The example above exhibits many of the characteristics of a Mind Map although it was. drawn with software rather than pen and paper Colours and graphics bring it to life and. the subject is pretty clear although the intended purpose of the map is not The. subtopics are certainly related to their parents but not necessarily exclusively and the. exact nature of their connection is left to the reader to decide The map is a tree shaped. list of topics around the subject of Profits perhaps as an agenda for or as a reminder. of a discussion I am sure you have seen these characteristics in many Mind Maps. Mind Mapping developed as a personal note taking and memorisation technique It is. very effective as a study and learning technique as the rich texture of personalised Mind. Maps help greatly with recall, Tony Buzan is well known for establishing the Mind Mapping Laws which include. the use of images colour curved lines capital letters and the infamous One Word per. Branch This rule in particular is widely misunderstood and often flouted All today s. Mind Mapping software packages allow you to put a phrase on a branch to make things. clearer and more specific something that many business users find advantageous But. this rule reflects a critical element of the design thinking that Mind Maps should help. you to associate and expand on ideas not constrain or categorise them By breaking. down propositions into components and branching out new ideas from these elements. your map can diverge into a rich set of patterns and related ideas that help to trigger. insights and creativity, Consider the following scenario in a Mind Map First like many users of Mind Mapping. software you write a self contained statement rather than a single word on a branch. because it makes a clearer point,Figure 2 A closed statement on a branch. Then feeling a bit guilty about this you decide to split it up to disrupt the closed and. rather definitive nature of this statement,Figure 3 One Word per Branch almost. Aha This is getting somewhere Now we can think about what else customers might. Figure 4 Branching out more and more ideas, The map could grow big and fast around this subject Where does good value come. from Lower costs Better quality Higher specifications. Figure 5 Digression takes hold, As we develop the Mind Map further it is easy to digress from the top level context of. Customers and embed ideas that are relevant in many other contexts not only to. Customers At some point in the future you may forget that useful detail about part. tolerances for example can be found by navigating through the Customers section in. Further we now find that we are writing propositions in reverse because we cannot. add another parent to the good value topic Instead of writing Low costs lead to good. value we have to write the converse Good value comes from low costs. One Word per Branch is an important factor in discovery and divergence but it can. also be a spanner in the gear wheels of organised context Self contained statements or. concepts are better suited to arrangement in a well structured and easily navigated tree. especially when connections are not explicit One Word per Branch takes us nearer to. Concept Mapping and multiple definitions of concepts but can easily create trees that. are no longer hierarchies of context and hierarchy patterning are pretty important. when it comes to managing information in trees, This aspect of Mind Mapping is often marginalised as business users increasingly use. Mind Mapping software for visualising and organising hierarchies of detailed information. or even just for making lists List making is one of the core uses for Mind Mapping. software today,Concept Maps visualise and communicate knowledge. Concept Maps were devised by Joseph D Novak at Cornell University in the 1970s From. the outset Concept Maps were designed to communicate A student s Concept Map can. be systematically evaluated by their teacher to assess their grasp of a subject The. scope of their maps and their level of understanding of the relationships between ideas. are a reliable indicator of their knowledge what they have learned and integrated not. just learned by rote It is one thing to know facts but relating them to each other and. understanding their influence on each other takes us from information towards. knowledge Facts alone do not help us to predict behaviour whereas knowledge. represented by models does, Concept Maps are not the same as block diagrams or flow charts because in a. Concept Map concepts are always connected together through linking texts There are. no unexplained connections in a Concept Map This is more rigorous than Mind Maps. because propositions are clearly visualised A proposition is a pair of concepts connected. in a given direction by linking text which explains how they are related A concept may. be connected to many others in the same map helping to define its scope and clarify its. Figure 6 A proposition in a Concept Map Customers want good value. Hierarchy has much less influence in Concept Maps By convention top level ideas are. drawn at the top of the map but in practice there is not a strict ranking of concepts. further down It is more likely that related concepts will end up near to each other in a. Concept Map rather than trying to fit into hierarchies where they may belong in several. contexts There are advantages in making a Concept Map more compact by restructuring. and untangling crossed connections Sticking to a rigid hierarchy with cross connections. can result in maps that are bigger than they need to be which makes them less usable. Returning to our Mind Map where we began to draw out the factors relating customer. preferences to profitability we can now draw this as a set of propositions in a Concept. Map instead,Figure 7 Four propositions in a Concept Map. This fragment of a Concept Map makes four distinct statements but without those. statements being closed units,Customers want good value. Good quality leads to good value,Low costs lead to good value. High specifications lead to good value, This is visually more concise than writing each of these statements as a branch in a Mind. Map and less hierarchical than mapping these items in a single tree where each node. has only one parent The possibility of making other connections to either the concepts. or to the text linking them is always open in a Concept Map even though it makes. definitive statements Concept Maps are read by reading each proposition You usually. read the same concept or linking text several times as each can appear in more than. one proposition strengthening the definitions of concepts. Concept Maps visualise a system of interrelated and interacting ideas The depth and. sophistication of this model reflects the author s knowledge which is why Concept Maps. were developed as evaluation tool in educational settings But as a consequence it also. means that they are adept at visually communicating concise knowledge in non. academic environments, Mind Maps and Concept Maps have complementary strengths. Because of the different origins and purpose of each Mind Maps and Concept Maps have. complementary strengths, Mind Maps can grow much larger than Concept Maps Networks get exponentially. more awkward to use as they scale up whereas trees scale up well because they. encapsulate information Mind Maps can handle large volumes of information. effortlessly, Mind Maps are much better at visually and mentally dividing things up into. different contexts and areas of focus A Concept Map is more usually considered. as a whole which is another reason that Concept Maps tend to remain smaller. Folding hierarchies to hide detail is easy but the same thing is more difficult with. networks or block diagrams, Mind Maps are quicker to create than Concept Maps Drawing networks in. software usually means spending a chunk of your time on cosmetic or topological. improvements trying to reduce the number of crossovers by untangling the. network and making it look nice This is not needed in Mind Mapping software. as it is much easier for software to automatically space out non overlapping. Mind Maps are better at visualising patterns Our in built instinct to complete. patterns or notice discontinuities is well exploited by Mind Mapping Patterns are. harder to see in Concept Maps although sometimes symmetry can emerge from. a fog of ideas that helps to validate the underlying structure. Concept Maps are designed to be clearly read one proposition at a time whereas. many Mind Maps can only be skimmed to give a flavour of the subject or even. just visually appreciated as a work of art, Much of the knowledge and insight behind a Mind Map often remains in the. author s head s and rarely makes a total transfer to the screen or paper Mind. Maps work well as a reminder for those in the know The majority of Mind Maps. have short lifetimes and can be difficult to return to after a period of time away. Concept Maps are self contained and self explanatory so are better suited to. sharing real knowledge with non authors without a limited shelf life. The connections between concepts in a Concept Map are always explicit The. connections between ideas in a Mind Map are rarely explicit unless One Word per. Branch has been applied to break down propositions Connections in a Mind Map. are frequently implicit and must be deduced or sometimes guessed at from the. surrounding context and the purpose of the map if that is known. Many Mind Mapping software tools allow you to draw cross connections in a tree. but in practice these can obscure rather than inform if the ratio of cross. connections to hierarchical connections gets as high as 1 in 10 This is because. the hierarchy dominates the topology and cannot easily be restructured to. minimise crossovers This limitation does not apply to a network diagram. although there are much lower limits on the practical size of networks. Because they are networks Concept Maps visualise systems something that is. hard to do in tree diagrams Not many processes or interdependent systems are. strictly hierarchical so visualising them in trees is less than satisfactory although. many users try,Choosing between Concept Maps and Mind Maps. Mind Maps are a good choice for, Creating a personal crib sheet for revising and memorising. Taking notes for re writing later,Being creative, Capturing everything you know about a subject usually much more than you. first thought, Capturing open ended subjects that are likely to grow to hundreds of branches. with increasingly detailed content,Finding and exploiting repeated patterns. Making lists and breaking things down into fairly independent groups or contexts. Summarising reducing something to a few key points. Designing and drafting materials that will be converted to a linear format such as. a word processor document,Mind Maps are a less good choice for. Describing systems that depend on interaction,Describing processes and sequences. Visualising subjects which have multiple valid useful ways to organise them. i e items properly belong on more than one list at a time. Being explicit about relationships between items, Sharing knowledge with people who did not help to build the map. Network diagrams including Concept Maps are a good choice for. Visualising and explaining systems that are best understood as a whole. Showing how a situation is a balance of influencing factors. Visualising processes and sequences, Showing relationships between concepts that are not naturally hierarchical. Describing closed or small subjects dozens of nodes rather than hundreds of. Network diagrams and Concept Maps are a less good choice for. Capturing ideas quickly on the fly, Drafting materials that need to be converted to a linear format. Visualising larger subjects that will need more than a few dozen nodes. Mind Maps are easier to start than Concept Maps but are harder to bring up to a. satisfactory level if the underlying subject is not well suited to a hierarchy Concept Maps. take more effort to create but the results can be more valuable and have a longer. lifetime You might find that it works well to start by Mind Mapping the elements of a. network and then migrate it to a network diagram when you have all the concepts. relationships and influences to hand,Drawing Concept Maps and other network diagrams. There are many dozens of Mind Mapping software products on the market today and a. smaller number of dedicated Concept Mapping tools, The fragments of Mind Maps and Concept Maps in this article were all drawn with. Mindjet 11 for Windows The Concept Map elements were drawn with Network. Builder an extension for Mindjet 11 for Windows MindManager 2012 and. MindManager 9 that creates network diagrams Concept Maps flow charts and more. inside Mindjet MindManager maps This means that you can have a diagram that is a. Mind Map a Concept Map or a mixture of both on the same canvas or even multiple. network diagrams in the canvas and a choice of visualisation options within the same. Armed with your knowledge of Concept Maps you can now read the diagram below. which tells you more about Network Builder, For more information and to see further examples of Concept Maps and other. network diagrams please visit, http www olympic limited co uk product network builder.
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746 EMC Z20 - 746 EMC CAT - 746 EMC RF The FAAC model 746 automation for sliding gates is an electromechanical operator which transmits movement to the gate leaf by means of a rack and pinion or drive chain coupled in appropriate manner to the sliding gate. The irreversible system ensures that the gate is mechanically
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others who have an interest in the TOEIC test. This User Guide describes the uses of the TOEIC test and explains how it is administered. TOEIC program staff located around the world are available to explain how to use the TOEIC test most effectively, whether it is to help develop language assessment, training and recruiting policies, or simply to
WDC Ethogram 2013 During the association, whale(s) may engage in additional activities such as circling or diving under the vessel, spy hopping, flipper slapping, lobtailing, tail breaching and/or other surface display behaviors.
Introduction A MOVING TARGET: THE EVOLUTION OF HCI Jonathan Grudin Microsoft Corporation, USA SEPT 7 2010 DRAFT: PLEASE DON'T DISTRIBUTE UNTIL ASKING FOR CURRENT VERSION To appear in J. Jacko (Ed.), Human-Computer Interaction Handbook (3rd Edition), Taylor & Francis, 2011.