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University Press of Kansas All rights reserved, Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. Hawley indd 8 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. ackn owle dgments, I am grateful to the many patient and generous people who helped make. this project possible As this book is a major deviation from my primary. research agenda my previous scholarly work was focused exclusively on. public opinion voter behavior and demographics I needed much assis. tance as I transformed a vague idea into a finished product. I am grateful to those who read all or parts of this book and offered. me valuable feedback Charles Myers of the University Press of Kansas. was an especially helpful encouraging and patient editor throughout this. process I also offer my thanks to the anonymous reviewers They caught. many important shortcomings in an earlier version of this book their ad. vice was invaluable I hope they find that I have addressed their most im. portant concerns, I offer special thanks to Leonard Chan who provided thorough cri. tiques of a previous draft Although he could not have known it at the. time Brickey LeQuire of Samford University also helped me substan. tially By coincidence Brickey sat next to me on a flight home from an aca. demic conference Over the course of our short conversation he helped. me clarify my thoughts on the nature of left and right I am also grateful. to Mike Taylor and all the great coaches at Headhunters Combatives it. turns out that MMA training is an excellent coda to a day otherwise spent. in the library or in front of a computer screen, I offer my thanks to the University of Alabama which has gener. ously kept me employed since 2013 I am especially grateful to Richard. Fording the chair of the Department of Political Science Since arriving. at UA I have always felt free to follow my research interests wherever. they take me which is why I felt confident beginning this ambitious and. time consuming project George Thompson our publisher in residence. offered helpful advice throughout this project I also thank the anony. mous librarians who quickly processed my countless interlibrary loan re. Hawley indd 9 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. x Acknowledgments, I am most thankful to my wife Kristen For all of my books she has. served as a diligent editor and my greatest source of encouragement A. number of annoying habits plague my writing Kristen patiently and mer. cilessly points out my weird sentence structures repetitive word choices. misspellings non sequiturs and nonsensical phrases If you find this book. comprehensible you have her to thank I also thank my sons Henry and. Wyatt Although my time with them eats into hours that could otherwise. be spent writing and researching they are also an indispensable source of. motivation, If this work is of any scholarly value the credit must be shared with the. preceding people Any mistakes belong to me alone,Hawley indd 10 12 10 15 3 21 PM. University Press of Kansas All rights reserved, Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. in troductio n, The American conservative movement faces a crisis Although the death. of American conservatism has been heralded many times the inescapable. reality is that the mainstream conservative movement and the Republican. Party it endorses will face an existential challenge in the decades ahead. An increasing percentage of the American electorate rejects many of the. essential premises of the American right The social milieu of twenty first. century America is fundamentally different than it was in the postwar years. when the coherent ideology called conservatism was forged by journalists. and public intellectuals like Russell Kirk William F Buckley and Frank. Meyer along with politicians like Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan. The United States is more racially diverse than ever before which. would not necessarily be problematic for conservatism were it not for the. fact that American minorities are on average far more politically progres. sive than non Hispanic whites This trend shows no sign of abating In the. absence of major opinion change among African Americans Asian Ameri. cans and Latinos the constituency for conservative politics will continue. Americans are also increasingly secular Although Christian faith is not. a prerequisite for supporting conservative public policies American con. servatism has traditionally had a transparent religious quality and devoted. Christians have long been some of the most vocal supporters of American. conservatism If the trend toward secularization continues the number of. Americans who endorse an ideology that is at least implicitly religious will. further decline, World politics have changed profoundly since American conservatism as. it is presently understood arrived on the political scene after World War II. It is impossible to overstate the importance of the cold war to American. conservatism The Soviet menace held the three disparate legs of the con. servative stool together Hostility to communism united Christian tradi. Hawley indd 1 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. 2 Introduction, tionalists national security conservatives and free market capitalists. three groups that are not necessarily political allies Since the end of the. cold war the conservative intellectual movement has been slow to adjust. to the new global reality When the Soviet Union collapsed and the raison. d tre of the American empire collapsed with it few prominent conserva. tives endorsed scaling back American commitments overseas The terror. ist attacks of September 11 2001 and the struggle against Islamic terror. ism seemed to breathe new life into conservative arguments for America s. role as defender of the free world However in the aftermath of a disas. trous war in Iraq the old national security conservatives appear increas. ingly anachronistic and out of touch with contemporary reality. Prognosticators who speculate how conservatism can survive and even. thrive in the twenty first century tend to fall into two camps depending. on their own political persuasions On one side are those making the case. that conservatives must move to the political center and soften their harder. edges They do not necessarily say that the American conservative move. ment must abandon its fundamental premises but it should relax its stance. on issues like gay marriage and abortion and finally make a formal peace. with the welfare state In other words they argue that conservatism should. become Conservatism Lite, On the opposing side we have those who argue that conservatives and. Republicans in office should double down and become even more aggres. sive as they pursue the same platform they have always endorsed We see. this line of thinking in the still powerful Tea Party movement Those hold. ing this position contend that conservatism never failed it has never really. been tried According to this argument by sticking to its principles and. fighting for them even more forcefully conservatism can win new converts. and revive American greatness, Such arguments demonstrate a lack of imagination on the part of con. temporary political observers Americans generally have a myopic view. of the political right assuming that the entire spectrum of right wing. thought exists between David Brooks and Rush Limbaugh In truth there. is a strong tradition of antiprogressive thought in American history that. stands completely outside the mainstream conservative movement. This narrow view of the American right can be partially attributed to the. energetic policing that occurs within the conservative movement Almost. from the beginning the political and intellectual leaders of the conser. Hawley indd 2 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. Introduction 3, vative movement have been wary about offering seats at the conservative. table and expelled those who strayed too far from established conservative. dogma This book tells the neglected history of purges within the conser. vative intellectual movement, More importantly this book will provide an overview of those intel. lectual movements on the right that were never fully incorporated into. the American conservative movement and have been forced to live on the. fringes of American intellectual life These various intellectual movements. differ both from mainstream conservatism and from each other when it. comes to fundamental premises such as the value of equality the proper. role of the state the importance of free markets the role of religion in. politics and attitudes toward race This book will examine the localists. who exhibit equal skepticism toward big business and big government pa. leoconservatives who look to the distant past for guidance and wish to turn. back the clock radical libertarians who are not content to be junior part. ners in the conservative movement and various strains of white supremacy. and the radical right in America, American conservatism has proven resilient It would be premature to. declare it on life support but it faces unprecedented challenges In the years. ahead organized conservatism may break down and the conservative intellec. tual movement may lose its ability to determine the boundaries of acceptable. right wing thought Furthermore thanks to the Internet dissident right. wing voices are now able to spread their message on a once unthinkable. scale Whereas fringe ideologies were once reliant on pamphleteering and. obscure print publications anyone with an Internet connection is now. able to spread a message across the world with relative ease As a result. of these developments intellectual space may open up for one or more of. these dissident right wing ideologies For this reason a survey of margin. alized right wing intellectual movements is timely. This book is not a comprehensive anthology of all groups and indi. viduals who have criticized conservatism from the right all such indi. viduals and ideas could not be discussed within a single volume I do wish. to explain a few omissions however This volume does not discuss the Tea. Party movement in any detail I made this decision because I do not view. the Tea Party as ideologically distinct from mainstream conservatism in. America The talking points of the prominent Tea Party leaders are ex. pressed with great energy and force but they are not fundamentally differ. Hawley indd 3 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. 4 Introduction, ent from traditional Republican messages as advocated by Ronald Reagan. and other major figures in the conservative pantheon We might think of. Tea Party supporters as ordinary conservative Republicans only louder. I also do not separately examine the major figures and institutions of the. religious right such as Focus on the Family and the Christian Coalition. In my estimation the religious right is not distinct from the broader con. servative movement They still have a seat at the conservative table and the. ears of Republican legislators For the time being the religious right re. mains an integral part of the conservative electoral coalition in a way that. radical libertarians paleoconservatives explicit racists and other fringe. groups are not What is more from my readings most prominent mem. bers of the religious right consider themselves to be part of today s main. stream conservative movement and they relish the influence they believe. they have over the GOP It is true that there are some elements of the reli. gious right that have sought to create a genuine alternative to the conser. vative movement Chuck Baldwin a pastor and 2008 presidential candi. date for the Constitution Party comes to mind but most appear content. to remain in the broader conservative coalition, I similarly do not discuss the arguments of moderate conservatives and. Republicans those politicians and pundits disparagingly called Repub. licans in Name Only or RINOs by their critics on the right as they. similarly tend to share the same basic principles as mainstream conserva. tism but disagree predominantly on questions of rhetoric and the degree. to which conservatives should be absolutists in pursuit of their goals The. groups and individuals I analyze in this volume disagree with American. conservatism on more than just strategy and tactics Although clearly on. the right they disagree with one or more of the basic premises of American. conservatism and these disagreements inform their critiques. This book does not make the case for all or any of these ideologies nor. does it celebrate the potential demise of the established conservative in. tellectual movement Although I find some of the arguments discussed in. this book persuasive and consider others abhorrent this book seeks to ex. amine each of these ideologies dispassionately In the pages that follow I. allow the varying ideologies to speak for themselves offering little addi. tional commentary,Hawley indd 4 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. 1 The Twilight of the Old Right and,the Birth and Rise of the American. Conservative Movement, Many observers take it for granted that the United States is politically a. center right nation A quick check on the Lexis Nexis Academic database. indicates that the terms United States and center right nation have. appeared in 130 stories in the last ten years In contrast United States. and center left nation have appeared together only three times during. this period The notion that America is more conservative than other de. veloped nations is rarely disputed The United States has been described. as the Right Nation largely defined by the political power of its excep. tional vigorous brand of conservatism 1, The validity of this classification depends on how one defines terms like. right wing and conservative In the contemporary context when we de. scribe an American as politically conservative we typically mean that this. person favors limited government intervention in the economy adheres to. a traditional religious faith and believes these religious values should influ. ence public policy and generally favors a strong military presence abroad. Without knowing any context there is no a priori reason one would in. fer that these three attributes are correlated with each other or even that. they are necessarily right wing These policy preferences were not always. Hawley indd 5 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. 6 Chapter One, associated with each other The formation of the coherent conservative. movement we know today can be traced no farther than the mid twenti. eth century This chapter will provide a brief history of this political in. tellectual movement describing how disparate elements coalesced into a. single unified ideology It will also describe the political rise of the move. ment explaining how this ideology ultimately became a dominant force in. American politics in the latter decades of the twentieth century. Problems of Definition, The lack of fixed universally accepted definitions is a problem when. using terms like conservative and right wing just as it is a problem when. discussing liberalism progressivism and the left If we look at the origin. of the terms left and right we see that the original meaning of the words. have only a superficial resemblance to their meaning today The terms. originated during the French Revolution based on the division of the Na. tional Assembly Supporters of the king sat on the right and supporters of. the Revolution sat on the left, Given these origins it is unusual that more than two centuries later the. United States is generally recognized as the most right wing nation in the. developed world After all the American Revolution was predicated on. the rejection of kings and hereditary nobility These values were enshrined. in the American Constitution Clearly the terms left and right have evolved. considerably The men who supported King Louis XVI during the French. Revolution would have had no interest in wars to spread liberal democracy. in the Middle East a free market capitalism that recognizes no social dis. tinctions or a populist form of evangelical Christianity If he were trans. ported to the present day the famous reactionary Joseph de Maistre would. surely not join the ranks of Rush Limbaugh s dittoheads. Given their respective histories it is perhaps inappropriate to speak of. conservatism in the United States as though it is analogous to conserva. tism in Europe In the United States there never was a formal hereditary. aristocracy to conserve Outside the South there were few prominent vig. orous defenders of fixed social hierarchies Although one could argue that. the titans of industry who exerted tremendous political influence during. the industrial revolution and beyond represented a new form of oligarchy. they were nonetheless qualitatively different from the hereditary nobles of. Europe They furthermore continued to speak in defense of meritocracy. Hawley indd 6 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. Twilight of the Old Right 7, even if levels of social mobility indicated that rags to riches stories were. relatively uncommon, The term liberalism is possibly even more problematic especially in. the United States Many of today s American conservatives consider them. selves the true heirs of the classical liberal tradition exemplified by such. thinkers as David Hume Adam Smith and John Locke To the extent. that both classical liberals and contemporary conservatives defended prop. erty rights and markets this is not an unfair claim The fact that Edmund. Burke who is claimed by conservatives as one of the most important. thinkers within their own intellectual tradition is also often classified as. a classical liberal further bolsters this argument. Not all twentieth century intellectuals who described themselves as. classical liberals believed that they were interchangeable with conserva. tives In The Constitution of Liberty 1960 the pro free market economist. Friedrich Hayek whose contemporary admirers are found predomi. nantly on the political right included a famous essay titled Why I Am. Not a Conservative Hayek did not use the adjective classical and de. scribed himself simply as a liberal though Hayek recognized that this. was becoming increasingly problematic Hayek also sometimes used the. term Old Whig to categorize himself politically Hayek argued that before. the dawn of socialism as a political force liberalism in the classical sense. was the primary opponent of conservatism The birth of powerful social. ist parties later forced conservatives and classical liberals to make com. mon cause with each other The fact that conservatives and classical liber. als now have a common enemy in socialism does not indicate that the two. are identical In many respects Hayek was just as hostile to conservatism. as to socialism 2, In that same essay Hayek expressed his desire to rescue the term liber. alism that is that in common usage it would once again refer to people. like himself He expressed misgivings about the term libertarian as he. considered it a manufactured term 3 Libertarians never were able to suc. cessfully reclaim the term liberalism for themselves and most Americans. today view a liberal as someone who favors vigorous government interven. tion in the economy, Nonetheless the term liberalism seems to have fallen out of favor in. recent years as the term is now used almost as an insult in American dis. course With increasing frequency those on the political left in the United. Hawley indd 7 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. 8 Chapter One, States call themselves progressives Although I do not endorse the reason. for this development I do welcome it Given the strange evolution of the. word liberalism and the fact that the term can refer to both radical lib. ertarians and enthusiastic supporters of the welfare state it may be time. for its retirement Using conservatism and progressivism to signify oppo. site ends of the political spectrum furthermore seems more intuitive This. still does not help us precisely define the meaning of these terms however. Some have made the case that an individual s placement on the po. litical spectrum can be determined by her fundamental views about the. nature of reality James Hunter argued that most people fit within one. of two categories as a result of their worldviews Those who believe that. values and authority within a society stem from a transcendent source he. labeled as orthodox and those who believe values are created by human. beings and are thus not necessarily permanent he described as progres. sive Whereas the primary cultural fault lines were once between different. though similar religious traditions today the cultural conflict is between. the religious and the secular, As we have seen the cultural hostilities dominant over the better. part of American history have taken place within the boundaries of. a larger biblical culture among numerous Protestant groups and. Catholics and Jews over such issues as doctrine ritual observance. and religious organization The older agreements have unraveled. The divisions of political consequence today are not theological and. ecclesiastical in character but the result of differing worldviews That. is to say they no longer revolve around specific doctrinal issues or. styles of religious practice and organization but around our most. fundamental and cherished assumptions about how to order our. lives our own lives and our lives together in society Our most. fundamental ideas about who we are as Americans are now at odds 4. Thomas Sowell a conservative economist developed a similar di. chotomy He argued that people can be classified based on whether they. possess what he called a constrained or an unconstrained view of human. nature Those with a constrained view of mankind and society recognize. limits on government s ability to improve human nature they instead tend. to respect tradition as a guide for a decent society Sowell argued that many. Hawley indd 8 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. Twilight of the Old Right 9, of America s founding fathers were perfect examples of men with a con. strained vision 5 We see this directly in the words of James Madison in. Federalist 51 If men were angels no government would be necessary If. angels were to govern men neither external nor internal controls on gov. ernment would be necessary Such an attitude holds that we must take. human fallibility as a given and develop institutions that will channel our. negative attributes ambition greed in a less dangerous direction elec. toral politics capitalism, According to Sowell those with an unconstrained vision reject the. idea that mankind cannot be improved arguing that human beings can. even be perfected and they believe that the state can be a useful tool for. shaping a new kind of person Sowell credited Rousseau as an important. founder of this kind of thinking as he argued that poorly structured gov. ernment was the primary cause of human problems He similarly identi. fied the political philosopher William Godwin as one of the most influen. tial promoters of an unconstrained vision In terms of public policy Sowell. argued that those with an unconstrained vision were more likely to trust. government under the leadership of specialists to plan the economy and. direct social interactions Those with such a vision have little use for tradi. tion or other ideas inherited from the past, Another recurring theme in the unconstrained vision is how. profoundly different current issues are from those of the past so. that the historically evolved beliefs the conventional wisdom. in Galbraith s phrase can no longer apply Nor is this a new and. recent conclusion In the eighteenth century Godwin declared that. we cannot make today s decisions on the basis of a timid reverence. for the decisions of our ancestors Such terms as outmoded and. irrelevant are common dismissals of what in the opposing vision is. called the wisdom of the ages 6, Sowell recognized limitations of his classification scheme He noted for. example that it did not perfectly track the usual left right dichotomy. Marxism for example while clearly a left wing framework cannot be per. fectly classified as an unconstrained vision Although Marx envisioned a. future utopia he also believed mankind is constrained by inevitable social. Hawley indd 9 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. 10 Chapter One, forces that place limitations on what can be accomplished during a par. ticular epoch 7, Others have made the case that left and right refer to where one stands. on the question of individualism and collectivism or liberty and authori. tarianism This is more commonly heard from voices on the right and it is. a clever rhetorical move Such a dichotomy allows all of the most loathed. dictators of the twentieth century to fall into the left wing category if we. embrace this definition Hitler Stalin Pol Pot and Mussolini were all left. ists and all politicians and ideologues on the left have important similari. ties with despised regimes This argument was made most enthusiastically. by the conservative author and columnist Jonah Goldberg who suggested. a strong ideological congruence between fascism and contemporary pro. gressives like Hillary Rodham Clinton 8, Other scholars and journalists have attempted to precisely define the. right The American Conservative is a magazine that as the title suggests is. on the right but it is also generally skeptical of the Republican Party and. the mainstream conservative movement In 2006 this magazine printed a. symposium on the definitions of conservatism and liberalism in which many. notable scholars and journalists weighed in on two questions 1 Are the. designations liberal and conservative still useful Why or why not and. 2 Does a binary Left Right political spectrum describe the full range of. ideological options Is it still applicable 9 The overwhelming majority. of respondents expressed skepticism about the utility of this dichotomous. distinction for people who wish to think deeply about politics and they. argued that now the terms are only useful for political partisans Author. and columnist Nicholas von Hoffman argued that liberal and conserva. tive may be meaningless to anyone given to precise definition but they re. main useful for fisticuffs serving as verbal mud pies in political disputes. Other contributors such as political scientist Andrew Bacevich and col. umnist and former presidential candidate Patrick Buchanan argued that. conservatism is a worthwhile term but they also argued that the Repub. lican Party cannot be accurately described as conservative. Many prominent conservatives have attempted to precisely define their. political philosophy These definitions are not always compatible Russell. Kirk who is credited as one of the founders of contemporary conserva. tism listed ten principles that are the hallmark of any conservatism These. included the belief in mankind s imperfectability opposition to involun. Hawley indd 10 12 10 15 3 21 PM,University Press of Kansas All rights reserved. Reproduction and distribution prohibited without permission of the Press. Twilight of the Old Right 11, tary collectivism and the principle of prudence 10 Some of these attributes. are unfortunately vague and perhaps not very helpful if liberals are always. the opposite of conservatives does that mean that liberals always oppose. prudence Are all people on the left hopeless utopian dreamers. According to Robert Nisbet the sole object of the conservative tradi. tion is the protection of the social order from the enveloping bureau. cracy of the nation state 11 This seems like a reasonable description but it. implies that conservatives view the government as the only possible threat. to the social order if this definition of conservatism is correct then there is. no substantive difference between conservatives and libertarians Richard. Weaver another of the most influential conservatives in the mid twentieth. century provided one of the more abstruse definitions According to. William F Buckley Weaver described conservatism as a paradigm of es. sences toward which the phenomenology of the world is in continuing. approximation 12 though Weaver himself provided less ambiguous defi. nitions in his own writings 13 Willmoore Kendall and George W Carey. noted that whether one acts as a conservative or a progressive is dependent. upon the larger context, The progressive in a given society organization or activity may. achieve complete triumph and as appears in Russia in the years. following 1917 may impose an entirely new set of institutions. practices beliefs standards of judgment etc Then the new system. having been consolidated the progressives may themselves begin to. play a conservative role resisting proposals looking to change and. innovation that come simultaneously from new progressives and from. the former conservatives We thus arrive at the theoretical possibility. of a conservative political movement dedicated to for example the. preservation of communism 14, The only point that appears more or less agreed upon is that left and. right represent opposing ends of the political spectrum and that today. in America conservatism is associated with the right and contemporary. liberalism or progressivism is associated with the left Even if we make. peace with the notion that left and right are fluid terms however we still. require some characterizations of the words For the purposes of this book. Paul Gottfried a former professor at Elizabethtown College and promi.
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This lab has been modified by S Bailey PROPER USE OF LAB EQUIPMENT and DATA ANALYSIS SKILLS Introduction: A good scientist must be able to use scientific tools to make accurate observations. While studying science in this class, you will be required to use many pieces of lab equipment to help you collect
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Parallel co-teaching provides an opportunity for less teacher talk and greater student-to-student interaction with partners, in stations, or in groups, as co-teachers monitor or facilitate the work of differ-ent groups. In summary, parallel co-teaching has many faces. Table 5.1 briefly describes several variations of parallel co-teaching.