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DEVELOPING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY FOR BUSINESS VALUE. inventory It allows new business governance options for is still debated in the literature but most researchers seem. how a firm works with other firms e g Wal Mart or Dell to agree on at least a few characteristics they should consist. Computer However whichever way IT strategy is of a relatively small group of people usually 7 12 led by a. developed if IT is to deliver business value IT strategy and moderator discussing a particular topic for 90 120 min 9. business value must always be closely linked 2 8 For p 719 The main advantage of the methodology is based on. CIOs and other executives it is one of the top business the kind of data it generates Krippendork 18 differentiates. concern 19 between emic data that which arises in a natural or. Ideally therefore IT and business strategies should indigenous form and etic data that which represents the. complement and support each other relative to the business researcher s imposed view of the situation While pure. environment Strategy development should be a two way forms of data are rarely obtained in practice focus group. process between IT and business However we have yet to data is much more emic As a result focus groups are. learn how to do this For instance both in the alignment and extremely useful in obtaining general background. the planning literatures we still see the evidence that information about a topic generating research hypotheses. achieving an effective alignment between IT and business for further research stimulating new ideas learning what. strategies and doing an effective IT planning remain and why individuals think about the phenomenon of. perennial problems 11 16 20 27 Research has already interest and interpreting previously obtained quantitative. identified many organizational challenges to effective IT results 1 14. strategy development If organizations strategy development Senior IT managers from 15 different. processes are not compatible e g if they take place at organizations were invited to attend a full day focus group. different times or involve different levels of business it is Focus group participants represented consulting. unlikely that business and IT will be working towards the manufacturing insurance banking and financial. same goals at the same time 11 government retail telecommunication automotive and. With IT becoming so much more central to the pharmaceutical institutions The managers were asked to. development and delivery of business strategy much more describe the processes their organization uses to develop. attention needs to be paid to IT strategy development than it their IT strategies In addition they were asked to assess the. has been paid in the past What businesses want to relative importance of the strategic use of IT in their firm. accomplish with their IT and how IT shapes its own how IT strategy is associated with business strategy and. delivery strategy is increasingly vital to the success of an how well senior business managers include IT in the. organization To explore how organizations are working to development of their business strategies. improve IT strategy development the authors convened a The participants were also asked to bring any. focus group of senior IT managers from a variety of corporate documents which they considered relevant to the. industries topic The discussion was moderated by one of the authors. This paper first describes the focus group while the others recorded the discussion independently The. methodology used in this research Then it looks at how our authors actively pushed for clarification of discussion and. understanding of IT strategy has changed over time Next it prompted participants to share actual experiences of specific. discusses some critical success factors for IT strategy events within their organizations in order to make. development followed by how some organizations are arguments and concepts as concrete as possible The. beginning to evolve a more formal IT strategy development participants were forthcoming with examples to support. process Finally the paper examines some of the challenges their observations of organizational phenomena The. organizations are facing in developing an effective IT research also relied on data collected from the participating. strategy organizations Web sites Further while analyzing the data. e mail and telephone communications were also conducted. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY with a few participants in order to get more details and. clarification on some of their responses Our findings are. Due to the exploratory nature of this research we based on an analysis of the focus group discussion in. decided to use focus group methodology While focus group juxtaposition against the published literature on the topic. methodology can be used for both exploratory and Our goal was to let practice inform theory and vice versa. confirmatory research 32 it is particularly well suited for. exploratory research The methodology is widely employed. in various disciplines as a qualitative research technique. 22 It entails a process of obtaining possible ideas or. solutions to a problem from a group of participants by. discussing 32 What constitutes focus group methodology. Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVIII Number1 2007 50. DEVELOPING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY FOR BUSINESS VALUE. IT STRATEGY PAST PRESENT business executives recognize that it is a mistake to consider. IT related decisions to be solely the responsibility of IT 28. AND FUTURE There is a much greater understanding that business. At the highest level a strategy is an approach to executives have to take a more prominent role in IT related. doing business 12 Traditionally a competitive business decisions so that IT strategy shapes and or complements. strategy has involved performing different activities than business strategy 19 At present there is recognition. competitors or performing similar activities in different among the top executives of most organizations that. ways 24 Ideally these activities were difficult or problems with IT strategy are largely the fault of leaders. expensive for others to copy and therefore resulted in a who failed to realize that adopting systems posed a. long term competitive advantage 12 They thus enabled business not just a technological challenge and didn t. firms to charge a premium for their products and services take responsibility for the organizational and process. In the past the job of an IT function was to changes that would deliver business value 29 This. understand the business strategy and then figure out a plan awareness among executives has elevated the importance of. to support it However all too often IT s strategic IT strategy Many members of the focus group remarked. contribution was inhibited by IT managers limited that their executive team now understands the potential of. understanding of business strategy and by business IT to affect the top line IT recently added some new. managers poor understanding of IT s potential Therefore distribution channels and our business has just exploded. most formal IT plans were focused on more tactical and stated one manager Others are finding that there is a much. tangible line of business needs or opportunities for greater emphasis on IT s ability to grow revenues and this is. operational integration rather than on supporting enterprise being reflected in how IT budgets are allocated and. strategy 3 And investment opportunities were selected investments prioritized Our executives have finally. largely on their basis to affect the short term bottom line recognized that business strategy is not only enabled by IT. rather than on delivering long term top line business value but that it can provide new business opportunities as well. As a result instead of looking for ways to be different in said an IT manager This is reflected in the changing. the last decade much business strategy became a relentless position of the CIO and IT leadership in most of the focus. race to compete on efficiencies with IT as the primary group organizations over the last decade Today our CIO. means of doing so 15 24 Companies improved sits on the executive team and takes part in all business. information processing capabilities were used to drive down strategy discussions because IT has credibility said a. transaction costs to near zero threatening traditional value focus group member Our executives now want to work. propositions and shaving profit margins closely with IT and understand the implications of. In the present IT is leading to considerable technology decisions said another It s not the same as it. disruption as business models in many industries i e the was even five years ago Today CIOs are valued for their. way companies add value are under attack by new insights into business opportunities their perspective across. technology enabled approaches to delivering products and the entire organization and their ability to take the long term. services e g the music industry book selling Today view. strategists have to honestly face the many weaknesses However this does not mean that organizations. inherent in the industrial age ways of doing things They have become good in developing an effective IT strategy. must redesign build upon and reconfigure their There are many inconsistencies and problems with strategy. components to radically transform the value proposition development said a participant Organizations have to. 33 Such new business strategies are inconceivable develop new strategy making capabilities to cope in the. without the use of IT Other factors also facilitated by IT future competitive environment This will mean changing. are further influencing business strategy Increasingly their current top down method of formulating and. globalization is altering the economic playing field As implementing strategy If there s one thing leading. countries and companies become more deeply interrelated academics have agreed on it is that future strategy. instability is amplified Instead of being generals plotting development will have to become a more dynamic and. out a structured campaign business leaders are now more continuous process 10 17 25 26 36 Instead of business. likely to be participating in guerilla warfare 10 Flexibility strategy being a well crafted plan of action for the next 3 5. speed and innovation are therefore becoming the years from which IT can devise an appropriate and. watchwords of competition and must therefore be supportive IT strategy business strategy must become more. incorporated into any business through IT 15 30 and more evolutionary and interactive with IT IT strategy. These new conditions have dramatically elevated development must therefore become more dynamic itself. business attention to the value of IT strategy Now and focused on developing strategic capabilities that will. support a variety of changing business objectives Thus in. Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVIII Number1 2007 51. DEVELOPING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY FOR BUSINESS VALUE. the future managers will participate in an organic strategy few key themes managers find it easier to track and direct. development process that will continually evolve IT and important strategic threads in an organization s development. business plans in concert with each other 6 25 and to visualize the synergies and interdependencies. involved across a variety of programs spread out across the. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS organization and over time. FOR DEVELOPING IT STRATEGY Get the Right People Involved. While each focus group member had a different One of the most important distinguishing factors. approach to developing their IT strategy there was broad between companies that get high IT business value and. general agreement that five factors had to be in place for those that do not is that senior managers in high performing. strategic development to be effective companies take a leadership role in IT decision making. Abdication of this responsibility is a recipe for disaster 29. Revisit your Business Model In the past it was very hard to get the right people. Business models and strategies are often confused involved said a manager Now it s easier another. with each other 28 A business model explains how the noted You don t send a minion to an IT strategy meeting. different pieces of a business fit together It ensures that anymore it s just not done The managers in the focus. everyone in an organization is focused on the kind of value group indicated that in their organizations the CIO and. a company wants to create Only when the business model other IT managers typically meet regularly with the. is clear strategies can be developed to articulate how a President and senior business leaders to discuss both. company will deliver that value in a unique way that others business and IT strategies. cannot easily imitate 28 Thus it is essential that all Getting the right people involved also means. managers including IT and business managers completely getting line of business managers and other key stakeholders. understand how their business as a whole works While this involved in IT strategy as well To do this several focus. sounds like a truism almost any IT manager can tell war group organizations have established account manager. stories of business managers who have very different positions in IT to work and learn about the business and. visions of what they think their enterprise should look like suggest opportunities for using IT Research shows that the. The worlds of IT and business have traditionally best strategies often stem from grass roots innovations and it. been isolated from each other leading to misaligned and is therefore critical that organizations take steps to ensure. sometimes conflicting strategies Although there is now a that good ideas are nurtured and not filtered out by different. greater willingness among business managers to understand layers of management 17 We have two levels of. the implications of technology in their world it is still IT strategy development in our organization said a focus. that must translate their ideas and concepts into business group participant Our account managers work with. language IT must absolutely understand and focus on the functional managers and our CIO works with our business. business said an IT manager in the focus group unit presidents on the IT Steering Committee This. company also looks for cross functional synergies and. strategic dependencies by holding regular meetings of IT. Adopt Strategic Themes account managers and between account managers and. IT strategy used to be about individual projects infrastructure managers. Now it is about carefully crafted programs that focus on. developing specific business capabilities Each program Work in Partnership with the Business. consists of many smaller inter related businesses and IT. initiatives that cut across several functional areas These are Successful strategy demands a true partnership. designed to be adapted reconfigured accelerated or between IT and business not just use of the term Strategy. cancelled as the strategic program evolves Themes give decisions are best made with input from both business and. both business and IT managers a broad yet focused topic of IT executives 29 Focus group members agreed Our. interest that challenges them to move beyond current partnerships are key to our success stated a manager It s. operations 17 For example one retail company decided it not the same as it was five years ago People now work. wanted to be a great place to work A bank selected e very closely together Partnership is not just a matter of. banking as critical differentiator Both firms used a theme involving business leaders in IT strategy or vice versa or. to engage the imaginations of their employees and mobilize aligning business and IT strategy Today effective. a variety of ideas and actions around a broad strategic strategizing is about continuous and dynamic. direction By grouping IT and business programs around a synchronization of capabilities 25 Our IT programs. need synchronizing with business strategy not only at a. Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVIII Number1 2007 52. DEVELOPING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY FOR BUSINESS VALUE. high level but right down to the individual projects and the empowering customers suppliers to self manage. business changes that are necessary to implement them transactions with a company Weil and Aral 35 refer to. properly said a focus group participant such investments as transactional investments The IT. investment in these initiatives is the easiest to agree on. Balancing IT Investment Opportunities because they focus on relatively low risk investments with a. tangible short to medium term payback Easy to justify with. One of the many challenges of developing,a business case these types of investments have. effective IT strategy is the fact that technology can be used. traditionally formed the bulk of IT s discretionary spending. in so many different ways The opportunities are practically. Cost reduction projects have and always will be important. limitless Unfortunately the available resources are not. to our company stated one focus group manager, Thus a key element of IT strategy is determining how best. However it is important to balance what we do in this area. to allocate the IT budget This issue is complicated by the. with other types of equally important projects that have. fact that most businesses today require significant IT. often been given short shrift, services just to operate Utility and basic support costs eat. up between 30 to 70 of the focus group members Business Enabling The investment in. budgets That s just the cost of keeping the lights on business enabling initiatives can be considered. running existing applications fixing problems and dealing informational investments 35 The business enabling IT. with mandatory changes e g new legislation IT strategy initiatives extend or transform how a company does. therefore must consider two important components 1 business As a result they are more focused on the top line. how to do more with less i e driving down fixed costs and or revenue growing aspects of an enterprise For example a. 2 how to allocate the remaining budget towards those IT data warehouse could enable different parts of a company to. investment opportunities that will support and further the mine transaction information to improve customer. organization s business strategy service assist target marketing better understand buying. In order to do more with little budget with patterns or identify new business opportunities Adding a. occasional exceptions CIOs and their teams are mostly left new web based channel could make it easier for customers. alone to determine the most cost effective way of providing to buy more or attract new customers A customer. the IT utility to their organizations This has led to a variety information file could make it easier for a customer to do. of IT focused initiatives to save money including business with a company e g one address change and also. outsourcing shared services use of ASPs and most facilitate new ways of doing business Often the return on. recently grid computing However it is the way that IT these types of investments is less clear and as a result it has. allocates the rest of its budget that has captured the attention been harder to get them on the IT priority list Yet many of. of business strategists It used to be that every line of these initiatives represent the foundations on which future. business had an IT budget and that we would work with business strategy is built For example one CIO described. each one to determine the most effective way to spend it the creation of a customer information file as a key enabler. said a focus group manager Now there is much more for many different business units It has helped us build. recognition that the big opportunities are at the enterprise bench strength and move to a new level of service that other. level and cut across lines of business companies cannot match 31. Focus group members explained they usually face Business Opportunities These are small. five types of IT investment opportunities to further business scale experimental initiatives designed to test the viability. strategy Determining the balance between the opportunities of new and emerging IT to support business Given the rate. is a significant component of how IT strategy delivers at which IT evolves it often makes currently available IT. business value In a way organizations have to adopt a outdated thus experimenting with new IT is extremely. portfolio approach to IT investments 35 Too much or too critical 5 In the past these types of investments have not. little focus on one type of investment can mean a failure to received funding by traditional methods because of their. derive maximum value from a particular strategic business high risk nature Often it has been left up to the CIO to. theme The five investment opportunities i e business scrounge money for such skunkworks These days there. improvement business enabling business opportunities is a greater recognition of the potential value of strategic. opportunity leverage and infrastructure are described experiments in helping companies to learn about and. below prepare for the future In some focus group companies the. Business Improvement These are the re CEO and CFO have freed up seed money to finance a. engineering initiatives to help organizations to streamline number of these initiatives However while there is. their processes and save substantial amounts of money by considerably more acceptance for such investments there is. eliminating unnecessary or duplicate activities or still significant organizational resistance to financing. Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVIII Number1 2007 53. DEVELOPING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY FOR BUSINESS VALUE. investments for which the end results are unpredictable 26 Strategy is still very much an art not a science. In fact it typically requires discipline to support and explained a focus group member And it is likely to remain. encourage experiments which by definition will have a so Strategy will never again be a coherent long term plan. high number of false starts and wrong moves 17 The with predictable outcomes if it ever was Today leaders. focus group agreed that the key to benefiting from can t predict which combinations of strategic elements. experiments is to design them for learning incorporate will succeed and they can t drive their organizations. feedback from a variety of sources and make quick towards predetermined positions 26 This situation only. corrections of direction exacerbates the problem that has long faced IT strategists. Opportunity Leverage A neglected but That is it is difficult to build systems information and. important type of IT investment is one that operationalizes infrastructure when a business direction is continually. scales up or leverages successful strategic experiments or changing and IT is rapidly evolving Yet this degree of. prototypes We are having a great deal of success taking flexibility is exactly what businesses are demanding 25. advantage of what we have learned earlier said one focus Traditional IT planning and budgeting mechanisms done. group manager Coming up with a new strategic or once a year simply will not work in today s fast paced. technological idea needs a different set of skills than is business environment We always seem to lag behind the. required to take full advantage of it in the marketplace 7 business no matter how hard we try said a focus group. Some companies actually use their ability to leverage manager. others ideas to their strategic advantage We can t Clearly organizations need to be developing. compete in coming up with new ideas said the manager of strategy differently How to do this is not always apparent. a medium sized company but we can copy other peoples but several organizations in the focus group were trying. ideas and do them better ways to more dynamically link IT strategy with the business. Infrastructure This final type of IT strategy While no one company in the focus group claimed. investment is one that often falls between the cracks when to have the answer they did identify several practices that. IT and business strategies are developed However it is are moving them more closely towards this goal The. clear that the hardware software middleware practices are described below. communications and data available will affect an Rolling Planning and Budget Cycles. organization s capacity to build new capabilities and All members of the focus group agreed that IT plans and. respond to change A recent study found that most budgets need attention more frequently than once a year. companies feel their legacy infrastructure can be an One company has created an 18 month rolling plan that is. impediment to what they want to do 25 Research also reviewed and updated quarterly with the business to. shows that leading companies have a framework for making maintain currency. targeted investments in their IT infrastructure that will An Enterprise Architecture This is an. further their overall strategic direction 36 Unfortunately integrated blueprint for the development of the enterprise. investing in infrastructure is rarely seen as strategic As a both business and IT Our enterprise architecture includes. result almost all focus group companies are struggling with business processes applications infrastructure and data. how to justify and appropriately fund it said a focus group manager Our enterprise architecture. While each type of investment described above function has to approve all business and IT projects and is. delivers a different type of business value typically IT helpful in identifying duplicate solutions In some. strategy has stressed only those initiatives with strong companies this architecture is IT initiated and business. business cases Others are shelved or struggle for a very validated whereas in others it is a joint initiative However. small piece of the pie However there was a general members warned that an architecture has the potential to be. recognition in the focus group that this approach to a corporate bottleneck if it becomes too bureaucratic. investment leads to an IT strategy with a heavy emphasis on Different Funding Buckets Balancing. the bottom line As a result all focus group companies were short term returns with the company s longer term interests. looking at new ways to build a strategy development is a continual challenge As noted above all five types of IT. process that reflects a more appropriate balance of all investment are necessary for an effective IT strategy i e. dimensions of IT strategy business improvement business enabling business. opportunities opportunity leverage and infrastructure. TOWARDS AN IT STRATEGY Thus a portfolio technique to IT investments is vital In. order to ensure that each different type of IT is appropriately. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS funded many companies are allocating pre determined. percentages of their IT budget to different types of projects. Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVIII Number1 2007 54. DEVELOPING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY FOR BUSINESS VALUE. 28 35 This helps keep continual pressure on IT to reduce better job of thinking through the key performance. its utility costs in order to free up more resources for other indicators we d like to use for each type of project. types of projects Since we implemented this method of While it is unlikely that strategy development will. budgeting we ve gone from spending 70 of our revenues ever become a completely formalized process there is a. on mandatory and support projects to spending 70 on clear need to add more structure to how it is done A greater. discretionary and strategic ones said a focus group understanding of how strategy is developed will ensure that. manager This is also an effective way to ensure that IT all stakeholders are involved and a broader range of IT. infrastructure is continually enhanced Leading companies investments are considered While the outcomes of strategy. build their infrastructure not through a few large will always be uncertain the process of identifying new. investments but gradually through incremental modular opportunities and how they should be funded must become. investments that build IT capabilities 36 more systematic if a business is going to realize optimum. Account or Relationship Managers value from its IT investments. There is no substitute for a deep and rich understanding of. the business according to the focus group This is why CHALLENGES. some of them have appointed IT Account Managers to work. closely with key lines of business These managers help As often happens in organizations recognition of a. business leaders to observe their environments need precedes the ability to put it into place IT leaders are. systematically and to identify new opportunities for which now making significant strides in articulating IT strategy. IT could be effective Furthermore together account and linking it more effectively with business strategy. managers can identify synergies and interdependencies Business leaders are also more open to a more integrated. between lines of business One organization holds both process Nevertheless there are still important. intra and inter functional strategy sessions on a regular organizational barriers remaining that often inhibit strategy. basis with business managers to understand future needs development. develop programs and then design specific roadmaps for First a supportive governance structure is. reaching business goals Our account managers have been frequently lacking Now that so many strategies are. a significant factor in synchronizing IT and business enterprise wide we need a better way to manage them. strategies said a manager explained a focus group manager Often there are no formal. A Prioritization Rubric We don t do structures to identify and manage interdependencies among. prioritization well said one participant IT managers have different business processes It used to be that everything. long complained that it is extremely difficult to justify was aligned around organizational boundaries but strategy. is now more complex since we re working on programs. certain types of initiatives using the traditional business case. with broader organizational scope said another Similarly. method of prioritization This has lead to an over, current managerial control systems and incentives are often. representation of business improvement investments in the. designed to reward thinking that is aligned to a line of. IT portfolio and has inhibited more strategic investments in. general capabilities and business opportunities This business not to the greater organizational good. problem is leading some companies to adopt multiple Second enterprise wide funding models are also. lacking Everything we do now requires negotiation for. approaches to justifying IT investments 28 For example. funding between the lines of business who control the. business enabling projects must be sponsored at a cross. resources one manager stated Even within IT the focus. functional level on the basis of the capabilities they will. group suggested it is not always clear who in the, provide the enterprise as a whole Senior management must. then take responsibility to ensure that these capabilities are organization is responsible for taking IT strategies and. fully leveraged over time Infrastructure priorities are often turning them into detailed IT plans. Third traditional planning and budgetary practices. left up to IT to determine once a budget is set One IT. are a further challenge This is an often neglected element of. department does this by holding strategy sessions between. IT strategy Our business and IT strategies are not always. its account and utility managers to align infrastructure. spending with the organization s strategic needs done in parallel or even around the same time said a focus. Unfortunately no one has yet figured out a way to prioritize group participant As a result it is not easy to stay aligned or. to integrate the two sets of plans Another commented. business opportunity experiments At present this is. Our business plans change constantly It is therefore. typically left to the enthusiasms and intuitions of the. common for IT strategy to grow farther and father apart. sponsoring managers either in IT or in the business 28. over time Similarly an annual budgeting process tends to. Overall said a focus group manager we need to do a. lock an organization into fixed expenditures which may not. be practical in a rapidly changing environment Today s IT. Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVIII Number1 2007 55. DEVELOPING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY FOR BUSINESS VALUE. organizations therefore need both a longer term view of solutions are likely to win big in today s rapidly evolving. their resourcing practices and the opportunity to make business environment. changes to it more frequently While rolling budgets are. becoming more acceptable they are by no means common REFERENCES. in either IT or the business world today, Fourth both business and IT leaders need to 1 Bellenger D N Bernhardt K L and Goldstucker. develop better skills in strategizing We ve gotten really J L Qualitative Research in Marketing American. good at implementing projects said an IT manager Marketing Association Chicago 1976. 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Association Chicago 1970, Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVIII Number1 2007 56. DEVELOPING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY FOR BUSINESS VALUE. 15 Hitt M Keats B and DeMarire S Navigating in Reconceptualizing the role of information technology. the new competitive landscape building strategic in contemporary firms MIS Quarterly Volume 27. flexibility Academy of Management Executive Number 2 2003 pp 237 263. Volume 12 Number 4 1998 pp 22 42 31 Smith H A The best of the best Part II CIO. 16 Hu Q and Huang C D Using the balanced Canada 2003. scorecard to achieve sustained IT business alignment 32 Stewart D W and Shamdasani P N Focus Groups. A case study Communications of the AIS Volume Theory and Practice Sage Publications Inc. 17 2006 pp 181 204 CA 1990, 17 Kanter R Strategy as improvisational theater 33 Tapscott D The Digital Economy Promise and. Sloan Management Review Volume 43 Number 2 Peril in the Age of Networked Intelligence McGraw. 2002 76 81 Hill 1 New York NY 1996, 18 Krippendork K Content Analysis An Introduction 34 Venkatraman N and Henderson J Real strategies. to its Methodology Beverly Hills CA 1980 for virtual organizing Sloan Management Review. 19 Luftman J N and McLean E R Key issues for IT Volume 40 Number 1 1998 pp 33 48. executives MIS Quarterly Executive Volume 3 35 Weill P and Aral S Generating premium returns. Number 2 2004 pp 89 104 on your IT investments Sloan Management Review. 20 McKeen J D and Smith H A Management Volume 47 Number 2 2006 pp 39 51. Challenges in IS Successful Strategies and 36 Weill P Subramani M and Broadbent M. Appropriate Action John Wiley Sons Ltd Building IT infrastructure for strategic agility. London 1996 Sloan Management Review Volume 44 Number 1. 21 Melville N Kraemer K and Gurbaxani V 2002 pp 57 65. Information technology and organizational 37 Weiss J W and Anderson D CIOs and IT. performance An integrative model of IT business professionals as change agents risk and stakeholder. value MIS Quarterly Volume 28 Number 2 2004 managers A field study Engineering Management. pp 283 322 Journal Volume 16 Number 2 2004 pp 13 18. 22 Morgan L Focus Groups Annual Review of,Sociology Volume 22 1996 pp 129 152. 23 Piccoli G and Ives B IT dependent strategic, initiatives and sustained competitive advantage A AUTHORS BIOGRAPHIES. review and synthesis of the literature MIS James D McKeen is a Professor of MIS at the School of. Quarterly Volume 29 Number 4 2005 pp 747 776 Business Queen s University at Kingston Canada and is the. 24 Porter M What is strategy Harvard Business founding Director of The Monieson Centre which conducts. Review Volume 74 Number 6 1996 pp 61 78 multi university collaborative research focused on. 25 Prahalad C and Krishnan M The dynamic generating value through knowledge in organizations Jim. synchronization of strategy and information received his Ph D in Business Administration from the. technology Sloan Management Review Volume 43 University of Minnesota He has been working in the field. Number 4 2002 pp 24 33 of MIS for many years as a practitioner researcher and. 26 Quinn J Strategy science and management Sloan consultant and is a frequent speaker at business and. Management Review Volume 43 Number 4 2002 academic conferences His research has been widely. pp 96 published in various journals including the MIS Quarterly. 27 Rivard S Aubert B Patry G P and Smith H A Knowledge Management Research and Practice the. Information Technology and Organizational Journal of Information Technology Management the. Transformation Solving the Management Puzzle Communications of the Association of Information Systems. Butterworth Heinemann New York 2004 MIS Quarterly Executive the Journal of Systems and. 28 Ross J and Beath C Beyond the business case Software the International Journal of Management. New approaches to IT investment Sloan Reviews Information and Management Communications of. Management Review 2002 Volume 43 Number 2 the ACM Computers and Education OMEGA Canadian. pp 51 59 Journal of Administrative Sciences Journal of MIS KM. 29 Ross J and Weill P Six IT decisions your IT Review Journal of Information Science and Technology and. people shouldn t make Harvard Business Review Database Jim is a co author of two books on IT. 2002 Volume 80 Number 11 pp 5 11 management with Heather Smith the most recent being. 30 Sambamurthy V Bharadwaj A and Grover V Making IT Happen Wiley 2003 He currently serves on a. Shaping agility through digital options number of Editorial Boards. Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVIII Number1 2007 57. DEVELOPING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY FOR BUSINESS VALUE. Satyendra Singh is a doctoral student in Management. Information Systems at the School of Business at Queen s. University He holds an MBA from Queen s University a. Masters in Computer Applications from Andhra, University in India and a B Sc from Osmania University. in India Prior to starting his graduate studies Mr Singh. spent 12 years working in the software industry His. research interests include organizational strategy IT. strategy and knowledge management His papers appear. in journals such as Communications of the AIS Journal of. Information Science and Technology and the Knowledge. Management Research and Practice Mr Singh also, presented his research results at a number of conferences. Heather A Smith is Senior Research Associate with, Queen s University School of Business specializing in IT. management issues A former senior IT manager she is a. founder and co director with James McKeen of the IT. Management Forum the CIO Brief and the KM Forum, which facilitate inter organizational learning among. senior executives and co author with James McKeen of. Management Challenges in IS Successful Strategies and. Appropriate Action 1996 She is also a Research,Associate with the Lac Carling Conference on E. Government the Society for Information Management,and Chair of the IT Excellence Awards University. Advisory Council Her research is published in a variety. of journals and books including CAIS JITM Information. and Management Database CIO Canada and the CIO,Governments Review Her book Making IT Happen. Critical Issues in IT Management with James McKeen. was published by Wiley in January 2003 and she is co. author of a new book Information Technology and, Organizational Transformation Solving the Management. Puzzle published by Butterworth Heinemann, Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVIII Number1 2007 58.
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required number of school days. II.Scope 3. The implementing guidelines for this school calendar shall be applicable to both public and private elementary and secondary schools nationwide. 4. Private schools may deviate from this School Calendar. However, they may not start
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Note. Distributions from pensions and annuities follow the same rules as outlined in this publication unless other-wise noted. Types of pensions and annuities. Pensions and annui-ties include the following types. 505 524 525 571 575 590-A 590-B 721 915 1099-R 1. Fixed period annuities. You receive definite amounts at regular intervals for a ...
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