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DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RADIO FREQUENCY
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Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008, between inventory information and controllers However in recent years many. companies start to embark into new inventory management systems that utilize. latest technology This trend has been steadily growing in various applications in. many industries such as in the airline industry cattle industry construction. logistics healthcare and manufacturing In this study the authors are proposing the. use of a new inventory system that utilizes RFID technology in inventory. management This paper describes the development of an automatic inventory. control system using RFID for a typical supply store which was chosen as the case. study in this research In order to explain the detail on how the proposed system. works the development process of the system will be discussed in details Firstly. we identified problems that were faced on managing the supply store Then a new. inventory system using RFID technology was developed to overcome these. problems and to provide a better inventory control Finally we conducted a pilot. test to evaluate the system performance in terms of its efficiency effectiveness. reliability security and cost justification,2 0 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. 2 1 Automatic Identification and Data Collection AIDC Technology. The usage of information technology in operations management had become a. common aspect in present days Information technology had become one of the key. factors in maximizing efficiency and improving competitive advantage of a supply. chain management because its ability to improve the speed of information flow. since the more information the person has about his or her products inventory. levels and the movement of these products the less uncertainty he has in managing. them which in turn can result in decrease of inventory holdings improved. productivity and better customer satisfaction 1 Furthermore by utilizing. information technology in supply chain management this may improve the speed. and accuracy of the information flow in the collection and processing of data. increased product visibility such as the items identification location tracking and. real time quantity checks Consequently companies may become more lean in their. operation by cutting down on wastes from overproduction avoid lost of revenue. due to underproduction or late deliveries and reduce storage costs when they can. avoid making or getting products too early or too late to the market In long run. companies can significantly reduce total inventory costs 2. The Automatic Identification and Data Collection AIDC a type of. information technology system is considered as the heart of the new supply chain. management and execution system This technology collects information and. transmits receives data to from relevant hardware software systems for further. processing For example in an inventory system a data may include inventory. levels quantity of orders picked in certain time frame or locating products in. transit Figure 1 summarized various types of AIDC technology that are available. in the market,Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008,Bar codes OCR Card. Technologies RFID,Bar Biometrics,Codes Magnetic,2D Bar Smart Vision. Codes Card System,Figure 1 Various types of AIDC technology.
2 2 Bar Code, Bar code is one of the best known and most widely used of AIDC technology and. was invented in the early 1950s It consisted of linear bar code which is made up. of a pattern of parallel dark lines and spaces between the lines to represent a. coding system for the necessary data for various products A typical barcode stripe. normally represents 15 to 50 characters The Universal Product Code European. Article Number UPC EAN as shown in Figure 2 is the most familiar type of bar. code which is widely used in grocery industry The most common application. method of bar code is by printing the bar code on a specific label and then. applying it to the product but sometime it can be directly printed on the body of. products 3 A data is extracted from a bar code by scanning it with an electro. optical system referred to as a bar code scanner which operates by illuminating. the bar code symbol measuring the reflected light waveform data converted it to. digital form and then to be processed by a decoder and eventually passed it to the. computer based software system, Figure 2 UPC EAN linear barcode and EAN coding adopted from. www aimglobal org 2002,Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008. 2 3 Radio Frequency Identification, Radio Frequency Identification RFID is a type of automatic method used with. information technology system in the recent years RFID is a contact less. transmission method for identification of objects As compared to barcode RFID. has the ability to automatically identify and track objects without line of sight 4. The basic system consists of three parts RFID tags the RIFD readers and a host. computer with the IT system The tags typically consist of a silicon chip and acts as. the data carrier comprised of antennas and an electronic circuits They are. manufactured in many shapes and sizes and possess different performance. capabilities based on pre programmed characteristics but they are basically. representing two types passive or active A passive tag uses electromagnetic. energy generated by a reader as its power source which makes it much lighter. smaller and less expensive and has a virtually unlimited useful life but the. disadvantage is that it has a shorter read range requires more powerful reader. provides less data storage capacity and also more sensitive to electromagnetic noise. 3 However due to its low cost and long operational lifetime it is more preferred. than active tags in many applications In contrast an active tag contains on board. battery source that supply its power which makes it heavier more expensive and. limited operational lifetime up to 10 years only The significant benefit of the. active tag is that it can provide longer read range which is more suitable for large. scale operation 5 Another devise is a RFID reader It is used to communicate. with RFID tags to send and receive radio frequency waves by generating an. electromagnetic or interrogation zone to supply power to passive tags as they enters. this zone and collect information by decoding the tags transmitted signals It can. also send out different signals in order to write additional information onto a re. write tag The reader then conveys the data back to the host computer to process. and update information in the computer data base Most readers are handheld type. however fixed mount type is also being used by RFID system 6 To complete the. system a computer is needed to host IT system process the tag s ID number. matches with the database records and transforms data into usable information 7. Therefore the success of the data collection and management relies on the ability. of the software system to effectively display the desired information accurately and. timely Figure 3 shows the typical RFID system integration. Figure 3 A Typical RFID System 3,Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008.
3 0 PROBLEMS FORMULATION AND INITIAL SOLUTIONS, This study was conducted in a store which supplies items such as books tools. electrical equipments and many more items used by students and staffs for various. activities in a university However this study only focused on a borrow use return. items section Data collected from this section revealed many problems which. have caused negative outcomes to inventory management such as time delay lack. in security and difficulty to trace items locations Figure 4 In order to provide. initial solutions to overcome these problems the authors have further studied the. root cause of these problems and through discussions and brainstorming session. with staffs involved in managing the store the authors were able to formulate. solution to overcome these problems and defining requirements or specifications of. the new system to be developed that can eliminate these problems and be able to. improve the overall inventory management system in the borrow use return. Security Problem Procedure Problem,Need time to process. Item application,Complicated,Problems in,Supply Store. Difficult to trace,the item location,Location Tracking ID Identification. Problem Problem, Figure 4 Case and effect diagram for supply store problems.
4 0 THE DEVELOPMENT OF RFID INVENTORY MANAGEMENT, Referring to the design feature stated in Table 1 a new inventory system based on. RFID technology was proposed to be developed and implemented in the supply. store The following section describes overall system development and. implementation issue,Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008. Table 4 Problem formulation and initial solutions,Propose Design. Problems Negative outcomes Solutions, Complicated Delay in processing Develop an integrated Integrated and. procedure applications information system that automatic. automatically updated inventory,record simultaneously information.
ID loss or Loss of items Use more durable or Heavy duty tags. damage information and reliable tags or long usable. identification life years, Lack of Items can be accessed Required an automatic RFID system that. security easily by non system that be able to has capacity to. authorize personnel scan item as it pass out scan and update. may lead to loose or through entrance of store data. misplace of items area automatically,Borrower ID was not. recorded accurately, Difficulty to Take longer time to Provide automatic Integrated data. Track items track and locate update of items position base system. items positions and able to display supported by,required information RFID technology. accurately,4 1 The Inventory System, In the supply store environment there are certain aspects that should be concerned.
before the development of the inventory system in order to ensure a fully. functioned system in the supply store There are input processes output outcome. feedback the final outcome and the environment of store management Figure 5. and Table 2,Input Processes Output,Feedback Outcome. Environment,Figure 5 The supply store system interaction. Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008,Table 2 Description of inventory system. Items Descriptions Data information, Input The resources imported from the Staffs equipments and. outside environment material, Processes Activities that transform resources ABC analysis automatic.
into a product updates, Output The products and services created Application approval. by supply store products borrow and,return system, Outcome The effect of supply store output Report generated and. on larger environment graphical charts, Environment Environment The larger context Staffs and the users inputs. outside system which provides,input receive output and affects on. decision making by the system, Feedback Feedback Information from Measurement and.
system and environment that help monitoring of performance. to make improvements in the,4 2 Inventory Classifications. In supply store inventory there were more than hundred of items in position ready. for customers yet this study only focused on items involved in borrow used return. section To effectively manage the inventory they must be classified and. prioritized for effective monitoring and maintenance ABC analysis which is. commonly used tool in inventory management was applied to calculate item s. quantity and cumulative values and grouped them into three regions Figure 6. Figure 6 ABC analysis classification,Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008. The example calculation of ABC analysis for the item of LCD projectors is. explained below and the overall result is summarized in Table 3. Quantity 8,item and item for LCD Projector 4 1237,Total Quantity 194. Pr ice 81660,RM and RM for LCD Projector 32 33,Total Pr ice 252582 15. Table 3 Result of ABC analysis on borrow used return items. No Parts Quantity Price RM Item RM Cum RM Class,8 LCD Projector 8 81660 4 12371 32 3301 32 33 A.
11 Portable P A System 10 23720 05 5 15464 9 39102 41 72 A. 9 P A System 1 19357 7 0 51546 7 66392 49 38 A,1 Video Camera 8 16728 4 12371 6 6228 56 00 A. 24 Display Board 2 15682 1 03093 6 20867 62 21 A,28 Wakie Talkie 19 12495 9 79381 4 94691 67 16 A. 7 Slide Projector 2 10990 1 03093 4 35106 71 51 A,18 Rear Screen 2 9980 1 03093 3 95119 75 46 A. 21 Data Display 1 9150 0 51546 3 62258 79 08 A, 6 Overhead Projector 3 7397 4 1 54639 2 92871 82 01 A. 2 Still Camera 8 7280 4 12371 2 88223 84 89 B,3 Television 5 6260 2 57732 2 4784 87 37 B.
14 Tripod Video Camera 3 5400 1 54639 2 13792 89 51 B. 4 Video Player 3 4580 1 54639 1 81327 91 32 B,17 Tripod Screen 4 4026 2 06186 1 59394 92 91 B. 10 Power Amplifier 1 3400 0 51546 1 3461 94 26 B,12 Loud Hailer 7 2430 3 60825 0 96206 95 22 C. 13 Waistband Sanha 4 2200 2 06186 0 871 96 09 C,20 Flip Chart 5 2097 2 57732 0 83022 96 92 C. 30 Mini Waistband 8 1504 4 12371 0 59545 97 52 C,5 DVD VCD Player 2 1100 1 03093 0 4355 97 90 C. 19 Microphone 6 1100 3 09278 0 4355 98 40 C, 29 Reklektif Baton 12 1050 6 18557 0 41571 98 82 C.
32 Vest 28 840 14 433 0 33257 99 16 C,15 Microphone Stand 5 600 2 57732 0 23755 99 40 C. 16 Light Stand 3 450 1 54639 0 17816 99 58 C,27 Antenna 1 300 0 51546 0 11877 99 70 C. 31 Baine Merie 15 225 7 73196 0 08908 99 79 C,26 Wire Conector 10 210 5 15464 0 08314 99 87 C. 22 Sport Light 1 150 0 51546 0 05939 99 93 C,23 Laser Pointer 3 120 1 54639 0 04751 99 98 C. 25 Polystrene Cutter 4 100 2 06186 0 03959 100 C,Total 194 252582 15.
4 3 Record of Borrow Used Return Items, The data collected from the supply store contain the item s information frequency. of borrow date of borrow date of return and the overall record of borrow and. return for year 2007 to be included in the system as in Figure 4 3a and based on. Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008, Pareto analysis as shown in Figure 4 3b the authors have chosen only top ten of. the most frequently borrowed items to be used for implementation of the system. as a pilot study They were walkie talkie LCD projector video camera vest. portable P A system wire connector still camera tripod screen loud hailer and. baine merie They represented different classes in ABC analysis and can be. considered suitable items to be initially used in the new system. Mini Waistband,Parts borrowed in 2007 Skirting,Table Cover. Baine Merie,Wire Conector,266 Reklektif Baton,13 Polystrene Cutter. 85 Flip Chart,18 Partition,22 Laser Pointer,63 Loud Hailer.
34 Microphone Stand,Television,81 Wakie Talkie,Portable P A System. 67 Tripod Video Camera,Rear Screen,148 Tripod Screen. 72 Overhead Projector,2 Slide Projector,85 LCD Projector. Still Camera,0 50 100 150 200 250 300 DVD VCD Player. Video Player,Frequency of borrowed Video Camera,Figure 7 Histogram for frequency of borrow.
Frequency of Borrow 2007,Percentage,Percentage, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25. 1 Walkie Talkie 8 Tripod Screen 15 Flip Chart 22 Mini Waistband. 2 LCD Projector 9 Loud Hailer 16 Laser Pointer 23 Slide Projector. 3 Video Camera 10 Baine Merie 17 Rear Screen 24 Overhead Projector. 4 Vest 11 Microphone Stand 18 Polystrene Cutter, 5 PortableP A System 12 Tripod Video Camera 19 Reklektif Baton. 6 Wire Connector 13 Skirting 20 Television,7 Still Camera 14 Partition 21 DVD VCD Player. Figure 8 Pareto diagram for frequency of borrow in supply store. Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008,BORROWER INFORMATION. Person in charge inserts user data,and product data into database.
INVENTORY INFORMATION,RFID reader,Hardware RFID Tag contains. Read ID from RFID reader unique ID,Microcontroller RFID reader detect. Decode and send the the tag Read the,Borrow and Return function. BORROW INFORMATION,Data store into database,RETURN INFORMATION. Inventory Information,Report generate function Account information.
History of borrowed items,ASSMS Software, Figure 9 Flow diagram for hardware and software integration. 4 4 The Flow of Information, To ensure the system effectiveness the system must integrate the hardware and the. software accurately In addition it must be able to store read and processing data. and provide required output Figure 9 summarizes a developed system called. Automated Supply Store Management System ASSMS to be used in the supply. 4 5 The System s Hardware, Various hardware used in the system such as RFID readers RFID tags USB Com. Port RS232 converters USB PS2 converters and a laptop computer The criteria. used for the hardware selection was low cost and availability of items in the market. Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008,Cytron RFID Reader IDR 232. RFID tags Converter,Figure 10 Hardware for ASSMS system.
4 6 The System s Software Features, The ASSMS software was developed using Visual Basic 6 0 and Microsoft. Access data base packages Table 4 and Figure 11 show descriptions of items in. the system,Table 4 Explanations of ASSMS interface. No Explanation,1 Borrow or return mode check box,2 User Information display box. 3 Item information,4 Items information display box. 5 Transaction menu,6 Fine payment information,7 Administration function.
Figure 11 Automated Supply Store Management System ASSMS Interface. Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008,4 7 Information Flow in ASSMS. The user interface was designed to allow the staff in charge to choose the function. e g either borrows or return mode If the borrow items is chosen he or she will. need to scan the user ID RFID tag by passing it through a reader Then the user. ID will be matched with BORROWER INFORMATION list stored in database. When it matched successfully the system will scan the item s RFID tag using the. same step or else the program will show error status and need to be repeated again. Consequently when the staff in charge clicks on the return icon the system will. directly proceed to scan the item s RFID tag and match with the information stored. in INVENTORY INFORMATION in the database then it would complete the. process automatically or it produced an error status if the ID s information didn t. match with the database For the borrow mode the transaction will update data into. the table BORROW INFORMATION and show the transaction success status. RFID Borrower ID,Scanning Process,Borrower ID Match Table BORROWER INFORMATION. RFID Product ID,Scanning Process,Product ID Match Table INVENTORY INFORMATION. Transaction,Borrow Return,Table BORROW INFORMATION Table. RETURN INFORMATION,Error Error,Transaction Success Fine.
Figure 12 Process flow of ASSMS system,Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008. Similarly for the return mode the system will check and update information in. table RETURN INFORMATION in the database The database fields consists of. name of borrowers borrower reference codes item names item reference codes. and date returns The program will also calculate the fine imposed in the case of. late return exceeding five days which is depends on the class of the items e g. Class A RM2 day Class B RM1 day and Class C RM0 50 day as shown in. Report generate,Import data from database,1 Table of BORROWER INFORMATION. 2 Table of,INVENTORY INFORMATION,3 Table of BORROW INFORMATION. Establish data,Output as html,source code,C Desktop Supply Store Report. Figure 13 Process flow of report generation,4 8 Process Flow to Generate Report.
In the report function firstly the staff in charge will need to choose the icon on the. user interface then the program will import data from database which contain table. of BORROWER INFORMATION table of INVENTORY INFORMATION table. of BORROW INFORMATION and the table of RETURN INFORMATION. Then it will establish the data relation between these tables and produce the output. with html format that is ready to be printed see Figure 13. 4 9 Type of Reports Produced by ASSMS, There were four types of reports the system can generate as described in Table 5. Figure 14a Figure 14b Figure 14c and Figure 14d show the details of information. displayed by each table to assist the staffs in charge obtaining accurate information. for the management and control of the supply store. Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008,Table 13 Category consists in database. Table Category,Index borrower s name reference code. BORROWER INFORMATION,course contact number and IC number. Index item name reference code brand,INVENTORY INFORMATION.
model year buy price availability and class,Index borrower name borrower ref code. BORROW INFORMATION purpose item name item ref code and date. Index borrower name borrower ref code,RETURN INFORMATION. item name item ref code and date of return,Borrower information Inventory information. Return information Borrow information,Figure 14a Tables in the database of supply store. Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008,Figure 14b Report of inventory information.


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