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2 Comparative constructions in Yakut and Altai 155. work represents one of the steps on this way In particular to the author s mind. comparative contrastive and component analysis is one of the promising directions. in the modern linguistics,MATERIALS AND METHODS, With the general research method being the inductive deductive one theore. tical conclusions are drawn from the analysis of comparative constructions of the. synthetic analytic and analytic synthetic types of the languages under considera. tion A contrastive analysis of comparative constructions of the Turkic languages. Yakut and Altai was made on a wide range of language material for example later. on in the article Ojunskij 1975 p 17 Sofronov 1965 p 358 Kulun 1985 p 94. RAD 1964 p 236 The comparative contrastive analysis reveals similar and. different parameters of the discussed constructions determined by common. typological characteristics and systematic structural features of the compared lan. guages Comparative constructions are characterized by active functioning of the. analytical means whereas the Altai languages show the dominance of. structures with the synthetic indicator, The method of component analysis involves deconstruction of comparative. constructions into smallest meaningful units codified in lexicographic sources To. decipher functional actualizations it is necessary to study the structure of know. ledge behind the comparative construction,THEORETICAL BACKGROUND. The paper considers the main structural semantic types of comparative con. structions in Yakut and Altai in comparative contrastive aspect The comparative. contrastive analysis reveals similar and different parameters of the discussed con. structions determined by common typological characteristics and systematic struc. tural features of the compared languages, Simile is a figure of speech through which we reveal the secret of creation. mysteries of word Balzer 2001 It is linguistically expressed as a model of vari. ous comparative constructions involving the object subject of comparison what. is compared the model for comparison with what is something compared a. common criterion for comparison an indicator of comparison The importance of. this problem is determined by perspectives of this field of comparative studies in. particular in the field of comparative construction of Yakut and Altai. Simile comparative and other constructions are covered in various aspects. structural semantic comparative cognitive translation etc in Russian English. German and other languages For example such different and overlapping view. points and accents as on lingvocognitive approach Razuvaeva 2017 linguistic. 156 S M Prokopieva N N Efremov 3, consciousness Khakulova 2016 linguistic picture of the world Li Chshan 2015. sensations in comparative constructions Alexandrova 2015 Nedosekina 2015. 2016 national specific features of comparative phraseology Vedmanova. Kulikova 2015 Hessky 1989 forms of comparative constructions Goleva. Voronkova 2016 syntax Bresnan 1973 Bacskai Atkari 2014 clausal compara. tive constructions Kantor 2006 word order typology Andersen 1983 competing. comparative constructions Stolz 2013 carnivalization of the language Krylova. 2016a comparative constructions in poetic texts Krylova 2016b stability. Bogdanova Malkova 2014 Boyko 2016 Malkova 2014 Mokienko 2016. Lytkina 2016 Arnold 2016 Balzer 2001 Baranov Dobrovolskij 2016 live and. inanimate in stable comparisons Frolova 2014 stability and dynamism. Ogoltseva 2015 teaching Okhlopkova 2017 Attention is paid to variousity of. languages among others Bulgarian Leonidova 1987 Croatian Matulina. Jerolimov Pavi Pintari 2004 English Gnutzmann Ilson Webster 2008 Treis. 2017 French Price 2017 German Brehmer Golubovi 2007 Hungarian. F des 1992 Italian Lichtenberg 1994 Latvian Chinkure 2006 Lithuanian. Lapinskas 2000 Ossetic Bibilova Chadasheva Zuzieva 2015 Persian Valipur. Ibrahimsharifi 2016 Polish Szcz k Wysocza ski 2004 Russian Sini kina. Potanina 2015 Spanish Price 2017 Tajik Sidikova 2016 Tatar Bulgarova. Safonova 2015, In particular in turkology comparison has been structurally semantically. described in Azerbaijani Abdullaev 1974 Tatar Povarisov 1965 Uzbek. Mukaramov 1971 Kazakh Konyrov 1985 Khakass Kyrzhinakova 2010. Tuvan Cheremisina Shamina 1996 Shamina 2014 Shor Antonova 2012. Yakut Efremov 2013 and other languages It is also studied in comparative. aspect e g in Uzbek Zufarova 1971, In Kazakh structural elements of comparison have been studied as they are. the key to understand comparison as a linguistic phenomenon of a special kind. with specific structure and distinctive semantics with the status of word com. bination and sentence Konyrov 1985 Forty ways of comparison have been. revealed and described in the Kazakh language with each of them having a unique. place in the system of comparative knowledge, The Tuva language has shown various means of expressing comparison. Also an attempt has been made to relate certain linguistic forms of comparison. with specific meaning and to outline systematic relations between certain forms of. comparison and the expressed comparative meaning Shamina 2014. In Khakass more than ten ways to express comparison at various levels have. been found and described lexical 7 ways morphological 3 and syntactical 1. Kyrzhinakova 2010, Comparative constructions of the Yakut language were dealt with in the. monograph by Y I Vasiliev 1986 those of the Altai language were studied in the. doctorate research by L N Tybikova 1989, 4 Comparative constructions in Yakut and Altai 157. In Yakut word formative morphological means to express comparison as. well as comparative constructions expressed by categorematic words the postpo. sition and other syntactic words,h have been described In Altai. comparative constructions with synthetic affix and analytic syntactic indicators. of comparison have been studied,RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. A preliminary analysis of comparative constructions in the compared. languages shows that in general these constructions are formally characterized by. their own means of expression, A common means of expressing comparative relation in these languages is. first of all the indicator of the ablative case However the comparative case is used to. express these relations in Yakut much more commonly Vasiliev 1986 p 43. Nominal comparative constructions further CC of Yakut and Altai are. classified into two types according to the indicator of comparison synthetic and. analytic In synthetic CC the indicator of comparison is represented by affix. means whether in analytic CC it is represented by syntactic words postpositions. Verbal CC are poly predicative sentences the parts of which are related through. synthetic and analytic synthetic postpositive means. In Yakut the forms of the ablative comparative instrumental cases as well. as the affix functionally close to the case forms act as indicators of nominal. CC of the synthetic type Ubryatova 1976 p 199 Vasiliev 1986 p 49 In Altai. the CC of the synthetic type demonstrates three indicators of comparison. and the indicator of the ablative case They play an. important role in expressing comparative relations Tybikova 1989 p 7. Indicators of comparison in nominal CC of the analytic type are represented. by syntactic words,Nominal Comparative Constructions. 1 Synthetic type, 1 The Yakut language Constructions with the ablative case They indicate. an object that in some respect is inferior to another one Boethlingk 1990. Here he is of all men short lit with small bones,thin weak looking Vasiliev 1986 p 39. In Altai such constructions express numerical comparison i e numerical. opposition more less of a quantity feature Szcz k Wysocza ski 2004. Tybikova 1989 p 7 8 that can be loaded by figurative meaning depending on the. Fairer than the risen moon More beautiful than the beams of the. morning sun There was such a girl Vasiliev 1986 p 39. 158 S M Prokopieva N N Efremov 5, The functional Yakut equivalent of the above mentioned Altai construction. is the construction with the indicator of the comparative case that describes. figurative comparative relation Szcz k, Wysocza ski 2004 Sofronov 1965 p 197 Her cheeks are rosier than the flower. This phenomenon verifies an idea according to which the Yakut comparative. case is in some respect replaced by the ablative case from the domain of. comparative constructions Vasiliev 1986 p 43 Where as in the Turkic languages. the affix of the ablative case is one of the leading means expressing comparison. Konyrov 1985 p 41, The Yakut construction with are mainly used for comparison. opposition to a certain evaluation of the compared object positively or negatively. Ubryatova 1976 p 200 201 These comparative construction unlike the ones. with the ablative case express not both simple and compound sentences. Ojunskij 1975 p 17 The smell of a,horse is more intense than that of a cow h. h having heard that you treat your own,child worse than cattle Vasiliev 1986 p 44. What I say is an easier way than what you,say Grammar 1995 p 275. The Yakut constructions with the instrumental case are mainly found in. phraseological groups of words h h h, This boy is as stubborn intractable as his grandfather lit his grandfather by his. grandfather The rain is pouring bucket water,about heavy rain Vasiliev 1986 p 47 48. The Altai equivalent of this affix is the postpositional affix with the. Kazakh one being affix of the instrumental connecting case ibidem p 51. Comparative constructions with the indicator The structures with. are intermediate between case and adverbial forms Ubryatova 1976 p 199. Vasiliev 1986 p 48 The constructions of this type form both mono and poly. predicative structures C, My thoughts Like rain Crushed me Made me speechless. Sofronov 1965 p 358, larch boughs Swift stream Like stirring butugas buttermilk drink. Sofronov 1965 p 329 330 h Having, stopped extensively embroidering the poem like in the old times ibidem. I panicked like falling into water fumbled about like being in full. darkness ibidem p 336, The comparative constructions with are translated into Russian by. structures with conjunctions as as if like just as much as as though Vasiliev. 1986 p 20 51 which indicates polysemy of the comparative constructions with. 6 Comparative constructions in Yakut and Altai 159. 2 The Altai language The CC with the synthetic indicator. correlate with the Russian CC with the conjunction like. j Primary school children were, walking on the ploughed field like black rooks Tybikova 1989 p 7. In Yakut such relation of comparison can be represented by constructions. with the analytic comparative indicator like,h Little children are running on the road like. frisky foals, The Altai CC with the indicator are found more rarely They express. comparison of objects only by their size and shape compare Russian with the size. of The standard of comparison is represented by a small number of objects mainly. of small size Along the, Katun bank there stood some yurts on the field as small as a palm ibidem p 7. In Yakut the same comparative relations are represented by the structures with the. postposition that expresses quantitative comparison Therewith the standard. of comparison is not restricted by objects of small size Compare. He s got a land as small as a palm Kulun 1985 p 94 and. Hooked all that On the tip of his fierce spear Burning with. bloodthirstiness Of the size of a medium pot ibidem p 365. As has already been noted before the Altai CC with the standard of compa. rison being the ablative case express quantitative comparison relation. of quantitative opposition more less of some quality feature j. j j j Purer than a tear drop, softer than butter soothing and giving strength well water Tybikova 1989 p 8. In Yakut such constructions are found with the ablative and comparative cases. Purer than water of any other land sweeter, than anything on earth giving strength and power the elixir of life water of my. 2 Analytical type of nominal comparative constructions. 1 The Yakut language The construction with the indicator. h Kulun 1985 p 89, By an icy limpid Like a full moon evening in January eye ibidem p 360. The construction with, He like a child even by day having fallen asleep is. lying snoring Vasiliev 1986 p 81,The construction with. My Yakut smooth dance Is like my land Yakutia ibidem p 85. The construction with h h h a,h Kulun 1985 p 88 The jacket on him being. as wide as a half of a glade is skintight ibidem p 359. 160 S M Prokopieva N N Efremov 7,The construction with C. My beloved is as tender as a flower as valuable as the sun ibidem p 90. The construction with, Into my dream you came as lit having become a goddess ibidem p 92. The construction with h h h a child looking,like a man ibidem p 93. The construction with h h,The woman s shining face as if faded away ibidem. 2 The Altai language The analytical types of the nominal CC includes. constructions with the indicator of comparison as special particles and semi cate. gorematic words with comparative semantics These are. the most common etc less common, CC with are comparative proper constructions They are rele. vant to the CC with the synthetic indicator The standard of comparison. combined with functions as the adverbial modifier j. Being happy about, her husband s comeback Anya is running hither and thither just as a restless little. bird Tybikova 1989 p 8 as white as snow compare, as white as snow RAD 1964 p 236 In Yakut these constructions are. represented by structures with the postposition h,Anya having. noticed mother approaching her rushed towards her like a nestling moving little. legs as white as snow, Altai CC with comparative semantics are formed with the indicators. similar alike and semi categorematic copulas with a close comparative semantics. j look like by face figure similar to compare to, the Russian adjective similar The auxiliary word keeps its lexical and. categorial meaning to some extent and is considered as adjective approximating. postpositions If, viewed from aside he really looks like a Japanese diplomat ibidem p 9 In the. Yakut language the phrases of this type are represented by sentences with the. predicate resemble look like,The indicator j is formed. from j face from appearance from, look form In CC with these indicators characterized by lexical meaning com. parison is made by resemblance only resemble in face figure Ja ja. j Beauty added to beauty looked like,Alpyn Manash The ears. looked like hot iron ibidem, Comparative relations of the type considered above are given in Yakut by. the constructions with the predicate expressed by the verb resemble. 8 Comparative constructions in Yakut and Altai 161. as well as the analytic structure with the indicator. He resembled,Alyp Manash,Verbal comparative constructions. 1 Synthetic, 1 The Yakut language Synthetic structures with the indicator of the ablative. case are mainly found in nominal constructions Y I Vasiliev 1986 marks as. comparative compound sentences of the synthetic type only constructions with the. indicator of the comparative case and the form ending with. Structures with the indicator of the comparative case These constructions. express simile if a generalized view of an object or event is used as a standard of. comparison Comparing to, the way you received education dog s barking is better ibidem p 45. Structures with the indicator h h,The Lena river as if compassion. ing on her woman s sorrow was humbly running hissing Sofronov 1965 p 327. 2 The Altai language Synthetic structures with the subordinate predicate. expressed by a participle with provided by the indicator. As if something stuck in the throat it was difficult for him to speak. every word Tybikova 1989 p 15 In Yakut such relation can be expressed by a. combination of two sentences with one being closed with the particle as. something stuck in the throat He Cannot speak, 2 Analytic synthetic verbal comparative constructions. 1 The Yakut language The structures with the postposition are most. common they can function as compound sentences h, Such a splash of water was heard in the pond as if a. herd of horses had run on it Ojunskij 1975 p 127,The construction with comparative parallelism. h He is angry with me as if I said that Sofronov 1965 p 82. The construction with h,Like a flower blooms more on a hot sunny day as a. girl becomes more beautiful in a good peaceful marriage ibidem p 86. The construction with comparative identifying relation. I ll probably make the same as you do colloquial,Constructions with h. We ll work as much has he does ibidem p 91, 2 The Altai language A mono subject poly predicative construction with. The bear waved its paws as if scaring off some,162 S M Prokopieva N N Efremov 9. flies disappeared for some time Tybikova 1989 p 15 16 In Yakut such a. phrase is expressed by a mono subject pol predicate construction with. h translated the same, The hetero subject poly predicate construction with. That snow was crunching under feet was like a heifer chewing ibidem. p 17 In Yakut such relation is expressed by a compound sentence with the. subject subordinate clause where the main clause is a standard for comparison with. the analytic indicator h, That snow was crunching under feet was like a heifer chewing. The mono subject poly predicate construction with,j Temitey had to wave his arms and shout like a. man who has seen and found these wonderful paintings before us ibidem p 16. In Yakut this phrase is expressed by the construction with. CONCLUSIONS, The comparative analysis of Yakut and Altai comparative constructions. shows that they have typologically common synthetic and analytic indicators of. comparison However formally such indicators are mainly unique for each com. pared language excluding the ablative case form and the analytic structure. Altai which is determined by non contact development of the given. languages Verbal comparative constructions are represented by poly predicate. sentences whose clauses are combined with synthetic and analytic synthetic means. Yakut comparative constructions are characterized by active functioning of the. indicator where as the Altai language demonstrates the dominance of the. structure with the synthetic indicator, In the plane of content these indicators are polysemantic thus they express. comparative semantics depending on the nature of the lexical grammatical contents. of the sentence composition and the context This phenomenon is determined by. specifics of Turkic languages that in contrast to inflected languages e g Russian. shows the principle of grammar economy Yakut comparative constructions are cha. racterized by active functioning of the indicator whereas the Altai language. demonstrates the dominance of the structure with the synthetic indicator. Certainly typological investigation of comparative constructions in related. and non related languages is of great interest for further research. 10 Comparative constructions in Yakut and Altai 163. 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Vasiliev 1986 Yu I Vasiliev Methods of expressing the comparison in the Yakut language. Novosibirsk Nauk 1986, Vedmanova Kulikova 2015 E E Vedmanova N V Kulikova National specific features of. comparative phraseology of English German and Russian Ethnical Peliarities of Compa. rative Phraseological Units in the English German and Russian Languages in Vestnik of. the Volgograd State University Series 2 Linguistics 2015 nr 4 p 115 120. 166 S M Prokopieva N N Efremov 13, Zufarova 1971 N Z Zufarova Degrees of comparison and comparative constructions in modern. English and Uzbek languages Extended Abstract of Ph D in Philology Dissertation. Tashkent 1971,CONSTRUC II COMPARATIVE N IACUT I ALTAIC. ANALIZA CONSTRASTIV COMPARATIV I A COMPONENTELOR, Principalele tipuri de construc ii comparative din limbile iacut i altaic sunt analizate din. perspectiv comparativ contrastiv A fost efectuat o analiz comparativ i a componentelor. construc iilor comparative din limbile iacut i altaic apar in nd familiei de limbi turcice Analiza a. identificat parametri comuni i diferi i pentru construc iile analizate determina i de tr s turi. tipologice comune i de caracteristici structurale sistematice Parametrii comuni ai acestor construc ii. includ construc ii comparative nominale func ionale de tip sintetic i analitic precum i manifestarea. structurilor sintetice i analitice sintetice n domeniul construc iilor comparative verbale fapt motivat. de natura sistemului aglutinant postpus al limbilor respective Indicatorii comparativi din. construc iile discutate nu se suprapun n planul expresiei cu excep ia cazului ablativ i a indicatorului. sintactic format cu verbul auxiliar n planul expresiei ace ti indicatori sunt polisemantici. deoarece exprim un semantism sau altul n func ie de natura structurii lexicale i gramaticale a. frazei i de context Construc iile comparative din iacut sunt caracterizate de func ionarea activ a. instrumentului analitic n timp ce n limba altaic predomin structura cu indicatorul. comparativ sintetic, Cuvinte cheie construc ie comparativ indicator comparativ tip sintetic tip analitic. construc ii verbale i nominale limba iacut limba altaic. Keywords comparative construction comparative indicator synthetic type analytic type. nominal and verbal constructions the Yakut language the Altai language. North Eastern Federal University Russian Academy of Sciences. 58 Belinskogo Street Institute of Humanities and Problems. Yakutsk Russia of Indigenous Peoples of the North,Siberian Branch.
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occurrence of the main crack that leads to failure of the structural member . Crack propagation processes in steel machine components can be investigated by numerical analysis such as the finite element method (FEM). The correctness of simulating real processes by numerical methods depends on defining their boundary conditions.
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Latin Rhythms: MYSTERY UNRAVELED Victor L pez, Clinician Sponsored by Alfred Publishing Company Guest Clinicians: M ichele Fernandez D enlinger
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application development, testing, refreshes and quality assurance into an integrated framework Most of those modern IT organizations also have simultaneously discovered the pow - er of containers such as Docker. A Docker container consists of a complete file sys-tem that contains everything, including the code, runtime, system tools and system libraries, which an application needs to run. That ...
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HOW MOBILE APPS PROTECT YOUR DATA 2017 Q3 REPORT The purpose of this report and our research, in general, is widely spreading results on mobile application data protection for IT and security professionals as well as non-technical customers to stay informed about managing mobile application ecosystem.