lateral thinking or in the ability to consider a problem. from different points of view the mental flexibility the latter are determined in the development of certain. personality traits such as openness to new experiences willingness to run the risk of making a mistake attitude to the. fascination for the unknown ability to withstand dominant currents of thought and love for creative activity. 1 4 Education to Theatricality and Creative Movement. Talk about creative action in the field of expressive means also introduce the concept of creative movement. Creativity becomes action linked firstly to the body and the movement The creative movement is the development. of continuous creative acts one after the other in time and space which leads to a simple but fundamental. anthropological concept the relationship between human being and movement A man is always on the move. immobility is quite impossible The movement is a specific element of life and plays a central role in relationship. with the Ego and with others, Movement does not arise only from a material need or by an act of will and it is not just linked to the human. muscle skeletal system it is also emotion For this reason creative movement is connected to the relationship of a. subject with the world of creation through the expressive arts and to an analysis of human being and his life that. weaves connections between man and body between body and expression between movement body and creativity. The discipline focuses on the discover of the body in its totality and on the preparation of this instrument as a means. of expression It is important in fact not only become aware of the various joints of the human structure and of their. use in the creation of rhythmic gestural and spatial patterns but also of the inner mood and the attitude in relation to. Education to Theatricality in the study of the creative act and in its realization in the creative movement can be. considered a science that determines its practice starting from a precise conception of man and his existence In. particular it is connected to Delsarte s conception about man as an indissoluble unity of three distinct elements. body soul and intellect which are interdependent and always in close relationship It is interesting to note that. regardless of a specific philosophic conception theories of this science show a sort of independent efficiency. Education to Theatricality takes into account and verify physiological and neurological processes that govern the. sphere of the human body In fact this Science has collected the theatrical practice of directors pedagogues and has. made their axioms systematic drawing from them a universal knowledge. Creativity as the ability to transform build and produce can be realized in the creative act that is in an action to. which underlies the development of a specific process and a specific state of being Creativity refers to a productive. activity however is not only linked to originality the invention of new ideas or expressions but also to the. reworking of existing elements The subject through creativity transforms the stimuli from outside composing them. in a new unique and personal way in a study about this issue we can read that The creative act is always. caused by the encounter between a stimulus coming from the outside and a proper state of consciousness Through. creativity the subject face in a personal way the inputs of the environment and adapts himself modifying them. according to his needs Creativity requires a constructive way of facing reality and the skill to accommodate. Published by Sciedu Press 92 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. experience to be able to break the patterns influencing reality Create means be able to product something it is an. activity that can produce something out of nothing but also it means to be able to elaborate elements that already. exist in a new original way to confer to them the character of novelty and uniqueness with the creativity the various. experiences collected year after year are retrieved into memory combined and used in a way consistent with the. situation Oliva 1998 p 29, In the field of expression creative act is outlined as an action which involves the totality of the human being To. obtain a creative act all elements of the trinity of the person are stimulated and used the intellect in its dimension of. mind fantasy and imagination the soul in its dimension of emotion and feeling the body in its dimension of gesture. and movement identity and shape Here is the chart that summarizes the theory of the creative act Table 2 Source. Oliva 2005 p 310,Table 2 Creative Act,PHYSICAL CREATIVE ACT PRECISE. EXERCISE MEMORY,AND COHERENCE,OF THE STRUCTURE, Starting from Grotowski s research Education to Theatricality as we can read in the diagram above has defined the.
creative process as a correlated set of a series of elements a the physical exercise as a starting point the body of the. performative act b the development of it to determine a detailed structure c this elaboration processing is. determined furthermore inside a precise rhythm that governs the action developing it in time and space d the. necessary presence of a memory that is a precise emotional condition As scientists and neuroscientists affirm there. cannot be creativity without a connection to emotional affair It can be seen that in the memory in the physical. exercise and in the logical structure of the creative act are involved respectively the soul the body and the intellect. of the person,1 5 Creative Act and Personal Growth. The complexity the richness and the globality transform the creative act into a fundamental point of any expression. path related to artistic languages so more if that activity can be used to create educational or training programs. Cesare Scurati defines the laboratory as that place where you can tackle new routes of exploration that allow you. to implement new methods of interaction based on the quality of supervision of support and of reciprocity and. where it is enhanced the productivity of each one Salati Zappa 2011 p 2 so the creative act becomes necessary. and indispensable Without the improvement of personal production we cannot build a real process of growth and. development of the person but without putting at stake the whole person we can obtain not even the development of. a creative act The deepest experience that a person actor can live is therefore the production of a creative act It. encompasses therefore the synthesis and the apex of the cultural theatrical and pedagogical revolution that has. involved the twentieth century the perception that the Man has of himself as the heart of the question capable to. change the nature and the events able to live social changes subject and protagonist of his life. 1 6 The Theatre Laboratory as Educative Methodology. The theatre laboratory becomes a place of artistic research par excellence the word itself reveals the nature of the. process It is not a kind of theater as we can usually think but rather an institution devoted to research in the field of. theatrical art and in particular of actorial work The performances of the Theatre Laboratorium constitute a kind of. operating model in which they are put into practice all the researches carried out in this field In theater world this is. Published by Sciedu Press 93 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. known as the Grotowski s method There is a tight contact with many different disciplines such as psychology. phonology cultural anthropology and so on Grotowski 1970 p 11 Moreover Education to Theatricality uses. only this instrument to help man to educate himself The process described and schematized in the previous section. is carried out within the laboratory opening the door to the development of individual creativity Concretely this. process is divided into two parallel paths one focusing on the discovery of Ego discovering personal skills trough a. physical and emotional work The second one aims to the realization of the Ego through a constructive dialogue. with the other So we have two corresponding technical phases the monologue and the dialogue In the phase of. monologue we have Concentration observation breathing communication fantasy imagination and improvisation. then we have the voice the body the memory Oliva 1999 p 93 in the second phase that of dialogue there are. sharing space contact learning to listen and communicate the voice body the rhythm and the understanding. between persons Oliva 1999 p 93 In general the theater workshop seeks to influence three dimensions of the. human being the physic one the creative one and social one Oliva 2005 p 236 Even the setting acquires a great. importance the laboratory is a place and a space separated from everyday life in order to facilitate a temporary. suspension of routine to allow a more accurate exploration and construction of Ego So it is possible to build a deeper. interaction both at the individual level and group level. In particular there are three levels on which is based the whole process There is a first individual level in which the. person actor gets in touch with himself through the phase of the monologue the skills used in this monologue must. be projected in everyday life in order to obtain a greater gratification Then there is a relational level in which. instead is experienced the phase of dialogue that is the relationship between the different person actors To try to. establish an emotional contact with the partner it is necessary to develop some others human faculties such as the. accuracy and control of the Ego Oliva 2005 p 236 Finally there is a group level wherein the person actor. experiences within the group This process requires a fundamental figure the conductor of the laboratory He is. certainly a person actor but must acquire a more important skill more He must be an educator actor searching. with this word to interweave two fundamental dimensions the theatrical competence that stimulates the artistic. abilities of the students and on the other hand the specific pedagogical skills of an educator Oliva 2005 p 237. His task is not to explicit everything but provide stimulation and directions which are then interpreted and. completed by the student It can be said that the conductor assumes the role of facilitator it is not limited to transmit. knowledge but it helps and supports the process of learning. The theater workshop as the theater itself is essentially action or more precisely construction This concept can be. explained starting from the etymology or the Italian word formazione that refers to the idea of model something in. such a way to make it assume the desired shape everything is based on the action of construct and create to. something specific This action embodies the idea of a form in the sense as a special way to express themselves. with words writings or with any other artistic activity as a way of being living and behaving Oliva 2005 p 237. In general the word form refers to a static association but actually one form is reached only through a series of. specific movements Getting in shape means live a certain process that is summed up in this precise form For this. reason the terms form and action are unified to bring up the idea of something that is created in the moment of. action the motion given by the action however embodies a value that is given by the form To demonstrate this idea. we can submit an example of a real experience of a student during his training workshop I always thought that the. best way to express a certain feeling was using a non verbal language in particular dance So in case of sadness for. example I believed that it was enough play a music that stirred me out of sadness and dance making sure that my. body molding with the rhythm of music was completely free to move in space How else I could communicate a. state of mind except through a movement of my body without any constraints However I felt that this was not. enough it lacked a piece to complete the puzzle and I did not understand which one When I attend the lessons of. Teatri d Animazione at the university and Laboratory of Creative Movement I finally understood which was the. While the music was playing and my body was following it in fact I was not communicating anything I was just. venting something The expression of the feeling was not clear because my body was left in the lurch in fact the. subject of the mood was the music and not the body anymore Carried freely on the music I lost the original intent. that is communicate a mood and therefore also the very meaning of what I was doing There was no dialogue. between my intellectual and my corporeal being Thanks to the laboratory I have understood exactly what I said I. am at the same time body soul and mind and I can not think that one of this dimension can exist without the others. To give intentionality to my action then I have to put my body in close communication with my mind my. movement must be created by intentional forms Testimony of a student of the course of Teatro d Animazione. Faculty of Education Catholic University of Milan Italy. Published by Sciedu Press 94 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. The theater workshop as a process of attribution of meanings can connect the action with thought and vice versa. For this reason while giving ample space on the physicality and action it not neglects the essential moment of. reflection this allows to acquire a greater awareness of what has been accomplished The reflection such as. promotion of the comparison is designed as a central element because it allows to revise the process through the. sharing of commonalities and differences of the experience The aim of the conceptualization of the experience is to. allow a greater understanding and help people to seek shared meanings This is our idea of training. One can understand therefore the importance of this educational idea through the Theater Workshop it is based on. verbal and non verbal exercises having as objective a more intense conscious and interpersonal relationship. Furthermore the fact that everything takes place within a group which must be small to make a good job. encourages socialization very important for education Through it every individual discovers himself But there is. another objective promoted by the Theater Laboratory the development of creativity Inside the lab in fact. everybody can express their specificities and diversity each one has a message to communicate through his body and. his voice which allows him to find his identity and to accept others as a person who has something to say. reciprocity becomes the place where manifest meanings which are the simply result of the creative process led. forward by each Through the movement of our body creativity becomes action and thus leads the actor person to. realize a creative act Inserted in this described process the performer has the chance to experiment to dialogue and. to listen to himself but always in new ways so he is forced to seek new ways and to go beyond his own beliefs. arriving to create actions and movements imbued of creativity because he becomes the one that creates something. new In other words the actor person is the master of his own creativity which originated by a great inner. strength is the bearer of authentic values in which the spectator can see himself Oliva 2005 p 231. 1 7 The Role of Theatre Educator, Modern life requires a rapid adaptability by man The flexibility is not only required in the workplace but it s part of. everyday life in the studio in sports in family approaching to new scientific and technological discoveries It is. necessary then in particular for professional educators help the learners that can be children youth or adults to. build a good awareness of itself a provision to interpersonal relationship Education is the science of change since it. is the finality of education A change which is not only a modification of the conditions of subject s life but first and. foremost as a transformation of the perception of himself The task of the educator is to provide the resources and. situations more suited to the change Onorina Gardella says something more The educational work to change. something is always relational It always presupposes two or more subjects two people in their entirety It need a. comparison or a conflict with the other Gardella 2007 p 34 And Luigi Diotti says Education is not made just. by aims content methods and means because in practice it is the concretization of a relationship between two. people and it is influenced by the structure of their life Dotti 2006 p 87. The conductor of a theater laboratory has the opportunity to influence the relations and the organization of the group. through the construction of the setting of work and the care of its dynamics He has the main function to hold. together the entire group and help each person to take an active part in the theatrical action The director educator has. to be able to activate a context of play and to promote a positive affective climate Every member of the group. should have trust in the operator before to have it in himself An atmosphere of actual trust will permit to the group. members to feel safe enough to express themselves Only when the student will have the certainty of not be judged. he may invest part of himself in creative work Salvo Pitruzzella says Come into play implies an investment of. psychic energy which is offered to the other in the form of collaboration of trust of capacity to take risks moreover. there is the need for everyone to own a proper communication space that should be recognized by the other one The. educator must be the guarantor of this balance but at the same time can t be an external controller on the contrary. he is a participant of the process being aware of his emotional and imaginative investments Pitruzzella 2009 p. Flexibility adaptability and elasticity are qualities that the conductor must necessarily possess in such a way to be. able to adapt his educational proposals to the environment and to the people he works with He must be able to. translate questions convey messages and calibrate requests in relation to the age of the students and the. characteristics of the group If the educator understand which are the factors that inhibit creativity he will be able to. help the student to understand and overcome them Gardella suggests In this sense the educator is also a counselor. because it supports the subject towards the discovery of the personal identity He cannot bind to precise patterns this. self discovery he has to suggest new ways see goals recognize and propose from time to time the possible choices. the opportunities the new aims the real opportunities Gardella 2007 p 55. The theatrical educator through his function as director is able to trigger a creative process Theater becomes an. Published by Sciedu Press 95 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. instrument a sort of physical and mental space in which you can share a fantasy One of the tasks of the educator in. particular of the theatrical educator is the contribution to a harmonious growth of the Ego Helping a person to. become aware of his own body means help him to discover himself and to make better use of his personal resources. The educator in fact offer resources that should be not just consumed but reworked by the subjects in a new energy. Triani 2002 p 29 He asks not only to do but especially to think about what you are doing The conductor of the. laboratory must activate efficient situations in the theater simulation from an educational point of view To make. sure that the personal creative skills can be developed by education he has to offer adequate tools and contents. Therefore it is essential to prepare an educational theatrical plan with specific and prefixed goals. 1 8 The Planning Activity in Relation to Expressive Arts. Planning activity is a peculiar action of the educator in fact he has to be able to give sense to actions through a. continued openness to a creative life and to its possibilities He should not think in a standardized way but has to. create a vision that aims at the human being s personality considering at the same time his relationships his social. and cultural context This is because the planning activity does not require you to work only to achieve something. but also to work on something Santerini Triani 2007 p 64 Planning activity allows you to avoid the risk to. make trivial and superficial the educational relationship and the professional work of the educator whose specificity. is precisely to be an agent of human development that is individual and collective Once you understand the. importance of planning in the educational world you have to answer to another question how to plan And through. what tools, It is essential that each educator tries to answer to these questions when he has to face a group of people There are. so many theories in educational field that it is really useful and necessary to understand which one to choose to plan. reasonable activities that aim at achieving specific objectives One way may be to choose education through. expressive arts that is an education that prefers artistic expression to develop knowledge awareness and discovery. Any art presupposes creation preparation research experimentation evaluation as well as to be ready to put. yourself on the line It is clear that to do that the artist must possess precise skills otherwise if everything was left to. a free improvisation would decay the deepest sense of his actions This is meeting point between art and education. in fact education is considered an art too Pedagogy assumes the same actions the same projects the same research. of sense of art and this also can t be improvised Creating a work of art a man stretches out towards the. achievement of that form of the Ego that is already inside himself His goal is to reach it As well as the work of art. also the process through which the subject is forming emanates from the desire to reach the actual form of the Ego. Every man aspires to a perfect and authentic existence despite the difficulties Musaio 2007 p 239. The artist as well as the educator seems to live a paradigmatic experience because even with all its intentionality and. will he cannot not reach fully the beauty of things that surround him the artist tries to reach and approach to the. inmost reality of things and people through his works and the relationship of love that takes over in the. implementation phase The educator tries to reach the most intimate Ego of individual through the action and the. educational relationship, Education is an experience permeated by the component of risk but that never ceases to attract because of the. beauty of human implications Education can be seen as a fact an act and an event from the contours not always well. distinguishable especially if you pay attention to the challenge of the postmodern culture that project educational. subjects in a context that seems to have lost the references to help people to develop an authentic relationship with. himself and reality Musaio 2007 p 12 In addition every educator while still aiming at a deep knowledge of. every person will never reach a level of total understanding For this reason he has to puts into play all the. instruments he owns using not only the reason but also the intuition which focuses precisely on the immensity of. the human being It is this kind of reason that opens the door to wonder and to discovery An educator to work and to. create works of art has to use those tools of expression If it is true that art is a vehicle we can affirm that it is a. powerful and effective mean that opens up the doors to an education which aims at the innermost part of Ego. Maritain has defined a creative intuition as a dark grasping his own personality and the things in a knowledge. through the union or through the connaturality that arises in the spiritual unconscious and becomes fertile only in. action Musaio 2007 p 25, To this first characteristic that unites art and pedagogy we can immediately adds another both these worlds in.
fact want to animate life This means give blood give shape to daily lives giving sense to rediscover their routine. under a new light to live their relationship through different dynamics The soul is the most inner part of the Ego the. most hidden and silent but at the same time even the most noisy that shouts inside that shakes us The soul is the. storm that shakes that haunts it is energy it is the most irrational and emotional aspect of man The word. Published by Sciedu Press 96 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. anima brings us back to the Greek word Anemos which means wind or blow There is a wind that blows out of. us that can be as light as the breeze or shocking as a hurricane and there is also using metaphorical language the. wind the spirit that according to various religious traditions was breathed into us A dynamism that work without. being grabbed which you can hear and feel but not see Iori 2012 p 13 This helps to confirm that projecting. life to pursuit beauty can emerge as one possible path to search certainty something to grab to not disperse in a. fortuitous combination of events and variables Musaio 2007 p 27 Through its symbolic language art has. always helped the individual to approach the meaning of life and to reach that level of knowledge that man can only. perceive because it does not occur in his eyes as matter in other words it helps man to find his voice. This is a very difficult moment for the contemporary man because it is characterized by a new search for values by. a crisis at quite every level of life by an education permeated by uncertainty and doubt it is absolutely necessary an. intervention to re evaluate the situation that restores its value through a watchful eye on the finality and tools. needed to reach it The bigger investment of every educator is giving blood in fact the contemporary crisis that man. is experiencing is the bearer of discomfort and negativity it can also be seen as an opportunity a stimulus a. challenge to renew the human existence in all its profiles In times of difficulty we must have the courage to invest. in educating because it is the point to start again Iori 2012 p 10 If it is true that education is based on a. planning activity that should make full and beautiful the existential experience even in adverse or difficult. conditions of crisis Iori 2012 p 10 then it is its duty to accept the complexity with realism in order to stimulate. its authenticity without falling into resignation, In this context the proposal carried out by artistic and expressive languages is perfectly embedded Its most. important characteristic is to be able to mobilize the most intimate resources and potentialities of the person in order. to allow a training experience that forces a continuous dialogue with every element body soul and intellect These. languages require a regular exchange between theory and practice planning activity with expressive arts proposes a. concrete experience based on physical actions because it consider a human being as creative and to create every. human being need to practice in the true sense of the word But to give sense to a plan the use of these languages. must rely on a concrete theoretical basis Without this ongoing relationship the planning activity as well as. education would not have sense There can t be one without the other doing does makes sense if it is not. accompanied by a reflection and by awareness and viceversa What has been said hitherto may seem obvious but it. is not in contemporary days when it is tacitly affirmed the idea that rationality rules on the most sensitive and. creative part of the human being we can t stop and try to find into the most pure expressive part of us left on the. sidelines and maybe forgotten the answers to try to propose an education guided by values and certainties. Bringing to light this most intimate aspect of man the artistic methodology is presented as a pedagogical tool based. on the co construction of activities which aims to enhance the vitality the expression of people the interests of. groups of organizations through a series of expressive cultural recreational interventions based on a logic of. participation Iori 2012 p 15 if fact its aim is helping people to find a meaning of life For this reason the. educator who want to plan following this idea must also assume the role of animatore animator to be an. animatore means promote actions directed to the soul of people so we talk about anim a zione soul in action. Through this type of training activity an educator focusing on the soul of the people should work on the sensitivity. expressiveness intersubjectivity and imagination which are the fundamental dimensions of man Its goal is to pull. out the artist that is inside every human being and promote the wandering side of each one A human being who. wanders looks travels and simply makes mistakes to find himself. This training allows you to express your Ego and to give voice to what appears silent in addition an experiential. perspective is supported because it want to teach to do following proper ideas and dreams This is the look of. someone who is ready to welcome and enhance every movement action we do not want to define. stylistic executive models but to build pathways able to reflect the thought and the emotion of the body Iori 2012. p 107 The body is a just another feature of expressive arts in fact they propose a model of education in which the. body participates fully because a human being can t exist without it Unfortunately there is the risk to consider the. human being without considering body because it is dominated by the intellectual rational component But in this. way a human being is not considered in his totality and in his fullness that instead is promoted by the. artistic expressive vision it favors the use and exploration of the body in order to experience new and different. ways of feeling and being for access to emotions which are nested in the body and so they are difficult to represent. using language and to transform them into new gestures that accompany the change and the development of skills. Iori 2012 p 109 This is crucial because the human being needs to narrate and narrate about himself Expressive. arts especially theater and dance if we talk about creative movement favor the discovery of dramaturgic body. that is a body able to tell small stories and emotions through its experiences This is important especially. Published by Sciedu Press 97 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. for the improvement of the capacity of relationship with the Ego and with the others It is important even for the. relationship with cognitive intelligence a dramaturgic body brings self enclosed his history it is a sort of body chest. that contains physicality and emotions it is the body that communicates even without the use of verbal language. Iori 2012 p 124, In conclusion this reflection provides a starting point for responding positively to the question that was asked. initially Why a planning activity through expressive arts Because they offer the opportunity to not follow. models to human being but to be a model of himself Through the proper tools of art every man can tell everything. about himself without excluding any existential component allowing him to considered himself the protagonist of. his action This is true at any age regardless of sex and culture the art is part of human life and the creativity which. is present in every person can be cultivated thanks to the tools of expression that art itself offers Then getting in. touch with himself and putting himself in discussion to find himself again a human being can create deeper. relationships with others and this is an opportunity for social integration which is not limited to a superficial level. but on the contrary has its roots into a truer and deeper level because he made a process to give a new meaning to. life Thus the identity of any person enter into a relationship through a narrator reality action speech and gesture. become instruments to investigate life Iori 2012 p 144. 1 9 The Laboratory A Methodology of Pedagogic Work Improvisation. Improvisation is one of the most important words of theatre of this century Improvisation is one of the most. helpful methodological instruments to train an actor person Pilotto 2011 pp 48 64 Improvisation is an instrument. to understand human and theatrical situations During improvisations the actor can create actions that then can be. used during the performances Pedagogue directors Stanislavskij Vachtangov Copeau etc consider improvisation. as one of the most important exercise of the training of the actor During improvisation every actor can collect a sort. of expressive and emotional baggage They consider improvisation as important as the study of the body movement. in the creative process because it helps the actor to improve his expressive verbal and not verbal skills to develop. his skill to react to unexpected changes Improvisations hanged in the balance between precision and spontaneity. instinct and self control and many man of theatre such as Brook and Grotowski used it Grotowski considered. improvisation showed by the spontaneity of the movement as a starting point. Pedagogue directors consider the repetitiveness of the performance like a limiting factor for the theatre itself The. daily rehearsals provoke a sort of mechanicalness and automatism that are the cause of actor character s not life on. the stage The director during the training can introduce the exercises of improvisation to change this condition. Sometimes improvisation can be even the starting point to create a performance An actor through improvisation. can experience different situations that are not real because theatre is a place where everything can be different. feelings and true emotions So the pupil can get know better himself and meet the other who can be an actual other. like the audience or a partner or a fictitious other like a character. One or more persons create an improvisation when they produce an action verbal or not verbal taking as starting. point a precise subject and developing it as it goes along without being constricted to follow a written script. Improvising means that an actor can act spontaneously according to his own imagination respecting some given. conditions and being aware of what he is doing in fact pupil s gestures and words must not follow a script but he. has to pay attention to the stage and to others to create a performance that makes sense The verbal improvisation is. more difficult than the not verbal an inexperienced student cannot be able to transform fast his actions in words and. can feel inhibit to reveal himself to others, The improvisation can be a helpful instrument to train actor person s spontaneity only if the members of the. laboratory trust each other and feel secure So the Educator to Theatricality should create a proper situation where. the pupil as single person can discover himself and his skills in relation to others and where he is aware of the risks. and ready to unexpected Improvisation helps pupils to develop their identity transforming an experience of life that. can be stimulated by a script or by a personal idea in a personal experience Improvisation can be really educative. because it encourages introspection and reflection The pupil that is able to improvise will be ready to act in an. unknown place he will not be afraid about new meetings or situations not only on the stage but even in the daily. The laboratory uses the open technique of improvisation both during the preparation phase when pupils are trying to. understand which is the best solution to convey a particular meaning and during the performance Theatrical. improvisation cannot be provisional it must catch the spontaneity of a reaction to an unexpected event in the daily. life Then we can use this reaction in a controlled situation to better understand circumstances Improvisation is an. existential fact something to penetrate to comprehend and to mediate reality Improvisation technic is useful. Published by Sciedu Press 98 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. because it is improvised A precise technic already experienced does not exist it would create just stereotypes A. determined technic does not exist The actor should just train himself to cancel his resistances and to transform faster. his own psychic impulses in actions The more an actor is matured the more he knows the more he must train There. is not a technical model to follow to get a good result The exercises must be created for each group to stimulate. imagination and creativity The Educator to Theatricality has to understand what pupils can create and to recognize. the original part of their creations Then they can suggest altogether different expressive alternatives He has to keep. alive his imagination and the imagination of his pupils but he has to be unobtrusive and confident He has to value. the new creations of the group and suggest new goals He has to accept the group and give new stimuli he has to be. with the group live with the group and aim to pass over every determined structure. The Educator to Theatricality s role is to quickly recognize how much of original the students are able to discover. and to propose different alternatives of expressive nature of diagnosis of close examination etc when the group. would be ready to also be satisfied with a pleasant result He must constantly maintain vigilant and vital the strength. of the imagination of the actor with a type of discreet intervention intuitive confident He must immediately esteem. the unpredictable novelty that the group has been able to create and together to point out another finishing line He. must know how to accept the physiognomy of the group and to relaunch the creativeness Its assignment is to be with. the group to live with the group and to extend beyond every situation determines a priori He must dynamically. balance the value of the liberty in the assumption of an exercise and together to provoke the inventiveness. The improvisation in the laboratory is a methodology of fundamental job The exercises must not become pure free. gymnastic exercise They are open and verification of the expressiveness of a gesture of a word of the sequence of. gestures of a movement of a form of an action The expressiveness must have the tendency to overcome every time. improvisation the spontaneous or repetitive expressiveness Every action must be new precise creative. expressive logic and communicativeness, 2 Second Part Workshop The Theatrical Workshop Exercises. The objectives of the theatrical workshop are self awareness and discovery and development of creative. potentialities, The activities are listed below they develop exercises respect the languages.
Non verbal language the gesture and the mime through the neutral mask and the movement through the creative. Verbal language the theatrical reading, The exercises are practical examples of activity They must be modified according to the formative demands. according to the age of the participants the characteristics of the groups the personalities of the students. For children the exercises must be turned into activity of game Every theme it must have transformed through the. imaginary one,2 1 Neutral Mask, The neutral mask is very important for the pupil s work Pilotto 2011 pp 48 64 The neutral mask is linked to the. evolution of the new mime during our century and Lecoq the most important expert of mime ad theatrical pedagogy. after Copeau defined it as a base on with the differences of other masks can be showed up It has no expression and. it does not represent a specific character it transmits to the viewer a state of calm and silence Copeau was the first. one that discovers the importance of the neutral mask in the twentieth century From the moment the pupil wears. the mask he free himself He better experience his inner world Copeau used the mask during the laboratory so. pupils concentrated their expressive skill in each little detail of their body In fact they knew that the face could. express nothing because it was covered by the mask The actor trains his body to do just significant movements to. communicate to the viewer a specific message So to study gestures the actor must stylize them he has to divide. them into simpler gestures Every gesture should be linked to a specific part of the body so they can be analysed one. by one and the movements can be studied in relation to different dynamics for example the normal velocity. alternated with a slowdown velocity or the change from an explosion to a sudden immobilization The neutral mask. allows pupils to get closer to a sort of neutrality condition which is a sort of condition very hard to get The pupils. can understand the essential mimic of the daily routine just knowing that particular state of mind when the human. being resets himself to zero So he can really be opened to the rest of the world. To wear the neutral mask, Published by Sciedu Press 99 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754. http wje sciedupress com World Journal of Education Vol 5 No 2 2015. To wear the mask It is a rite,Neutral position Mask for earth to the feet. To fix the mask To focus To go to pick it up To fold up the whole body To slowly draw near to the mask To pick. it in hand up To observe it,To identify with it To wear the mask.
Neutral position with the mask The student listens himself and his body. Concentration Immobility Silence, The neutral mask doesn t have expression of the face With the neutral mask the student cannot speak. Expressiveness is not in the voice it is not in the face but it is in the body. The neutral mask is an exercise it is not to recite. The simple gesture, To wear the mask Fixed look before Don t look at the body Don t touch the mask. To make a simple gesture to move an arm to move a hand To return neutral. To perceive the gesture To complete the gesture with slowness with ampleness with simplicity. The movement is stylized The gesture has a beginning a development and an end. To use the arms before then the head then the bust To come to create some forms with all the parts of the body. Made a gesture return to the neutral position, The exercise with the neutral mask is beneficial for to develop the awareness of the body. Mechanization of the body, Standing up or sitting down To wear the neutral mask To mechanize the body starting from a part of the body To. follow the sequence hand right or left wrist elbow shoulder neck head shoulder left or right elbow wrist. hand C Spine bust possible pelvis Legs knees feet, To bring the whole body is in movement The movement is slow It is necessary to articulate a part of the body to the.
To create some forms with all the part of the body The forms are of the statues. You builds a statue The movement leaves again from a part of the body You mechanizes all the I cover You. creates another statue,The mirror, Be couples Face each other To wear the neutral mask. A student conducts The second student copies as a mirror all the movements. After some time to change conductor, The movement of the couples must be in unison almost perfectly The conductor must realize movements and simple. and slow gestures the mirror must develop a good listening. The mirror can be performed in the three dimensions standing in knee stretched out to earth. Awakening exercise, The awakening exercise is composed by three parts at the beginning the student lying in foetal position discovers. his body as it was the first time So the body starts to move one part by one Then the pupil starts to move around. until he meets the other When they meet they start to get know each other discovering each other and coming into. The exercise can be realized in silence following the natural rhythm of breath or following the sound of percussion. instruments or an appropriate music The pupil must not touch himself while he is exploring the surface of his body. because the contact would relieves the energy birth thanks to the muscular tension between the hand and the body. The neutral mask is helpful to allow pupil to train himself because trying to get a neutral condition is very hard and. it requires a lot of attention and concentration The development of this kind of skills can be very useful to the. training process of every person, Published by Sciedu Press 100 ISSN 1925 0746 E ISSN 1925 0754.

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