Munich Personal RePEc Archive Panel Data Analysis with Stata Part 1 Fixed E?ects and Random E?ects Models Pillai N., Vijayamohanan 2016 Online at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/76869/
Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Celtic Plus Scope And Research Areas 2016 2017
Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017, In 2003 the major European telecommunications vendors and operators decided to work together. and create an ambitious European R D programme providing the means to tackle issues related to. end to end communications This was to them the best option to address the roadblocks related to. a system view of communications in addition to designing and developing technological. components The Celtic Initiative as a EUREKA Cluster which was the outcome of their common. effort became widely recognized in the European ICT R D environment as a key enabler for. ambitious and innovative collaborative R D projects dedicated to communications solutions At the. end of the first phase in 2011 around 90 R D projects involving up to 500 R D organizations. representing a total R D budget of over 700 million euro had contributed to the Celtic Initiative. Programme Major achievements were made in service platforms new multimedia services and. new infrastructure solutions, By the end of this first period of the Celtic EUREKA Cluster the main challenges in. telecommunications evolved very fast As IP Multimedia Services IMS was the key word in the. beginning Future Internet became the key research focus area when the second period started in. 2011 as the EUREKA Cluster Celtic Plus Until today Celtic and Celtic Plus have labelled funded. and performed 143 projects in all their research areas with a total volume of more than one Billion. Euro In 2015 15 new projects were labelled with a total budget of 154 Mio Euro By facilitating. these collaborative R D projects Celtic and Celtic Plus have made a great contribution to help. Europe to stay at the competitive edge of the telecommunications industry. Celtic 2003 2015 No of projects Effort Person Years Budget M. Finished 103 6 610 708,Labelled and running 40 3 167 335. Total 143 9 774 1 043, Now in 2016 all human activities and business sectors are evolving towards the digital era The. introduction of digital technologies in economic and societal processes is needed The new ICT. infrastructure will be a key asset to support societal transformation leading to the fourth industrial. revolution impacting multiple sectors, Celtic Plus positions itself at the heart of the upcoming digital era with its Smart Connected World. concept In that new digital era different actors whether businesses communities or individuals. connect with each other share their contents and want to be aware of their contexts They are. connected to social networks and virtual worlds sharing knowledge within their community while at. the same time protecting also their privacy and public safety. This document which replaces the Celtic Plus Purple Book version 2013 provides insights into. the scope and main research areas which new Celtic Plus projects should focus on The research. areas in this document however are not binding Celtic Plus follows a bottom up industry driven. approach which allows proposers of Celtic Plus projects to define the content of their project. proposals according to their own research interests and priorities. Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017,2 TABLE OF CONTENT. 1 PREFACE 2,2 TABLE OF CONTENT 3,3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4. 4 CELTIC PLUS IN THE EVOLVING ICT MARKET 6,4 1 MAIN SOCIETAL AND ECONOMIC TRENDS 6. 4 2 MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS 7,4 3 OVERALL SCOPE OF CELTIC PLUS 9. 5 CELTIC PLUS MAIN RESEARCH TOPICS AND CHALLENGES 11. 5 1 NETWORKING AND CLOUDS 11,5 2 SERVICES AND APPLICATIONS 17. 6 CELTIC PLUS WAY OF WORKING 21,7 TAXONOMY OF CELTIC PLUS RESEARCH TOPICS 22. Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017,3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. All human activities and business sectors are evolving towards the digital era The new ICT. infrastructure will be a key asset to support societal transformation leading to the fourth industrial. revolution impacting multiple sectors New technologies and solutions at multidisciplinary level are. required to address such issues as developing new applications to reduce the need for travelling. and new technologies for reducing energy consumption and moreover to manage and control the. best use of energy in other business or private sectors such as health transport energy e. government urbanisation knowledge and culture, The communication technologies especially the 5G technology are essential to support a new era. where individuals communities and businesses will see the frontier between physical and digital. experience progressively become more transparent An end to end system approach is required in. the development of future communications related solutions that are critical not only to the ICT. industry but also to all other sectors As an example communications technologies and solutions. will support environmental awareness by helping domains such as health or transport better. manage and control the use of energy, Celtic Plus primarily focuses on two key areas Networking and Clouds and Services and. Applications, Networking and Clouds tackles the infrastructure and connectivity aspects Research topics are. related to network elements and infrastructures like wireless optics and energy efficiency as well. as network architecture and connectivity like networking and autonomic networks. Services and Applications includes future end to end services like digital citizen digital home. digital enterprise digital city digital school digital transports e health and games as well as. horizontal services like security public safety and identity. This document illustrates the main current research topics and challenges to stimulate the Celtic. Plus community to propose and work in projects covering the most important issues Those topics. include the following areas,Networking and Clouds, 5G the next generation of ubiquitous network infrastructure. Cloud Computing, Software Defined Networking and Network Function Virtualization. Internet of Things and Industrial Internet,Optical Networks. Satellite network and its convergence with terrestrial networks. Security privacy identity safety and trust,Network deployment operation and management. Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017,Services and Applications. Smart Cities and Smart Homes,Digital Enterprises,Other societal and governmental services. This document also explains the way in which Celtic Plus works The R D work is done in Celtic. Plus projects which are generated through regular Calls Normally there is a Spring Call closing in. May and an Autumn Call closing in October The project proposals continue the bottom up. industry driven approach following the main research aspects of this document extended by new. challenges that will become important Celtic Plus projects are private public partnership projects. partly funded by the participating countries A minimum of two EUREKA countries need to. participate in a Celtic Plus project, Finally the document contains a taxonomy of the Celtic Plus research topics This is important for. clarifying in which topical area and on which topics the various projects perform their work. It is planned to update this document once every two years. Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017,4 CELTIC PLUS IN THE EVOLVING ICT MARKET. Celtic Plus projects are oriented along the societal trends and needs commercial opportunities. and technological challenges in our global society. 4 1 Main societal and economic trends, Europe is faced with economic and societal challenges such as ageing of populations societal. cohesion and sustainable development Furthermore all human. activities and business sectors are evolving towards the digital The development of a. era In the period leading to 2030 the development of a digital digital society will. society will remain an important factor of globalisation giving. way to a knowledge economy decoupled from geographies remain an important. Timely easy and reliable access to data is a prerequisite for this factor of globalization. new economy Traffic growth will be drastically increased by. cloud mobile and streaming services the emergence of the Internet of Things and the nearly real. time processing of huge amounts of data, With the new appearing societal and economic challenges the communication technologies are. likely to play a large role and the introduction of digital technologies in economic and societal. processes is key to address these challenges The future information and communication. technology ICT will require infrastructures that are able to handle an exponential growth of traffic. New ICT will be essential to the creation of knowledge and to safeguard European heritage in a. digitalised form while making all this data more secure EUREKA Annual Report 2015. In the next decade it is expected that the manufacturing industry will evolve towards a distributed. organisation of production with connected goods low energy processes collaborative robots. integrated manufacturing and logistics The automotive and. New multimodal transportation sector will bring to market autonomous and cooperative. vehicles by 2020 with significantly improved safety and security. transportation standards as well as new multimodal transportation solutions Due to. solutions the ongoing development of renewables the traditional power grid will. evolve into a smart grid supporting a much more distributed generation. and storage of power with real time dynamic routing of electricity flows using smart meters in. houses Entertainment and digital media sectors are working on the integration of broadcast TV. and digital media including an ever increasing amount of user generated content high quality. media and innovative real time interfaces such as haptics E health and M health will optimise new. revolutionary concepts such as European Personalised or Individualised Healthcare and the. transition from hospital and specialist centred care models towards distributed patient centred. As a result of these transformations vertical industries shall have Vertical industries. enhanced technical capacity available to trigger the development of will trigger the. new products and services Identifying key vertical sectors. requirements anticipating relevant trends early and mapping them into development of. the ICT systems design is fundamental new products and. People will in the future have multiple sensors and actuators placed on. their body and around it Figure 1 Those things can synchronize with. the phone and give an active person an overview of the workout statistics elderly person an. outlook of the body condition or a diabetic the sugar levels These things can also if allowed. communicate with the city infrastructure providing statistics on the most popular running tracks or. health conditions of people in different neighbourhoods for instance If a person has a degraded. health condition or there is a health emergency a doctor can use body sensors and smartphone. camera to remotely diagnose the patient and if needed send help much faster. Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017, Figure 1 Your application environment following you anywhere Source Nokia. The new ICT infrastructures will be a key asset to support this societal transformation leading to. the fourth industrial revolution impacting multiple sectors The. New ICT infrastructures communication technologies are essential to support the new. era where individuals communities and businesses will see the. will lead to a fourth, frontier between physical and digital experience progressively. industrial revolution become more transparent, impacting multiple 5G infrastructure will cover the network needs and contribute to. the digitalization of vertical markets such as automotive. sectors banking education city management energy utilities finance. food and agriculture media government healthcare insurance manufacturing real estate. transportation and retail, The digitalisation will be the key enabler in the renewal of all industrial and societal sectors and in. maintaining the European competitiveness and as concluded in the European Council conclusions. 24 25 October 2013 As part of its growth strategy Europe must boost digital data driven. innovation across all sectors of the economy,4 2 Major technological trends. Future Internet has become and will be far more so in the future an engine for innovation. economic growth job creation and social progress It is accelerating innovation reshaping. established industries facilitating new ways of doing business and. transforming social behaviours At the same time this increasing Future Internet. diversification of usage patterns and of applications is posing stronger requirements on the. underlying networking and computing infrastructures The use and development of open source. software will be encouraged where appropriate to further promote openness and accelerate. innovation in Europe through the introduction of novel products and services. Future European society and economy and the Future Internet will strongly rely on the 5G. infrastructure The emergence and deployment of the 5G technology is likely to trigger. 5G innovation in many industries thus leveraging sustainable societal change There is a. vision for 5G to become a stakeholder driven holistic ecosystem for technical and business. innovation integrating networking computing and storage resources into one programmable and. unified infrastructure And how we travel how we experience our environment how we control. remote environments how the infrastructure supports us and how we produce goods will all be. changed by the 5G connectivity, The 5G architecture is expected to accommodate a wide range of use cases with advanced. requirements especially in terms of latency resilience coverage and bandwidth Figure 2 Thus. another major challenge is to provide the end to end network and cloud infrastructure slices over. the same physical infrastructure in order to fulfil the vertical specific requirements as well as the. mobile broadband services in parallel However the deployment of this new generation of mobile. technology in the next decade will also likely give rise to uses and consequences that are difficult. to foresee at the current time On the basis of the past generations of mobile technology the. Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017, increased networking supported by 5G is likely to stimulate economic growth not only in the. information and communication technology sector but in many areas of the economy. Figure 2 5G will need to support a wide variety of different users and business models. Source Nokia, Software Defined Networks SDN and Network Functions Virtualization NFV together with. Cloud Edge and Fog Computing can be seen as, facets of a broad innovation wave called Software Defined Networks. Softwarization which will contribute to automating Network Functions Virtualization. processes optimising costs reducing the time to, market and providing better services At the same Cloud Technologies. time the Internet of Things IoT Tactile Internet Internet of Things. Machine Type Communications MTC Cloud, Manufacturing Cloud Robotics etc will generate a new plethora of services and applications. ranging from industrial and mission critical ones to precision agriculture to Smart Cities etc. Big Data is a key economic asset to achieve competitiveness growth and jobs due to its potential. for impact and as an enabler for both horizontal and sector specific gains Big. Big Data Data and all information collected by the medical staff can help doctors make. the right choices more quickly A smart use of Big Data can help in managing. traffic flows and in making our cities smarter Big Data enables the timely and appropriate delivery. of products for consumers and efficient processes for business Mastering the creation of value. from Big Data will be a cornerstone in the future economic development and societal well being. In addition we will see some specific network platforms for each vertical sector with dedicated. features and performance requirements e g high reliability for health or automobile verticals or. high density of terminals for smart cities The use of COTS Commercial of the Shelf instead of. current proprietary technologies will change the market with these industries having a much greater. influence on the development of network services and their SMEs will be able to innovate and. launch new applications leveraging the new capabilities of 5G. Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017,4 3 Overall Scope of Celtic Plus. In order to respond to all the societal and economic challenges Celtic Plus will primarily focus on. two key areas Networking and Clouds and Services and Applications Figure 3. Figure 3 Celtic Plus focus areas, Networking and Clouds tackles the infrastructure and connectivity aspects Research topics are. related to network elements and infrastructures like wireless optics and energy efficiency as well. as network architecture and connectivity like networking and autonomic networks. 5G is expected to represent a major leap forward from current telecommunications technologies. including revolutionary changes in radio interfaces and spectrum use On the basis of current. trends and potential uses 5G networks will be faster always accessible highly reliable and. efficient in handling a very large number of devices including smart objects in the Internet of. Things By supporting a world in which anyone and anything will be connected at anytime and. anywhere 5G is expected to enable new applications in various domains including entertainment. health transport and industry, An important change in the ICT market is the shift from dedicated hardware to software and cloud. technologies Cloud platforms and open source software are also emerging in the mobile networks. together with Software Defined Networking SDN and Network Functions Virtualization NFV. SDN NFV is an attempt to provide better control and automation over the resource management. e g network computing storage and software by dynamically allocating the resources to meet. the needs of different end users i e consumers and corporate customers Due to the control. plane and data plane split SDN provides better hardware independence for the operators than. before In addition NFV and the use of standard data center hardware provides economies of. scale in computing and storage resources, From the business side the SDN NFV architecture lowers the initial network investment energy. consumption and network management costs for the operators At the same time SDN NFV. encourages openness and competition as well as promotes new investments into the mobile. connectivity and content industry, Important topics in the Networking and Clouds area include. 5G the next generation of mobile and wireless networks bringing broadband to everybody. Cloud computing enabling ubiquitous access for storing and processing data. Internet of Things with its sensor networks including billions of sensors and activators. Energy efficiency to reduce the enormous amount of energy the current ICT requires. Satellite network and its convergence with terrestrial networks. Network deployment operation and management for economically sustainable networks. Security privacy identity and public safety including the critical communications. infrastructure, Services and Applications includes future end to end services like digital citizen digital home. digital enterprise digital city digital school digital transports e health and games as well as. horizontal services like security public safety and identity It also includes business aspects like. the evolution of value networks in the telecommunication focus area forecasting the changes in the. value networks and business models New aspects related to the Future Internet will come into. consideration in particular such issues which are closer to the market. Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017, Important topics in the Services and Applications area include. Smart Cities and Smart Homes which,require a cross sector approach supported. by the EUREKA Smart City Intercluster, Digital enterprises to ensure that European enterprises stay competitive in the global. E health solutions in response to the challenges of the aging European population E. health applications can make use of wearable devices worn by patients in their own home. to monitor variables such as blood pressure pulse and breathing rate. Big data including the related research challenges for e g data capture storage. analysis transfer and privacy, Road transport that can become safer and more efficient as connected cars share. information in real time with other vehicles, New industry and manufacturing services enabled by the Machine Type Communication. MTC Intelligent connected robots in the Factory of the Future can communicate with. each other and parts to increase manufacturing efficiency reduce costs and produce. individualised one off products,page 10 23,Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017. 5 CELTIC PLUS MAIN RESEARCH TOPICS AND CHALLENGE S. This chapter outlines topical and important research subjects and challenges in the ICT and. Telecommunication area It serves mainly two purposes. Complement the scope of Celtic Plus with concrete and topical items. Act as a kind of stimulus on important research items for the potential proposers of Celtic. Plus projects, The lists of items in the following sub sections are not comprehensive Following the bottom up. approach of Celtic Plus proposers are free to propose projects on any subjects as long as they. are related to ICT and Telecommunication,5 1 Networking and Clouds. Networking and Clouds addresses everything needed to establish run support and secure a. communication The key topics of the current and future Celtic Plus projects are related to the 5G. network architecture Cloud Computing SDN NFV Internet of Things Optical networks satellite. communication mobility security scalability robustness and energy efficiency. 5G the next generation of ubiquitous network infrastructure. It is expected that 5G will really bring broadband to everybody no matter. whether in a city countryside house office or on the move The importance of. 5G has been recognised by the major players in Europe and a Billion Euro 5G. Infrastructure Public Private Partnership 5G PPP has been initiated by the EU. Commission industry telecommunications operators and service providers. SMEs and researchers https 5g ppp eu,Key challenges for 5G are source 5G PPP. Data Rate The most demanding vertical use cases are related to Media Entertainment. with maximum values in the order of Gb s, Mobility speed The most demanding vertical use cases are related to Automotive and. eHealth with maximum value in the order of 500 km h. E2E Latency The most demanding vertical use cases are related to Factories with. minimum values of 100 s to 10 ms, Density number of devices The most demanding vertical use cases are related to. Factories with up to 100 m2, Reliability The most demanding vertical use cases are related to eHealth with values up to. Position Accuracy Location The most demanding vertical use cases are related to. Automotive with minimum values in the order of 0 3 m. Service Deployment Time Programmable networks and multi tenant capability in 5G will. ensure speedy deployment of services e g 5G Infrastructure PPP targets 90 minutes for. service deployment, Data Volume Quantity of information transferred downlink and uplink per time interval. over a dedicated area e g 5G Infrastructure PPP targets a maximum of 10 Tb s km2. Security System characteristic ensuring globally the protection of resources and. encompassing several dimensions such as authentication dataconfi dentiality data. integrity access control non repudiation, Identity Characteristic to identify sources of content and recognise entities in the system. One key parameter to guarantee the fast adoption of 5G is the possibility to access low. cost solutions in several use cases of the vertical sectors. Enabling advanced user controlled privacy, This new high performance network will be operated via a scalable management framework. enabling fast deployment of novel applications including sensor based applications with significant. reduction of the network management costs,Cloud Computing. Cloud Computing is an expression used to describe a variety of computing concepts that involve. page 11 23,Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017. a large number of computers connected through a real time communication network such as the. Internet In science Cloud Computing is a synonym for distributed computing over a network and. means the ability to run a program or application on many connected computers at the same time. With the success of cloud technology in the enterprise realm the telecom industry is now looking to. the cloud to have the same benefits economies of scale cost effectiveness scalability lower. CAPEX and OPEX Operators want to exploit cloud technologies in their central offices and. network functions to achieve these benefits,Key research challenges of Cloud Computing are. Availability accessibility and reliability of the Cloud Computing service. Interoperability between the Clouds of different service providers. Cloud management including maintenance automatic recovery etc. Security privacy and data protection especially across country borders. Multi tenancy in Clouds, New business and cost models and accounting management. In today s non virtualised networks Netwok Functions are implemented as a combination of vendor. specific software and hardware often referred to as network nodes or network elements To launch. a new network service often requires yet another network element and finding the space and. power to accommodate these boxes is becoming increasingly difficult in additon to the complexity. of integrating and deploying these elements in a network Network Functions Virtualization NFV. aims to address these problems by evolving standard IT virtualization technology to consolidate. many network equipment types onto industry standard high volume servers switches and storage. It involves implementing network functions in software that can run on a range of industry standard. server hardware and that can be moved to or instantiated in various locations in the network as. required without the need to install new equipment. Software Defined Networking SDN provides a powerful complement to NFV s ability to maximum. utilization of hardware resources SDN is an emerging network architecture where the network. control is decoupled from the forwarding and is directly programmable This migration of control. enables the underlying infrastructure to be abstracted for applications and network services It will. also open up new opportunities for the traffic resource and mobility management as well as. impose new challenges on the network security It is foreseen that the investments on the networks. and the operational costs will affected Furthermore the value chains may change and new. business models emerge,Key research challenges of SDN NFV are. Adaptive de composition and allocation of mobile network functions access and core. time critical functions and less time critical functions network functions for services with. tight latency requirement may be centrally located at the network cloud while more. intelligence may be placed at the edge of the network for low latency services. Joint optimisation of mobile access and core network functions localized together in the. network cloud or edge cloud, A unified management of SDN NFV based connectivity with end to end security mobility. and routing, Ensuring the appropriate level of resilience to hardware and software failures. Solutions to provision SDN NFV networks across administrative boundaries e g multiple. operators customer networks datacentres and interoperability issues between multiple. SDN control domains, Managing and orchestrating many virtual network appliances particularly alongside legacy. management systems while ensuring security from attack and misconfiguration. APIs for the fast creation of new network information based services. The effects onto the current business models and value chains in mobile networks and on. the opening of possible new models, Integrating multiple virtual appliances from different vendors Network operators need to be. able to mix match hardware from different vendors hypervisors from different vendors. and virtual appliances from different vendors without incurring significant integration costs. page 12 23,Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017. and avoiding lock in,Internet of Things Industrial Internet. Internet of Things IoT is the network of physical objects devices vehicles buildings and other. items embedded with electronics software sensors and network connectivity that enables these. objects to collect and exchange data IoT allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely. across existing network infrastructure creating opportunities for more direct integration of the. physical world into computer based systems and resulting in improved efficiency accuracy and. economic benefit When IoT is augmented with sensors and actuators the technology becomes an. instance of the more general class of cyber physical systems which also encompasses. technologies such as smart grids smart homes intelligent transportation and smart cities. The concept of Industrial Internet has recently emerged as a topic of considerable attention The. level of ambition of the concept has been raised to no less than changing profoundly how the. manufacturing industries base their operations to ICT by exploiting novel technologies such as. sensors actuators wireless networks clouds computational modeling and simulation and mobile. user interfaces in short bringing manufacturing industries and their ecosystems truly to Internet. Gartner predicts 26 billion connected devices by 2020 between the 18 billion predicted by Machina. Research by 2022 and Cisco s prediction of 50 billion by 2020 Machina Research expects that. connections will be dominated by two sectors consumer electronics including cameras music. players and TVs and intelligent buildings e g security and heating ventilation and air. conditioning so called HVAC systems Short range technology will dominate M2M 73 of M2M. devices will be connected by short range technologies In terms of revenue Machina Research. expects an impressive compound annual growth rate CAGR of 16 reaching a total volume of. 1 3 trillion US dollar in 2022 Two thirds of the revenue opportunity is accounted for by devices and. installation and one third by M2M services, Key research challenges in the area of IoT include. Source Eurescom Message Autumn 2014 The Internet of Things an overview by Adam. IoT will have very different network and data transmission requirements with regards to. connectivity than traditional network clients e g low throughput low bandwidth messages. from many devices, Low energy consumption of sensors activators and related communication infrastructure. incl radio communication, Low cost and extreme cost effectivity to permit very high volume deployment. Small size simplicity and ease of deployment and maintenance. page 13 23,Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017. Security i e physical and logical access prevention device to device security. Reliability and robustness i e sensors must operate for decades without maintenance. Standards and regulatory frameworks i e connecting millions of objects without roaming. restrictions or administrative hurdles, Information and communication technology are power hogs Computers printers servers mobile. devices and telecommunication networks are not energy efficient Although improvements have. been made the projections show that by 2020 the global greenhouse gas emissions from ICT will. double from today s 2 percent to 4 percent, The largest worldwide emitter is by far the production of electricity with 30 percent of that power. typically generated by fossil fuel sources And demand for electricity is growing especially for. powering networks More people than ever are using the Internet and other communication. networks annual growth in traffic doubles every two years By 2020 21 billion devices will be. connected to the Internet according to the technology research company Gartner By 2035 the. International Energy Agency projects that total demand for electricity will be almost 70 percent. higher than today IEEE Green ICT initiative, The components that make up today s traditional communication networks were built primarily with. performance not energy efficiency in mind As more of everything comes online the energy. consumption of base stations set top boxes routers and the rest of the infrastructure to say. nothing of data centers is rising and so is the cost of running a network. Climate change and environment protection are global concerns As far as ICT is concerned. energy savings are always twofold, Making ICT devices and communication networks more energy efficient and. Saving energy in other sectors through applying ICT services and technology. Key research challenges of Green ICT are, Finding ways to increase the energy efficiency and shrink the carbon footprint of. communication and data networks including the Internet. Utilise renewable energy for powering the ICT systems. Research on energy efficient architectures and systems and services. Smart Energy Grids ensuring timely support of the energy demand and pursuing. maximum exploitation of green energy sources, Energy distribution in provision of necessary communications infrastructure including. integration of decentralised and renewable sources and energy consumption optimisation. at homes buildings factories areas etc, Controlling home appliances e g lights refrigerators according to consumer patterns in a. most efficient way, Replacing the physical world through cyber world e g Web and Video conferencing. instead of physical travel, Working towards Green ICT is not only helping our planet to survive but it can also lead to very. positive business and societal effects and increase the employment rate. Optical networks, Sustained traffic increase in the range of 30 40 per year driven by video traffic data mobile. applications and data centres traffic put strong pressure on optical networks to accommodate for. this bandwidth demand explosion while keeping cost and energy consumption at affordable levels. This concerns core networks metropolitan networks access networks as well as intra data center. networks with scales and constraints specific to each segment Moreover demand variability. associated to the need to optimise resource by reducing over provisioning calls for more agile and. programmable optical networks with a high degree of reconfigurability and dynamic adaptation. capability,Key research challenges of optical networks are. Increase the total capacity per fibre while maintaining system reach. Advanced digital processing to optimise modulation formats and compensate for. page 14 23,Celtic Plus Scope and Research Areas 2016 2017. transmission impairments,Spectral efficiency optimisation. Improvement of optical layer energy per bit, Accurate and fast prediction of transmission impairments for path provisioning. Self diagnosis protection restoration and optimization with efficient use of monitoring. Hitless zero packet loss adaptive optical interfaces. Software defined control of optical layer and integration with IP layer. Satellite network and its convergence with terrestrial networks. There is still a persisting gap between the two communities i e the satellite and terrestrial. networks 5G is seen as a unique opportunity for integration of the satellite networks with the. terrestrial networks as 5G by definition should encompass all transmission technologies Using. satellites can bring unique benefits to 5G and nicely complement the terrestrial solutions. broadcast large coverage area very high sharing of the backhaul environment. The role of satellites in the future communication systems is depicted in Figure 6 below. Figure 6 The role of the satellites in the future communication systems. source Booz Co Why satellites matter http www esoa net news info 30 htm. Potential topics of interest on this area, There is a definite need for trialling and demonstrating key 5G technologies incorporating. satellite components and using IoT as one of the main application area the other being. content delivery, Satellite can offer mature technology and solutions e g regarding modems etc that may. fit in terrestrial concepts and nicely complement them connectivity for very high speed. mobile nodes high speed trains etc, The satellite ground segment is currently being re thought and undergoing the same. transformations dictated by software defined networking just as any terrestrial network. components, Early attempts are on their way to make space segment technologies and payloads ready. to accept virtual machines offering entirely new opportunities including separation. redundancy testing in lab on the ground and shipping to space new functions. IP enabled video distribution via satellite is another interesting segment and likely. candidate for convergence with terrestrial in the process of CDN Content Delivery.
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Munich Personal RePEc Archive Panel Data Analysis with Stata Part 1 Fixed E?ects and Random E?ects Models Pillai N., Vijayamohanan 2016 Online at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/76869/
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