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Guide Guide to Long Span Concrete Floors,Cement and Concrete Association of Australia. First published 1988,Second edition August 2003,Cement and Concrete Association of Australia 2003. Except where the Copyright Act allows otherwise no. part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a. retrieval system in any form or transmitted by any. means without prior permission in writing from the. Cement and Concrete Association of Australia, The information provided in this publication is intended. for general guidance only and in no way replaces the. services of professional consultants on particular projects. No liability can therefore be accepted by the Cement. and Concrete Association of Australia for its use,DESIGN AND LAYOUT Helen Rix Design. ILLUSTRATION TechMedia Publishing Pty Ltd,ISBN 1 877023 09 4.
SYDNEY OFFICE,Level 6 504 Pacific Highway,St Leonards NSW Australia 2065. POSTAL ADDRESS,Locked Bag 2010,St Leonards NSW 1590. TELEPHONE 61 2 9437 9711,FACSIMILE 61 2 9437 9470, The Cement and Concrete Association of Australia is BRISBANE OFFICE. a not for profit organisation established in 1928 and Level 14 IBM Building. committed to serving the Australian construction 348 Edward Street. community Brisbane Queensland 4000, The Association is acknowledged nationally and TELEPHONE 61 7 3831 3288. internationally as Australia s foremost cement and FACSIMILE 61 7 3839 6005. concrete information body taking a leading role in. education and training research and development MELBOURNE OFFICE. technical information and advisory services and 2nd Floor 1 Hobson Street. being a significant contributor to the preparation of South Yarra Victoria 3141. Codes and Standards affecting building and TELEPHONE 61 3 9825 0200. building materials FACSIMILE 61 3 9825 0222, The Association s principle aims are to protect and.
PERTH OFFICE,extend the uses of cement concrete and cement. 45 Ventnor Avenue,based products by advancing knowledge skill and. West Perth Western Australia 6005, professionalism in Australian concrete construction. TELEPHONE 61 8 9389 4452,and by promoting continual awareness of products. FACSIMILE 61 8 9389 4451, their energy efficient properties and their uses and.
of the contribution the industry makes towards a,ADELAIDE OFFICE. better environment,Greenhill Executive Suites, Cement and Concrete Association of Australia 213 Greenhill Road. ABN 34 000 020 486 Eastwood South Australia 5063,POSTAL ADDRESS. PO Box 229,Fullarton South Australia 5063,TELEPHONE 61 8 8274 3758. FACSIMILE 61 8 8373 7210,WEBSITE www concrete net au.
EMAIL info ccaa com au, Concrete floor systems offer the designer a wide Relevant Australian Standards. variety of options from which to choose a floor system. AS NZS 1170 0 Structural design actions General,for a particular project All of these systems. principles Standards Australia 2002,incorporate the many advantages which concrete. bestows Most importantly it is a plastic material when AS NZS 1170 1 Structural design actions. fresh and can be moulded into any shape the Permanent imposed and other. designer chooses Thus it imposes almost no actions Standards Australia 2002. restriction on the plan of the floor although individual AS NZS 1170 2 Structural design actions Wind. systems may impose limitations Further concrete actions Standards Australia 2002. allows a variety of surface finish colour and texture to. be used Concrete is non combustible and possesses AS 1311 Steel tendons for prestressed. good insulating qualities concrete floor systems can concrete 7 wire stress relieved steel. thus be designed to meet the requirements for fire strand for tendons in prestressed. resistance Concrete is also a durable material and concrete Standards Australia 1987. can easily be designed to meet the durability AS 1366 3 Rigid cellular plastics sheets for. requirements for the particular exposure location while thermal insulation Rigid cellular. the abrasion resistance of the floor surface can be polystyrene Moulded RC PS M. adjusted to meet the most demanding requirements Standards Australia 1992. This Guide concentrates on the structural design of. AS 1530 4 4 Methods for fire tests on building,the floor system and the designer should consult. materials components and,other manuals for advice on how to specify the.
structures Fire resistance tests of, concrete mix and construction practices to achieve. elements of building construction,the desired performance see Bibliography. Standards Australia 1997,The permission of the National Precast Concrete. AS 3600 Concrete structures Standards, Association Australia to use material from its Precast. Australia 2001,Concrete Handbook in the section on precast floor.
systems is gratefully acknowledged AS 3610 Formwork for concrete Standards. Australia 1995, The charts for the insitu floors have been prepared. using the computer program RAPT version 5 41 as Supplement 2 Formwork for concrete. licensed by the Prestressed Concrete Design Commentary including Amdt 1. Consultants PCDC to the Cement and Concrete Standards Australia 1996. Association of Australia AS NZS 4671 Steel reinforcing materials Standards. This Guide supersedes Design Guide for Long span Australia 2001. Concrete Floors T36 published by the Cement and,Concrete Association of Australia and the Steel. Reinforcement Promotion Group in 1988, CHAPTER 1 Scope 1 CHAPTER 7 Precast and Composite Floor. 7 1 General 27,CHAPTER 2 Process of Floor Selection 2. 7 2 Hollowcore 28,7 3 Permanent formwork or soffit.
CHAPTER 3 Architectural Considerations,3 1 General 3. 7 4 Composite floors beam,3 2 Floor zone thickness 3 and infill 32. 3 3 Services 3 7 5 Solid slabs 34, 3 4 Penetrations 4 7 6 Single and double T beams 36. CHAPTER 4 Structural Considerations CHAPTER 8 References 39. 4 1 General 6,4 2 Strength 6 CHAPTER 9 Bibliography 40. 4 3 Deflection 6,4 4 Cantilevers 7,4 5 Vibration 8.
4 6 Crack control 8,4 7 Check list for structural design. procedures 8,CHAPTER 5 Construction Considerations. 5 1 General 10,5 2 Formwork 10,5 3 Reinforcement 11. 5 4 Joints 11,CHAPTER 6 Insitu Concrete Floor Systems. 6 1 General 12,6 2 Flat slab 14,6 3 Flat plate 16,6 4 Beam and slab 19.
6 5 Ribbed waffle slab 20,6 6 Band beam and slab 22. 6 7 Slab and joist 26,CHAPTER 1 Scope,Concrete structures have for many years dominated. the Australian multi storey commercial and residential. building scene Landmark projects such as Sydney s, MLC building and Melbourne s Rialto rank among the. tallest reinforced concrete buildings in the world and. testify to the skills of Australian designers builders. and tradesmen, Traditionally column spacings and floor spans in these. buildings have been in the range of 6 to 9 metres to. both contain costs and simplify construction, However recently there is an increasing preference by.
building owners and tenants for large floor areas with. column free space and spans from 9 to 16 metres,This has focused the interest of designers and. builders on methods of reducing costs and speeding. construction of long span floors For the purposes of. this Guide long span floor systems are generally,spanning greater than six metres for reinforced. concrete systems or eight metres for prestressed,systems Some systems are effective below these. arbitrary limits and their full range is included herein. for completeness, The aim of this Guide is to provide designers with an. appreciation of the factors that should be taken into. account in selecting a floor system for a particular. building A section on the major architectural, considerations is followed by another on the major.
structural design considerations and one on, construction considerations These are followed by a. description of the various floor systems photographs. sketches of each showing the appearance of the soffit. and a chart indicating the economical spans and load. capacities to aid in their selection,The Guide provides discussion on only the common. factors to be considered in the choice of a floor, system Designers are responsible for identifying and. designing for all the requirements specific to their. particular project eg attack by chemicals to be used. in the manufacturing process to be carried out in the. building or specific limits required on deflections or. It is emphasised that the graphs are not design, charts but aids to enable designers to quickly identify. appropriate floor systems to carry the applied loading. for the desired span and thus provide approximate,dimensions for the preliminary design.
CHAPTER 2 Process of Floor Selection, 2 PROCESS OF FLOOR SELECTION Final Design when the client requirements are. finalised and the chosen preliminary design scheme. The process of selecting a floor system can be, is fully analysed designed and detailed for the whole. complex covering architectural structural and,design life including construction and demolition. construction considerations and generally will involve. covering all limit states Durability fire resistance and. several iterations or progressive refinements until the. other relevant design actions also have to be, final choice is made and the detailed design can be. considered At this stage the project documentation. undertaken It encompasses a number of identifiable. plans and specifications etc are prepared and,stages commencing with a conceptual design of the.
submitted for approval and if required a further cost. structure and ending in the completed design,check carried out. approved for construction These stages can be, summarised as The effect of loads forces and deformations on the. joints and the behaviour of the total structure under. Conceptual Design when the space and usage,the various design actions should always be. requirements the architectural appearance the,considered Restraint by loadbearing walls and. standard of quality and the broad requirements for the. columns under the slab of volume change, structure are defined It will also consider how the.
deformation in floors due to shrinkage or tensioning. structure will perform and how it is to be built In. of the floor system should always be considered, addition a preliminary cost estimate should be made. otherwise significant cracking is likely to occur in the. to confirm that the project is economically viable. floor system and or supporting elements,Usually a number of alternative schemes will be. evaluated and perhaps a couple chosen for further For precast floors the following may need to be. evaluation at the next stage considered during the design process. Preliminary Design when the client requirements The design of the member during handling. for the project are refined and the chosen alternative transport and erection. schemes considered in more detail In this stage for. The design of the structure during construction,each scheme being evaluated the following aspects. sequence support of individual members,of the total structure have to be defined. bracing including structural robustness required,Lateral load resisting systems by AS NZS 1170 0.
Framing plans The design of the completed structure. Preliminary member sizes including floor,thicknesses These may be based on span to. depth ratios the charts in this Guide or a,preliminary structural design carried out to. confirm proposed sizes,Control of volume change deformations and. restraint forces,Connection concepts, Approximate member sizes for the alternative designs. are used to develop more precise costing for each,scheme to find the optimum solution Planning.
application based on the preferred scheme is usually. submitted and if required a more detailed cost,estimate is prepared to confirm the project is on. CHAPTER 3 Architectural Considerations, 3 ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS system to allow access to the services supported on. a tee bar system or similar with hangers to the floor. 3 1 General over Alternatively an applied ceiling finish to the soffit. The numerous architectural considerations for any of the floor can be used The gravity services of. particular project range from space requirements for sewer and stormwater usually have precedence over. the various processes and activities to be carried out other services as they must be laid to nominated falls. inside the building to the overall appearance of the. Minimising the floor zone thickness can provide a, building both in isolation and in its context By and. significant cost benefit If there is a limit on the overall. large these are similar for floors of any span The. height of the building it will maximise the number of. aspects considered herein are those that are,storeys that can be provided Alternatively if the. significant or peculiar to long span floors ie floor zone. number of storeys is fixed it will minimise the height. thickness services penetrations through the floor, and therefore the cost of all vertical elements This.
and generally have a direct impact on the design of. is particularly significant for the external walls in. the floor system Nevertheless other aspects not, which relatively high cost materials will often be used. considered herein may be controlling factors eg a, requirement on limiting vibration facade treatment etc. The requirements for the surface finish on floors are. no different to those for normal span floors except. perhaps for drainage gradients because of their,sensitivity to deflection see Section 4 3. In most cases the soffit finish is produced off formwork. even for precast elements If the soffit is visible in the. completed building the effect of the formwork and,the pattern it makes on the surface needs to be. Floor level, considered While the appearance of the floor structure.
when it is to be exposed to view is often decided by. Varies with services, the architect the structural designer must be aware of. FLOOR ZONE, aesthetics and participate in achieving the desired. appearance for the completed building If the soffit is. to receive a plaster coating then consideration needs Services. to be given to providing a suitable texture to the soffit. It is extremely difficult if not impossible to get plaster. coatings to adhere to surfaces of high strength, concrete that have a high density eg surfaces of F I G U R E 1 Typical floor zone. members cast against steel formwork,3 2 Floor zone thickness. 3 3 Services, The thickness of the floor zone is greater than the.
Services need to move horizontally along and across. overall depth of the floor system It includes the depth. the floor and vertically from floor to floor in a building. required for any floor finishes set downs or set ups. without clashing The architect structural designer. falls and the depth required to accommodate below, and the services designer should liaise closely to. floor building services Figure 1 In modern buildings. ensure that services such as ducts cables and the, these often include air conditioning ductwork and fan. penetrations for the services do not jeopardise the. coil units ventilation and exhaust ducts sanitary floor. structural behaviour of the floor system or the,traps and waste pipes stormwater waste pipes hot. operation of the building,and cold water fire water and sprinklers smoke. detectors data and electrical cabling lighting and Electrical data and telephone ducts are sometimes. many other specialist services Below these services cast within the slab thickness A single electrical duct. there is usually a suspended ceiling often a tile does not reduce the slab capacity significantly. the building frequently adjacent to stairs lift shafts. rear walls and the like Incorporating services except. small electrical conduits within concrete columns and. walls should be avoided Columns and walls are, highly stressed elements and reducing the concrete.
cross section available to carry the load may, necessitate increasing the dimensions or the required. concrete strength Further bringing the service duct. through the reinforcing cage in a column wall or,footing will involve loss of support area and can. involve having to modify the reinforcing cage Later. modification of the service due to changes over the. life of the building is also difficult while with water. waste water or sanitary drainage services there is the. F I G U R E 2 Cables placed within a slab potential for corrosion of the column reinforcement. Set downs in the top of slabs are often required for. bathrooms and toilets or areas open to the weather. However two or more ducts tied to a reinforcing bar These setdowns allow finishes such as floor tiles to be. may significantly reduce its bond and effectiveness laid on the concrete to the required falls for drainage. Certainly the effect of a number of ducts brought to a In buildings such as hotels and hospitals the extent. central distribution point must be evaluated both of such setdowns can be significant Set downs of. structurally and from a fire resistance requirement 20 100 mm may be required and this will need to be. Concentrations of service ducts should be identified allowed in the floor system design in terms of both. at the design stage and appropriate design strategies structural performance and fire rating. used to accommodate them eg locate service boxes The requirements for services will change with time. into deepened areas of the slab Figure 2 Locating quite apart from any change implicit in change of. these ducts under a false floor above the structural occupancy Thus at the design stage consideration. slab will also avoid the problem should be given to how future changes in the. Services located below the floor system may pose requirements for services are to be accommodated. other problems of support and transverse distribution The design should facilitate these future decisions. past or through intervening beams or bands It is even though they cannot be foreseen in detail For. normal for the service contractor to support the example incorporating an access floor on top of the. services with light drilled fixings into the soffit of the structural slab provides a space where horizontal. floor within the cover zone The location of heavy duty services can be relocated or updated as necessary. fixings which extend beyond the cover zone or drilled Similarly marking the positions of prestressing cable. cut or cored holes or penetrations through the floor ducts on the soffit of the slab by using plastic supports. system should have approval of the designer to or similar to hold the ducts in the desired position. ensure that the structural performance is unimpaired means that future penetrations through the slab can. For example a transverse duct with either dimension avoid the cables with a high degree of reliability. greater than say 0 25D through the web of a beam,3 4 Penetrations. can significantly reduce its shear and or its flexural. capacity Large penetrations through a floor for major ducts. non loadbearing stairs or lift shafts are part of the. The designer may also have to nominate fixing zones structural design of the floor system Loads due to. and coring zones for services in prestressed and large non loadbearing ducts shafts stairs and lifts. precast floor systems and the loads of surrounding floor are usually carried. Vertical services are usually accommodated by by bands or beams around the perimeter of the. providing penetrations through the floor structure penetration which in turn carry the loads back to the. These are often in riser ducts in one location within columns or adjacent beams. Vertical services such as downpipes tend to be,located adjacent to columns because columns. provide lateral support and protection However from. a structural point of view locating services adjacent to. the columns is not ideal At this location the shear. and moment are usually a maximum and there is, therefore a concentration of reinforcing steel and or.
prestressing tendons to provide the necessary, flexural and shear strength Furthermore this may not. be a desirable location for a rainwater downpipe from. a flat roof as the column is likely to be a high point of. a roof the roof will tend to sag between columns, This may not be true for fully prestressed structures. as the floor system will tend to hog between columns. however the comment regarding high shear and,moment still applies. F I G U R E 4 Services in a column,Vertical penetrations through floors over say. 200 mm by 200 mm or where many penetrations are, anticipated are best detailed on the design drawings.
Consideration should be given to providing more, penetrations or larger penetrations than those initially. required so as to provide space for later expansion. of services Generally these penetrations will require. to be designed to achieve the fire resistance required. for the floor system or be enclosed in a fire rated duct. Beams and slabs can be designed to accommodate, fairly large horizontal penetrations reasonably close to. columns but these need to be designed and detailed. on the drawings and their detailing not left to the. service contractor The possible rearrangement of the. reinforcement layout to suit the service contractor. should be avoided at all costs Consideration should. be given to reducing the depth of the beam or band. locally by using a haunch notch etc to avoid,penetrations Upstand beams can sometimes be. incorporated around service ducts to allow services to. exit below the floors easily Small horizontal,penetrations up to say 50 100 mm in diameter can. usually be accommodated in the middle third of a,beam depth However this restriction may make it.
difficult to accommodate pipes needing falls,particularly where there are long horizontal runs. F I G U R E 3 Services and penetrations Figures 3 and 4 show examples of various services. through slabs and penetrations through slabs beams and columns. CHAPTER 4 Structural Considerations,4 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS 4 2 Strength. The design of long span concrete floors has to conform. 4 1 General, to the requirements of the Building Code of Australia. The aim in the structural design of long span floors is BCA 1 and the principles of design as contained in. to provide a serviceable and economical floor,AS NZS 1170 and AS 3600 In essence these follow. structure The floor must meet the client s needs as set. limit state design principles and require that, out in the brief and also reflect community expectations.
for safety amenity and environmental impacts actions for each limit state are determined. A serviceable long span floor is one that has sufficient the structure and its parts are analysed for the. strength to carry the permanent and imposed actions appropriate actions using the specified. as well having adequate stiffness to limit deflection combinations of factored actions and. and vibrations It must have the required resistance the structural responses under the above actions. against fire be durable and be visually acceptable do not exceed the appropriate member or section. if exposed to view The floor may also have to resist capacity. actions other than vertical actions and meet other. design criteria such as watertightness or chemical For example for the design for the strength limit state. resistance the design strength of the section shall not be less. than the design action effect derived from the, The aspects of durability and fire resistance while combination of factored actions ie Rd Ru S. requiring careful consideration are not peculiar to. long span floor systems and are not discussed Generally section dimensions and properties are. herein Similarly while the appropriate specification of estimated initially and the member analysed for the. the concrete and the reinforcing materials will have a applied actions Choosing appropriate dimensions is. direct impact on the performance and long term a matter of experience and using general sizing rules. behaviour of the floor this is no different to their such as span to depth ratios or the charts in this. impact on other concrete structures Designers are Guide The dimensions of the member are adjusted if. therefore referred to the bibliography for further the section is either under strength or significantly. information on these aspects over strength or if the serviceability or any other limit. state is exceeded The fundamental concept of the, An economical long span floor is one that optimises ductility of reinforced concrete structures has been. the material and labour costs Minimum weight does re emphasised in the most recent editions of AS 3600. not necessarily result in the lowest cost Structural. designers should review the design progressively as it 4 3 Deflection. proceeds to ensure the structural design is integrated Designers should appreciate that deflection is just as. with other aspects of the design of the building eg important as strength in the structural design of. building services and no significant errors have been concrete floors particularly in the design of shallow. made The accuracy of structural design theories reinforced concrete floors systems Special attention. applied actions and material properties is such that should be given to the proportioning of the floor. there is no point in determining actions or member system for deflection before the final design. sizes to an excessive degree of accuracy, The rules for deflection control given in the current. The designer should have a feel for how the floor will edition of AS 3600 incorporate some changes from. work understand how the actions will be resisted and those given in previous editions Table 2 4 2 of AS 3600. where the forces will go Importantly designers should suggests a limit of span 250 for the total deflection. also consider buildability and other construction and states that this applies to the idealised frame as. issues to ensure the floor can be built efficiently It is set out in AS 3600 For long span floors these limits. also important that the designer reviews progressively may not be appropriate As an example a 60 mm. and checks the drawings of the floor prior to deflection in a 15 m span meets the span 250 rule but. construction to ensure that the intent of the design may be visually unacceptable and affect partitions and. has been properly translated onto the drawings walls under Designers need to carefully consider such. effects and may need to design for a lesser deflection. For two way floor systems such as flat plates or flat. slabs the deflection of the column strip may need to. be limited to say 25 30 mm so that the deflection in. the centre of the slab between the columns in the, middle strip is not too high Designers will need to. consider if the column strip deflection an average of. the column strip and the middle strip deflections or. the maximum deflection in the centre of the slab, between the columns is the controlling deflection It is.
strongly recommended that the expected order of, deflections be discussed with the architect the client. and the user or owner of the building so that they. understand what orders of long term deflections may. be expected and how this may affect the operation of. the building Excessive long term deflections can lead. to unserviceable floors and in the extreme the need. for demolition, Reinforced floors can be precambered to counteract. F I G U R E 5 Cantilevered floor slabs, the effects of long term deflection but care is needed. in applying such cambers It is suggested cambering. be limited to a maximum of half of the total deflection. Architectural and other components both under and Many inherent variables affect camber and deflection. over eg partitions including deflection heads glass eg early stripping of formwork for insitu floors. walls folding doors can be affected by deflections incorrect back propping time of release of prestress. which can cause unintended load transfer to the walls time of erection and application of imposed actions. below Adequate allowance for these effects should for precast members and relative humidity. be made remembering that all elements above and Calculated long term values should therefore never. below the floor will still be subject to the same long be considered any better than estimates While. term deflections irrespective of any cambers except detailed methods have been derived for predicting. where the supporting floor is a slab on ground Rigid the long term deflection of concrete members the. walls eg masonry should have control joints to allow data on which they are based has a scatter of at least. for such deflections and careful consideration should 15 to 30 using laboratory controlled specimens. be given if supported on flat plate or flat slab floor. systems Wherever possible rigid walls should be 4 4 Cantilevers. supported on a stiff floor system such as beam Cantilevers are often used for balconies and along. systems with limited long term deflections the external edge of a building to balance the internal. span and or improve the shear capacity at edge and. The selection of the level of prestress and the load to. corner columns Figure 5 Regardless of the floor,be balanced are important in the design of. system chosen they always need careful consideration. prestressed slabs The level of average prestress is. Cantilevers are usually limited to a span of about. typically in the range of 1 5 3 5 MPa Generally the. 25 to 35 of the back span and should be supported, load to be balanced is the permanent actions plus a.
by a stiff support such as a beam or column They, proportion often a small proportion of the imposed. should not be supported off another cantilever at right. actions Care is needed in determining this proportion. angles The deflection of a cantilever is sensitive to. Most prestressed concrete floors will have a net,the rotation at the support In particular a long. positive upward camber or hog at the time of, cantilever with a short back span may deflect down. transfer of prestress caused by the eccentricity of the. significantly or a short cantilever with a long,prestressing force. backspan may deflect up significantly, Where cantilevers edges of floors and floors are 4 6 Crack control.
exposed to weather consideration will need to be Concrete is a brittle material and even minor tensile. made for set downs for finishes falls for drainage and strain will cause it to crack to some degree in. cover for durability as well as the spacing and amount service The various types of cracking are discussed. of reinforcement for crack control With thin floors such in detail in Durable Concrete Structures 2. as flat slabs or flat plates where cantilevers or the. edges of the slab are exposed to view they will deflect Cracking may allow oxygen and moisture to reach the. between the column lines This will possibly make the embedded steel providing conditions where rusting. support of external walls difficult with differential of the steel can occur and spalling of the surface will. deflections and may result in an unacceptable visual result A sufficient amount of closely spaced. profile along the edge of the structure even though it reinforcement limits the width of cracks hence. may be structurally adequate Solutions include an minimising the intrusion of water and maintaining the. edge beam or band beam or closely spaced protection of the steel Prestressing may also be used. supports or similar to stiffen the edge to limit or eliminate cracking High quality concrete. provides adequate corrosion protection for, With some precast floor systems such as hollowcore reinforcement for most conditions. cantilever spans can be difficult to achieve and, special consideration and consultation with the The structural and durability requirements of AS 3600. manufacturer should be made if these are required are based on a nominal crack width of 0 3 mm Cracks. that are not expected to exceed that width do not, 4 5 Vibration need repairing Crack control for flexure in reinforced. beams is based on the provision and adequate, AS 3600 does not prescribe any design criteria for the. distribution of a minimum area of reinforcement, control of vibration It merely requires that vibration be.
Restrictions are placed on either the bar diameter or. considered and appropriate action taken to ensure,the centre to centre spacing depending on the. that vibration does not adversely affect the, tensile stress in the steel in critical tensile zones. serviceability of the structure, Aerobics dancing and other rhythmic human activities 4 7 Check list for structural design procedures. have caused annoying vibrations in a number of The structural design of concrete structures. buildings in recent years particularly in cantilevers in incorporating suspended long span floor systems. both insitu and precast construction The two main needs an appreciation of many factors and for these. factors behind these problems are resonance where reasons must be carried out by a designer usually a. the natural frequency of the floor structure is equal to structural engineer experienced in such design The. or close to a forcing frequency of the rhythmic BCA provides a simplified and uniform set of. activity and the presence of other occupancies in regulations designed to establish essential construction. the building such as offices or restaurants where standards for structural adequacy fire resistance. people are sensitive to the vibrations generated public health and general amenity The technical. Where such activities are anticipated the design requirements of this code refer to AS 3600 as well as. team should obtain specialist advice to other standards such as AS NZS 1170. In any structural design of floors one designer should. be responsible for the overall structural design, including stability robustness movement joints fire. resistance and durability even if more than one,designer is involved in the design process.
The following check list sets out the principal steps in. designing a suspended concrete floor system to meet. the requirements of the BCA and AS 3600 While it is. written for insitu floors a similar process applies for. precast floors, STEP 1 Member Arrangement STEP 6 Calculate Design Bending Moments and. Determine a feasible arrangement for the suspended Shear Forces. concrete floor system including slab thickness band Determine the design action effects at the critical. rib or beam sizes supporting columns walls etc The sections in accordance with the strength requirements. aim should be to arrive at a preferred option that is of AS 3600 for the chosen floor system. economical and structurally efficient This may require. preliminary design and assessment of two or more STEP 7 Strength Design AS 3600. alternatives Experience the site constraints the This requires detailed analysis of the floor system and. builder s or other preferences will sometimes dictate detailed design including calculations and if the floor. a solution system is not adequate for strength or if the flexural. reinforcement or shear reinforcement is excessive, STEP 2 Establish the Basic Design Criteria repeating the design from Step 4 until suitable sizes. Occupancy of the structure BCA are determined The final design calculations are. usually required to be submitted to the local authority. Fire rating BCA,or checked and certified by others. Sound transmission BCA, Exposure classification and durability STEP 8 Calculate Deflection. requirements AS 3600 Check the calculated deflection or the span to depth. ratio using the simplified method in accordance with. Any other special design criteria that may be,AS 3600 or by more sophisticated analysis or from.
required eg heavy loads, manufacturer s information as appropriate Estimate. required camber if any or repeat the design from,STEP 3 Floor System Sizing. Step 4 if deflection is excessive until a satisfactory. Determine the minimum floor system thickness from floor system thickness is found. Step 2 above and with the chosen concrete strength. and cover use the span to depth ratios or charts in STEP 9 Complete Detailed Designs and. this Guide or other information available to the Documentation. designer to determine the initial suspended floor,Complete the detailed calculations for all design. system thickness,aspects necessary for the particular project and. finalise the documentation ie drawings specification. STEP 4 Floor Thickness, etc It is important that the designer remembers that.
Select a suitable overall thickness of floor system to the documentation is the means of communicating. satisfy expected deflection and which is equal to or the design intentions to the contractor builder and it. greater than the thickness of the slab determined in should be reviewed from this viewpoint before being. Step 3 If the floor system is not thick enough then the issued Guidance should be provided on how the. designer will need to choose a greater thickness and structure is to be stabilised during erection of the. repeat the design processes set out below until a elements until lateral stability is achieved by the. suitable thickness is found completed structure It may be necessary for the. designer to describe the sequence for construction to. STEP 5 Determine the Permanent and Imposed ensure the design concept is not compromised and. Actions AS NZS 1170 the structure remains stable during erection. This includes permanent and imposed actions as well. as wind and earthquake loads where the floor system. is part of the overall structural system,CHAPTER 5 Construction Considerations. 5 CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS and appropriate back propping and reshoring not. carried out then the floor immediately below may, 5 1 General carry most of the load before its design strength is. The considerations listed in this Section are general in fully developed This may result in overstressing the. nature and do not provide a checklist for all matters floors and long term deflection problems. that need to be addressed They should be, Back propping and reshoring of suspended floors in. supplemented by considerations specific to the, multi storey construction can be a complex issue In. particular project eg the requirements for finish to. some circumstances the loads due to construction, floors the proposed construction method eg precast.
may exceed the design load of the floor as set out in. construction and the location of the project,AS NZS 1170 2 As an example a suspended floor. In general minimising the amount of labour on site over a reactive clay site with insufficient space for. measures to minimise the construction period or propping may have to carry the full construction load. floor to floor construction time and schedules that of the floor above For further details on back. give early access for following trades and advanced propping see McAdam and Behan3 and Beeby4. occupation to part of the project will reduce the, Prestressed floor systems will reduce stripping times. construction time the holding charges and thus, compared to conventionally reinforced floor systems. improve the economic viability of the project, Post tensioned floors are usually fully stressed at. 5 2 Formwork 7 days allowing formwork to be stripped after this. Formwork for insitu concrete and propping of precast time Reshoring and back propping however still. is a major consideration as it can directly affect the need to be carefully considered. architectural appearance of the project and the,construction cost and schedule Formwork can be.
50 75 of the direct cost of a floor Generally a, specialist designer employed by the contractor will. be responsible for formwork design It will take into. account the requirements of the specification and the. construction process eg construction loads stripping. back propping and specified finishes and formwork,patterns Figure 6. To simplify formwork member sizes should be, rationalised consistent with structural economy eg. band beam widths of 1200 1800 and 2400 mm will, enable standard plywood sheets to be used Similarly. drop panels in flat slabs should be dimensioned to. suit plywood and timber sizes, Because of the high cost of site labour making soffit.
formwork on site is often avoided Formwork is usually. designed to have a number of reuses and to facilitate. easy stripping and re erection to keep the overall floor. construction period as short as possible Sophisticated. table and flying forms have been used on multistorey. projects while to minimise costs precast floor units. F I G U R E 6 Formwork is a major,are sometimes preferred. consideration in a project, Early stripping of formwork and back propping allows. early access to the floors by other trades It also allows. greater re use of formwork and reduces the amount of. formwork required On the other hand particularly for. reinforced floors if the formwork is removed too early.

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Cross Reference - HVAC

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Tecumseh Compressor Model Number Codes. NOTE: For explanation of compressor families and codes, contact Tecumseh Products Company. 3. Compressor Replacement Guides and Fast References. This document is not to be used as a drop-in replacement guide. The cross-reference is offered to use as a tool to help identify potential replacement options based on performance fit. Mounting and tubing ...

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booklet, a multiple-choice, written examination was developed. The written exam will consist of approximately 80 questions, and you will be allowed three hours in which to complete the exam. Your answers will be marked on a Scantron sheet using a #2 pencil. The written examination is divided into five sections. The five sections of the written ...

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Austin, Texas, USA. - s3.amazonaws.com

Austin Texas USA s3 amazonaws com

Getting Started Check when complete. Watch the instructional video, CAFE Orientation. Access and print your CAFE Program Action Guide (this document). Get familiar with navigating on the Vibrant Living Member (VLM) website. Add these e-mail addresses to your e-mail safe lists: o DrRitamarieLoscalzo@drritamarie.com