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BY ORDER OF THE AIR FORCE MANUAL 11 248 SECRETARY OF THE
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2 AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006,SUMMARY OF CHANGES, This change incorporates Interim Change 2007 1 It allows more flexibility when checking the brakes for. taxi paragraph 3 9 1 clarifies procedures for final turn go around paragraph 5 17 3 2 1 defines when. to stop a practice slip paragraph 5 37 3 establishes 2 500 feet above ground level AGL minimum alti. tude for high key Figure 5 7 clarifies emergency landing pattern ELP airspeed requirements para. graph 5 39 2 1 establishes 120 knots indicated airspeed KIAS as a minimum airspeed at low key. paragraph 5 39 4 5 1 adds new procedures for flying ELPs through the weather paragraph 5 41 adds. new procedures for accomplishing configured slips paragraph 5 42 directs trim in the green for inten. tional spin entry paragraph 6 13 2 1 clarifies spin entry airspeed paragraph 6 13 3 2 clarifies nose. low recovery procedure paragraph 6 17 3 modifies position description for low key checkpoints for. ELPs Table 5 2 and changes aerobatic parameters Table 6 1 and associated paragraphs A bar in. the left margin indicates revision from the previous edition. Chapter 1 GENERAL INFORMATION 15,1 1 Introduction To This Manual 15. 1 2 How to Use This Manual 15,1 3 Introduction 15,1 4 Safety 15. 1 5 Flight Discipline 16,1 6 Checklist Discipline 16. 1 7 Single Engine Mentality 17,1 8 Cockpit Crew Resource Management CRM 17.
1 9 Operational Risk Management ORM 18,1 10 Mission Preparation 18. 1 11 Fuel Considerations 20,1 12 Mission Briefing 20. 1 13 Debrief 20,1 14 Tandem Seat Challenges 20,1 15 Transfer of Aircraft and Systems Control 21. 1 16 Clearing 22,Figure 1 1 Clock Positions 23,Figure 1 2 FCP Canopy Code Elevation 24. Figure 1 3 FCP Canopy Code Azimuth 25,1 17 G Awareness 26.
1 18 Radio Procedures 27,AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006 3. 1 19 GPS Usage 28,1 20 Emergency Procedures 28, 1 21 Tabletop and Standup Emergency Procedures EPs 29. Figure 1 4 A A B C D E F Method of Accomplishing Practice EPs 32. Chapter 2 BASIC T 6 FLIGHT PRINCIPLES 33,2 1 Introduction 33. 2 2 Control Effects 33,Figure 2 1 Control Axes 33,2 3 Use of Controls 33. Table 2 1 General T 6 Airspeeds and Power Settings 34. 2 4 Trim 35,Figure 2 2 Trim Tab Locations 35,2 5 Coordination 36.
2 6 Power and Torque Effects 36,Figure 2 3 Slipstream Effects 37. Figure 2 4 P Factor 38,Figure 2 5 Torque 38,Figure 2 6 Gyroscopic Effects 39. 2 7 Composite Flight 39,2 8 Basic Instrument Flight 40. 2 9 Straight and Level Flight Figure 2 7 40, Figure 2 7 Level Flight 200 KIAS half ground half sky 41. 2 10 Turns 42,2 11 Adverse Yaw 43,2 12 Uncoordinated Flight 43.
Figure 2 8 Coordinated and Uncoordinated Flight 44. Chapter 3 GROUND OPERATIONS 45,3 1 Introduction 45. 3 2 Preflight Check 45,3 3 Seating Position in the Aircraft 45. 3 4 Cockpit Organization 46,4 AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006. 3 5 Interior Inspection 46,3 6 Engine Start 46,3 7 OBOGS Check 46. 3 8 Radio Procedures 46,3 9 Taxi 46,3 10 Over Speed Governor Check 47.
3 11 Before Takeoff and Lineup Checks 48,3 12 After Landing 48. 3 13 Full Stop and or Taxi Back 48,3 14 Engine Shutdown Before Leaving Aircraft 48. 3 15 Post Flight Inspection 48,3 16 Abnormal Procedures 48. Chapter 4 TAKEOFF CLIMB AND LEVEL OFF 49,4 1 Introduction 49. 4 2 Lineup Check 49,4 3 Takeoff 49,Figure 4 1 FCP Takeoff Pitch Attitude 51.
4 4 Crosswind Takeoff 51,Figure 4 2 Skipping on Takeoff 52. 4 5 After Becoming Airborne 52,4 6 After Becoming Airborne Crosswind 53. Figure 4 3 Crabbing Into Crosswind After Takeoff 53. 4 7 Abnormal Procedures 53,4 8 Turns After Takeoff 53. 4 9 Climbs 54, Figure 4 4 Constant Airspeed Climb Pitch Attitudes 54. Chapter 5 TRAFFIC PATTERNS AND LANDINGS 56,5 1 Introduction 56.
5 2 Letdown and Traffic Entry 56,5 3 Aircraft Configuration 56. 5 4 Overhead Pattern and Landing 57,AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006 5. Figure 5 1 Normal Traffic Pattern 58,5 5 Initial 58. 5 6 Break 59,5 7 Inside or Closed Downwind 59,Table 5 1 Overhead Pattern Parameters 60. 5 8 Perch and Final Turn 61,Figure 5 2 Perch Point Reference 62.
5 9 Final 63,5 10 Straight In Approach 64,5 11 Normal Landing 65. 5 12 Touch and Go Landing 67,5 13 Closed Traffic Closed Pullup Figure 5 3 68. Figure 5 3 Closed Pullup 68,5 14 Abnormal Pattern Procedures 69. 5 15 Straight Through on Initial 69,5 16 Breakout from Overhead Pattern 69. 5 17 Go Around 70,5 18 Final Irregularities 70,5 19 Low Dragged in Final 70.
5 20 Steep Final 71,5 21 Slow Final 71,5 22 Landing Irregularities 72. 5 23 High Flare 72,5 24 Late and Rapid Roundout 72. 5 25 Porpoising 72,5 26 Floating 73,5 27 Ballooning 73. 5 28 Bouncing 73,5 29 Landing in a Drift or Crab 74. 5 30 Wing Rising After Touchdown 74,5 31 Angle of Attack AOA Patterns USN 74.
Figure 5 4 AOA Traffic Pattern at Air Force Bases 76. 6 AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006,5 32 Emergency Landing Patterns ELPs 76. Figure 5 5 ELP ORM 3 2 1 77,5 33 ELP Types 77,5 34 Initial Actions 77. 5 35 High Altitude Power Loss HAPL 80,5 36 Glide Performance 80. 5 37 Slips 81,5 38 GPS Use on HAPL ELPs Figure 5 6 81. Figure 5 6 GPS Use During HAPL ELPs 82,5 39 Emergency Landing Pattern 82.
Figure 5 7 Emergency Landing Pattern Typical 83, Table 5 2 Checkpoints for Emergency Landing Patterns ELP 85. 5 40 ELP Wind Analysis 87,5 41 ELPs Through Weather 88. 5 42 Configured Slips 89,Chapter 6 CONTACT 90,6 1 Introduction 90. 6 2 Checks 90,6 3 Maneuvering at Increased G Loading 90. 6 4 Area Orientation Figure 6 1 91,Figure 6 1 Area Orientation 92.
6 5 Energy Management 92,6 6 Power on Stalls 93,6 7 Secondary Stall 95. 6 8 ELP Stalls 95,6 9 Traffic Pattern Stalls 95,6 10 Slow Flight 97. 6 11 Stability Demonstration 99, 6 12 Inadvertent Departure from Controlled Flight 100. 6 13 Intentional Spin Entry emphasizing departure recognition and recovery 100. 6 14 Intentional Spin Entry emphasizing near steady state spin recognition. and recovery 101,AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006 7,6 15 Contact Recoveries from Abnormal Flight 102. 6 16 Nose High Recovery 102,Figure 6 2 Nose High Recovery 103.
6 17 Nose Low Recovery 103,Figure 6 3 Nose Low Recovery 104. 6 18 Inverted Recovery 104,6 19 Aerobatics 104, Table 6 1 Summary of Entry Airspeeds and Power Settings for Aerobatics 105. 6 20 Aileron Roll Figure 6 4 105,Figure 6 4 Aileron Roll 106. 6 21 Lazy 8 Figure 6 5 106,Figure 6 5 Lazy 8 107,6 22 Barrel Roll Figure 6 6 108. Figure 6 6 Barrel Roll 109,6 23 Loop Figure 6 7 110.
Figure 6 7 Loop 111,6 24 Immelman Figure 6 8 111,Figure 6 8 Immelman 112. 6 25 Split S Figure 6 9 112,Figure 6 9 Split S 113. 6 26 Cuban 8 Figure 6 10 113,Figure 6 10 Cuban 8 114. 6 27 Cloverleaf Figure 6 11 114,Figure 6 11 Cloverleaf 115. 6 28 Chandelle Figure 6 12 116,Figure 6 12 Chandelle 117.
Chapter 7 INSTRUMENT FLYING 118,7 1 Introduction 118. 7 2 Rear Cockpit Instrument Procedures 118,7 3 Use of Vision Restricting Device VRD 118. 7 4 EFIS and GPS Display Options 118,8 AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006. 7 5 Task Management 118,7 6 Cockpit Organization 118. 7 7 Control and Performance Concept 119,7 8 Instrument Flight Maneuvers 119.
7 9 Turns and Turns To Headings 119, Table 7 1 Common Instrument Pitch and Power Settings 120. 7 10 Airspeed Changes 121,7 11 Constant Airspeed Climbs and Descents 121. 7 12 Constant Rate Climbs and Descents 121,7 13 Instrument Slow Flight 122. 7 14 Steep Turns 122,7 15 Vertical S 123,7 16 Confidence Maneuvers 123. 7 17 Unusual Attitude Recoveries 124,7 18 Spatial Disorientation Demonstration 124.
7 19 Application of Instrument Flight Maneuvers 125. 7 20 Instrument Takeoff ITO and Climb 125,7 21 Level Off 126. 7 22 Instrument Departures 126,7 23 Course Intercepts 127. Figure 7 1 Inbound Course Intercepts 128, Figure 7 2 Outbound Course Intercepts Away from the Station 130. 7 24 Arc and Radial Intercepts 131,7 25 Fix to Fix 131. Figure 7 3 Fix to Fix Example 133,Figure 7 4 Visualize the HSI 134.
7 26 Inflight Checks 135,7 27 Holding 136,7 28 Penetrations and Descents 137. Figure 7 5 EADI Descent Calculation 138,7 29 Final Approach 138. 7 30 Transition to Landing 140,AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006 9. 7 31 Circling Approach 140,7 32 Missed Approach 141. 7 33 Climbout 141,Chapter 8 NAVIGATION 142,Section 8A General 142.
8 1 Introduction 142,8 2 General 142,8 3 Mission Planning 142. 8 4 Radio Procedures 143, 8 5 Task Management and or Cockpit Organization 143. 8 6 Ground Operations 143,Section 8B IFR Navigation 144. 8 7 Introduction 144,8 8 Mission Planning 144,8 9 Route Planning 144. Figure 8 1 AF IMT 70 Example 146,8 10 Ground Ops 147.
8 11 Departure 147,8 12 Enroute 147,8 13 Arrival 148. Figure 8 2 Typical IFR Navigation Flight 149,Section 8C VFR Navigation 149. 8 14 Introduction 149,8 15 Mission Planning 149,8 16 Route Planning 150. 8 17 VFR Departure 150,8 18 Flying the Route 150,8 19 Abnormal Procedures 151. Section 8D Low Level VFR Navigation 152,8 20 Introduction 152.
8 21 Mission Planning 152,10 AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006. 8 22 Scheduling and Filing 153,8 23 Briefing 154,8 24 Flying the Route 154. 8 25 Abnormal Procedures 157,Chapter 9 TWO SHIP FORMATION 158. Section 9A General 158,9 1 Introduction 158,9 2 Introduction 158. 9 3 Responsibilities 158,9 4 Visual Signals 163,9 5 Inflight Checks 163.
9 6 Fuel and G Awareness 164,9 7 FENCE Check 165,9 8 Battle Damage BD Check 165. 9 9 Mission Planning 165,9 10 Mission Briefing 165. 9 11 G Awareness Exercise 166,9 12 Knock It Off and Terminate Procedures 166. 9 13 Lost Wingman Procedures 167,9 14 Formation Breakout 168. 9 15 Lost Sight Procedures 168,9 16 Lead Changes 169.
Section 9B Terminology 170,9 17 Introduction 170,Figure 9 1 HCA and AA 171. Figure 9 2 Aspect Angle 172,Figure 9 3 30 and 45 AA 172. Figure 9 4 Lift and Velocity Vectors 173,Figure 9 5 Plane of Motion 173. Figure 9 6 Lead Pursuit 174,Figure 9 7 Pure Pursuit 175. AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006 11,Figure 9 8 Lag Pursuit 176.
Table 9 1 Pursuit Curve Summary 177,Figure 9 9 Aircraft 3 9 Line 177. Figure 9 10 High Yo Yo 178,Figure 9 11 Quarter Plane 179. Figure 9 12 Low Yo Yo 179,Section 9C Formation Fundamentals 180. 9 18 Introduction 180,9 19 Close Formation Fingertip 180. Figure 9 13 Close Fingertip Turn Into and Turn Away Positions 181. Figure 9 14 Close Fingertip Spacing References 181. Figure 9 15 Echelon and Fingertip Positions 182,9 20 Route Formation 182.
Figure 9 16 Route 183,9 21 Crossunder Figure 9 17 184. Figure 9 17 Crossunder 184,9 22 Echelon Turn Figure 9 18 184. Figure 9 18 Echelon Turn 185,9 23 Rejoins 186,9 24 Overshoots 188. Figure 9 19 Overshoot 189,9 25 Fighting Wing 189,Figure 9 20 Fighting Wing Cone 190. Section 9D Mission Execution 190,9 26 Introduction 190.
9 27 Ground Operations 190,9 28 Formation Departures Figure 9 21 191. 9 29 Objective 191,Figure 9 21 FormationTakeoff 193. 9 30 Wing Work Exercise WW Ex 193,12 AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006. Table 9 2 T 6 WW Ex Training Levels and Parameters 194. 9 31 Practice Lost Wingman Procedures 195,9 32 Breakout Procedures 196. 9 33 Close Trail Exercise Figure 9 22 196,Figure 9 22 Close Trail 197.
9 34 Pitchout 198,9 35 Take Spacing 198, Section 9E T 6 Extended Trail and Preparatory Exercise Procedures 198. 9 36 General 198,9 37 Range and Aspect Exercise 199. Figure 9 23 Range and Aspect Exercise 200,9 38 Range Estimation 201. Table 9 3 Range Estimation 201, 9 39 Butterfly Setup to Line Abreast Figure 9 24 202. Figure 9 24 Butterfly Setup to Line Abreast 204,9 40 Deconfliction Exercise 204.
Figure 9 25 Deconfliction Exercise 206,9 41 Lead Lag Pursuit Exercise 206. Figure 9 26 Misaligned Turn Circle Geometry 208,Figure 9 27 Lead Lag Pursuit Exercise 209. 9 42 Pure Pursuit Exercise 209,Figure 9 28 Pure Pursuit Exercise 211. 9 43 Blind Exercise 211,Figure 9 29 Blind Exercise 213. Figure 9 30 High Aspect Rejoin Technique 214,9 44 Extended Trail ET 215.
Table 9 4 ET Exercise Training Levels and Parameters 216. Section 9F Formation Recoveries 218,9 45 Objective 218. 9 46 Description 219,9 47 Procedure 219,AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006 13. Figure 9 31 Stacked Level on Final 221,Section 9G Abnormal Procedures 221. 9 48 Introduction 221,9 49 Formation Takeoff Abnormalities 221. 9 50 Airborne Emergencies General 222,9 51 Engine Problems 222.
9 52 Physiological Incident 222,9 53 Bird Strike 223. 9 54 Midair Collision 223,9 55 Spatial Disorientation 223. 9 56 Aircraft Strobe Lights 223,9 57 Icing 223,9 58 No Radio NORDO 223. 9 59 Ejection 224,Chapter 10 NIGHT FLYING 225,10 1 Introduction 225. 10 2 Briefing 225,10 3 Night Flying Techniques 225.
10 4 Inspections and Checks 225,10 5 Taxiing 225,10 6 Takeoff 226. 10 7 Optical Illusions 226,10 8 Spatial Disorientation 226. 10 9 Area Orientation 226,10 10 Unusual Attitudes 226. 10 11 Night VFR 226,10 12 Night Overhead Patterns 227. 10 13 Night Landings 227,10 14 Abnormal Procedures 227.
Chapter 11 THREE AND FOUR SHIP FORMATIONS 228,11 1 Guidelines 228. 14 AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006,11 2 Three Ship Formation Briefing 228. 11 3 Runway Lineup 228,Figure 11 1 Four Ship Runway Lineup 228. Figure 11 2 Four Ship Element Lineup 229,11 4 Runup and Takeoffs 229. 11 5 Takeoff Aborts 230,11 6 Rejoins From Takeoff 230.
11 7 Turns From Takeoff 230,11 8 Straight Ahead From Takeoff 230. 11 9 Formation Positions 230,Figure 11 3 Four Ship Fingertip Formation 231. Figure 11 4 Four Ship Fingertip Formation in a Turn 231. Figure 11 5 Four Ship Echelon 232,Figure 11 6 Four Ship Echelon Turn 232. Figure 11 7 Echelon Crossunder for Numbers 3 and 4 233. Figure 11 8 Echelon Crossunder for Number 2 234,11 10 Route 234. 11 11 Rejoins 234,11 12 Overshoot 235,11 13 Leaving Formation Breaking Out 236.
11 14 Speed Brakes 236,11 15 In Flight Lead Changes 236. Figure 11 9 Route Fingertip Lead Change for a Four Ship Formation 237. Figure 11 10 Route Echelon Lead Change for a Four Ship Formation Lead to Number 2 238. Figure 11 11 Route Echelon Lead Change for a Four Ship Formation Lead to Number 4 239. 11 16 Three Ship Formation 239, Figure 11 12 Route Fingertip Lead Change for a Three Ship Formation 241. 11 17 Forms Adopted 242, Attachment 1 GLOSSARY OF REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION 243. AFMAN11 248 10 AUGUST 2006 15,GENERAL INFORMATION,1 1 Introduction To This Manual. 1 1 1 This manual provides the basic techniques and procedures necessary to safely and effectively. employ the T 6 It provides the basis for development of the necessary physical skills and mental apti. tude required to fly the T 6 The skills developed in the T 6 are applicable to flying any military air. craft and provide the foundation for all follow on flying training. 1 1 2 TO 1T 6A 1 contains detailed instructions for inspections checks and procedures It also pro. vides detailed information on aircraft systems and systems operation The TO and this publication. complement each other, 1 2 How to Use This Manual In general this manual is organized in an order that parallels the training.
flow in pilot training The first five chapters cover topics applicable to every sortie and the second five. chapters cover topics by category of flight While each chapter builds on skills and concepts introduced in. previous chapters the initial phase of training centers on near simultaneous mastery of all concepts and. skills introduced in Chapter 1 Chapter 6 During subsequent stages of training study centers on specific. category chapters Regular review of previous material is required. 1 3 Introduction The concepts in Chapter 1 apply to every kind of sortie flown in the T 6 and many. are universally applicable to flight in every type of military aircraft The topics presented cover overarch. ing principles related to flying in general and flight training in the T 6 specifically Full understanding of. these general concepts is developed through study and flying experience therefore regular review of this. chapter is required, 1 4 Safety Safety is a critical component of successful mission accomplishment on every sortie The. safety mindset of each crew member is a key part in the overall safety of any flying operation Each indi. vidual is responsible for minimizing risk to the people and assets under their control and identifying. potential safety hazards, 1 4 1 Ground Safety The flight line is an extremely busy environment Moving aircraft support. equipment and emergency vehicles create a hazardous environment Extra diligence is required to pre. vent a tragic event, 1 4 1 1 Stay clear of the aircraft danger areas as depicted in TO 1T 6A 1 Section 2 prop areas. and or the jet exhaust of running aircraft, 1 4 1 2 Secure loose items prior to entering the flight line to prevent foreign object damage. 1 4 1 3 Maintain constant watch for moving vehicles. 1 4 2 Flying Safety Once airborne safety assumes a more dynamic character For example a con. verging aircraft may unexpectedly appear or a malfunction can cause distractions during a critical. phase of flight Safe operation requires an aggressive disposition towards gaining and maintaining sit. uational awareness According to AFI 11 290 Cockpit Crew Resource Management Training Pro. gram situational awareness is an aircrew member s continuous perception of self and aircraft in.


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